Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 February 2017 | 9(2): 9795–9813

 

 

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Moths of the family Limacodidae Duponchel, 1845 (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea) from Bhutan with six new generic and 12 new species records

 

Jatishwor Singh Irungbam 1, Meenakshi Singh Chib 2 & Alexey V. Solovyev 3

 

1,2 Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Ceske Budejovice 37005, Czech Republic

1,2 Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Science, Ceske Budejovice 37005, Czech Republic

3 Department of Biology and Chemistry, Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University, Ulyanovsk 432071, Russia

1 jatishwor.irungbam@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 meenakshi.irungbam@gmail.com, 3 solovyev_alexey@mail.ru

 

 

 

 

 

doi: http://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2443.9.2.9795-9813 | ZooBank: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:67914E4A-F82A-489F-82F6-2A696407FF48

 

Editor: Sanjay Sondhi, Titli Trust, Dehradun, India. Date of publication: 26 February 2017 (online & print)

 

Manuscript details: Ms # 2443 | Received 13 June 2016 | Final received 03 January 2017 | Finally accepted 10 January 2017

 

Citation: Irungbam, J.S., M.S. Chib & A.V. Solovyev (2017). Moths of the family Limacodidae Duponchel, 1845 (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea) from Bhutan with six new generic and 12 new species records. Journal of Threatened Taxa 9(2): 9795–9813; http://doi.org/10.11609/jott.2443.9.2.9795-9813

 

Copyright: © Irungbam et al. 2017. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.

 

Funding: BTFEC & NBC, Thimphu (MB0149Y15); Czech Science Foundation (GA CR:14-36098G) and Grant Agency, University of South Bohemia (GA JU 152/2016/P).

 

Competing interests: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Author Details: Jatishwor Singh Irungbam (JSI) is a PhD student at Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Czech Republic and also working as Research Assistant at Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Science, Czech Republic. He has been interested on Lepidoptera studies and is now focusing on taxonomy, ecology and conservation of Lepidoptera. Currently he is working on the moths of Shirui hills, Manipur, northeastern India for his PhD research. He is also a member of Bhutan Ecological Society. Meenakshi Singh Chib (MSC) is a PhD student at Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Czech Republic and also working as Research Assistant at Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Science, Czech Republic. She has been interested on Lepidoptera mainly focusing on ecology and conservation of Lepidoptera. Currently, she is working on the Phylogeographic patterns of Afro-oriental species of butterflies for her PhD research. Alexey V. Solovyev (AVS) is an assistant professor of the Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University (Russia). He has been interested on Systematic, morphology and phylogeny of Lepidoptera with special interest on systematic, morphology and phylogeny of Limacodidae (Lepidoptera, Zygaenoidea).

 

Author Contribution: JSI conducted the field work in the study area since 2011 and 2015, identified the moths, wrote the manuscript and prepared the tables, plates and figures. MSC assisted JSI in the field works, took photographs of the materials during the field surveys, help in literature review and reviewed the manuscript. AVS provided his assistance on the identification and confirmation of the materials. He also assisted JSI during the preparation of manuscript and did the corrections on the initial stage of the manuscript.

 

Acknowledgements: We wish to thank the unknown reviewers who provided useful comments on previous versions of this manuscript. We also thank the principal and staff of Mendrelgang Central School, Tsirang (Bhutan) for their moral support and encouragement during the conduct of the project. The first author thank the Bhutan Trust Fund for Environment Conservation, Thimphu (MB0149Y15) for providing financial assistance for the field visits and equipment, and the National Biodiversity Center, Thimphu, for coordinating the project. The first author also thanks Czech Science Foundation (GA CR:14-36098G) and Grant Agency, University of South Bohemia (GA JU 152/2016/P) for partially supporting the work during the preparation of the manuscript..

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract: The present paper provides a checklist of 51 species in 37 genera of moths belonging to the family Limacodidae from Bhutan, of which, six genera, Setora Walker, 1855, Tennya Solovyev & Witt, 2009, Iraga Matsumura, 1927, Vanlangia Solovyev & Witt 2009, Sansarea Solovyev & Witt, 2009, and Belippa Walker, 1865 are reported for the first time from Bhutan, and 12 species, Setora postornata (Hampson, 1900), Setora fletcheri Holloway, 1987, Scopelodes testacea Butler, 1886, Thosea magna Hering, 1931, Miresa fulgida Wileman, 1910, Susica himalayana Holloway, 1982, Tennya propolia (Hampson, 1900), Iraga rugosa (Wileman, 1911), Cheromettia ferruginea (Moore, 1877), Vanlangia uniformis (Hering, 1931), Sansarea circulifera (Hering, 1933) and Belippa horrida Walker, 1865 are new records for Bhutan. The study was conducted at Tsirang, Dagana and Sarpang districts of Bhutan from 2013 to 2015.

 

Keywords: Bhutan, checklist, Limacodidae, new record.

 

 

 

 

Communication

Introduction

 

The Limacodidae Duponchel, 1845 are mainly a tropical and subtropical family of moths and are very diverse in all continents. There are 1,672 species in 301 genera, currently known globally (Nieukerken et al. 2011). The moths are nocturnal and are attracted to light. They can be easily identified due to their characteristic silky shine on the forewing. They are of different sizes, wing patterns and coloration. The males have bipectinate to filiform antennae, but females always have filiform antennae. While resting, the body is held at an angle to the substrate supported by the extended legs with wings draped laterally (Godfray et al. 1987). The family Limacodidae is placed in the superfamily Zygaenoidea Latreille, 1809 and classified into two subfamilies—Limacodinae and Chrysopolominae (Epstein et al. 1999).

The family remains poorly studied in the Indian sub-region including Bhutan. Sir George F. Hampson (1892, 1895) reports 96 species of this family in this region of which only one species was reported from Bhutan. The primary checklist on the Limacodidae of Bhutan can be found in the catalogue of Heterocera from Sikkim and Bhutan by G.C. Dudgeon (1900), with notes and additions from Sir H.J. Elwes and Sir George F. Hampson. In this catalogue, Dudgeon reported 32 species from Bhutan. The Swiss expedition to Bhutan during 1972 recorded only nine species from the western region of Bhutan (Dierl 1975). Yoshimoto (1993, 1994) also reported 43 species from different locations in Nepal published in different volumes of Moths of Nepal series (Haruta 1993, 1994). A few more species are reported from Bhutan by Inoue (1970), Solovyev & Witt (2009), Solovyev (2010, 2014), and D.B. Chettri (2014). Thus, the compilation on the available records on the Limacodidae fauna of Bhutan confirms the presence of 51 species in Bhutan. The family is also important for the behavior of their larvae, feeding on different plant sources as a pest, but in Bhutan their pest status is unknown. The list provided in the present paper is the first systematic checklist of the Limacodidae fauna of Bhutan.

 

 

Material and Methods

 

The authors observed the moths between 2013 and 2015 when conducting a moth survey in five districts (Bumthang, Dagana, Trongsa, Tsirang and Sarpang) of Bhutan. Details of the moth trapping sites in these districts with Global Positioning System (GPS)coordinates along with the map are provided in our previous publication (Irungbam et al. 2016). The moths were collected using fluorescent bulbs on a white cloth sheet hanging and mercury vapor (MV) light traps at night (Irungbam et al. 2016).

Identification follows Hampson (1892), Holloway (1986), Solovyev & Witt (2009), Solovyev (2009a,b,c), Solovyev (2014) and Internet references (www.jpmoths.org). Photographs of cryptic species were sent to the third author for identification and confirmation of the species. Only a few individuals were collected as voucher specimens but genitalia were not studied. Thus, the species identifications were based on photographs of individuals and specimens.

 

Result and Observations

 

After careful analysis and review of previous records and present collections, the present systematic list includes 51 species of moths belong to family Limacodidae recorded from Bhutan. The systematic list consists of the original records of Hampson (1892, 1895), Dudgeon (1900) and Dierl (1975), as well as species recorded during our surveys.

During the survey, 28 species of Limacodidae moths were encountered, photographed and voucher specimens collected from the study area. Six genera Setora Walker, 1855, Tennya Solovyev & Witt, 2009, Iraga Matsumura, 1927, Vanlangia Solovyev & Witt 2009, Sansarea Solovyev & Witt, 2009 and Belippa Walker, 1865 are reported for the first time from Bhutan, and 12 species Setora postornata (Hampson, 1900), Setora fletcheri Holloway, 1987, Scopelodes testacea Butler, 1886, Thosea magna Hering, 1931, Miresa fulgida Wileman, 1910, Susica himalayana Holloway, 1982, Tennya propolia (Hampson, 1900), Iraga rugosa (Wileman, 1911), Cheromettia ferruginea (Moore, 1877), Vanlangia uniformis (Hering, 1931), Sansarea circulifera (Hering, 1933) and Belippa horrida Walker, 1865 are new records for Bhutan.

 

Systematic checklist of the Limacodidae

 

Genus Phlossa Walker, 1858

Phlossa Walker, 1858, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 15: 1673. Type species: Phlossa fimbriares Walker, 1858.

The genus Phlossa was erected by Walker in 1858 based on the type species Phlossa fimbriares Walker. The genus contains five species in the Oriental and Palearctic region (Wu & Fang 2008b). Male antenna have only one row of short pectinations. Labial palpus short, porrect, terminal joint pendent. Hind tibia with two pairs of spurs. Forewing with veins R3-5 stalked, R2, from the same basis, M1 near to R5. Hindwing with veins RS and M1 stalked, lower angle of cell slightly produced (Wu & Fang 2008b).

i. Phlossa conjuncta (Walker, 1855) (Image 1)

Limacodes conjucta Walker, 1855, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 5: 1150. Type locality: “North China”.

Phlossa fimbriares Walker, 1858, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus.15: 1673.

Iragoides conjuncta, (Walker): Hering, 1931, in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 10: 709, fig. 88i.

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, 1,247m, 7.vi.2013, 1 specimen to MV light, 18.vi.2015, 1 individual to MV light; Tsirang District, Damphu, 27001’04.60”N & 90007’18.18”E, 1,469m, 05.vi.2015, 2 specimens at MV light; Dagana district, Dagapela, 26056’29.56”N & 89055’22.06”E,12.vii.2014, 3 specimens to MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang, Dagapela), Nepal (Yoshimoto 1994), India, Myanmar, Korea, Japan, China, Taiwan, northern Thailand, Vietnam, Laos (Wu & Fang 2008b; Solovyev & Witt 2009), Hong Kong (Kendrick 2002).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900). A minor pest on plants of the Euphorbiaceae and Rhamnaceae in many places of Vietnam (Solovyev et al. 2009) but their impact in Bhutan is not known and needs further investigation.

 

Genus Thespea Solovyev, 2014

Thespea Solovyev, 2014, Proc. Mus. Witt Munich 1: 57. Type species: Neaera bicolor Walker, 1855.

The genus Thespea was erected by Solovyev in 2014 based on Neaera bicolor Walker. Medium sized with green thorax. Labial palpus with small, rounded terminal segment. Male with antennae broadly bipectinate basally and shortly unipectinate distally; female antennae filiform. Hind tibia with two spurs. Forewing length 11–17.5 mm in males and 14–22 mm in females. Hindwings uniformly yellowish in both male and females (Solovyev 2014). The genus is very common and reported from Indian subregion to Sumatra and Java (Solovyev 2014).

i. Thespea bicolor bicolor (Walker, 1855) (Image 2)

Neaera bicolor Walker, 1855, List Specimens. lepid. Ins. Colln Br. Mus. 5: 1142. Type locality: “North India”.

Latoia oryzae Cai, 1983, Acta Entomologica Sinica 26(4): 445, pl. 1:15, fig. 19. Type locality: “Rong Xian, Guangxi” [China].

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, 1,247m, 8.vi.2013, 1 specimen to MV light; Sarpang District, Sarpang Tar, 26052’0.23”N & 90016’3.71”E, 345m, 12.vi.2014, 2 specimens to MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang, Sarpang Tar, Phuentsholing), northeastern India, Nepal, Myanmar, China, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam (Solovyev 2014).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900) and later by W. Dierl (1975) as Parasa bicolor and D.B. Chettri (2014) from Phuentsholing. The species is a minor pest on the plants of the family Poaceae and causes major damage on rice crops, sugarcane (defoliator) and bamboos (Solovyev et al. 2009).

 

Genus Nephelimorpha (Solovyev, 2014)

Nephelimorpha Solovyev, 2014, Proc. Mus. Witt Munich 1: 57. Type species: Parasa argentilinea Hampson, 1892.

The genus Nephelimorpha was erected by Solovyev in 2014 based on type species Parasa argentilinea Hampson, 1892. The genus is characterized by male antennae bipectinate proximally. Forewing 11–14 mm length in males and 15–17 mm in females. Thorax green dorsally and rounded; third segment of labial palps small. Forewing colour brown with large medial, triangular, green area, angles of which located near the wing base apex of the lower margin. Outer margin of this triangular area bordered by silver fascia; lower margin bordered by yellow fascia containing outer dark brown border. Forewing venation with medial stem not branched; vein R1 sinuous; vein R5 branched from R3+R4 (Solovyev 2014).

i. Nephelimorpha argentilinea (Hampson, 1892) (Image 3)

Parasa argentilinea Hampson, 1892, Fauna. Br. Ind. Moths 1: 389. Type locality: “Margharita, Assam” [India].

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, 1,247m, 10.vi.2013, 2 specimens to MV light, 30.v.2014, 1 specimen to MV light; Tsirang District, Damphu, 27001’04.60”N & 90007’18.18”E, 1,469m, 05.vi.2014, 1 specimen to MV light; Dagana District, Dagapela, 26056’29.56”N & 89055’22.06”E, 1,597m, 1 specimen to MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang, Damphu, Dagapela), Nepal (Yoshimoto 1994), India, northern Myanmar, Vietnam (Solovyev 2014).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900). The species was recently shifted from genus Parasa to Nephelimorpha (Solovyev 2014).

 

Genus Melinaria Solovyev, 2014

Melinaria Solovyev, 2014, Proc. Mus. Witt Munich 1: 68. Type species: Neaera repanda Walker, 1855.

The genus Melinaria was erected by Solovyev in 2014 based on type series Neaera repanda Walker, 1855. The genus is characterised by male antennae broadly bipectinate basally and unipectinate distally. Thorax green dorsally, with a wide, brown dorsal band; third segment of labial palps short and rounded. Hind tibia bears two spurs. Forewing length 16–21 mm in males and 17–24 mm in females. Forewings green with distal and basal brown areas. Distal area separated from the medial green area by a silver band running almost from wing apex to 1/4 lower margin, nearly parallel to outer and lower wing margins. Basal area dark brown, expanding along costa and not reaching lower margin. Forewing venation with medial stem unbranched; vein R5 branched from R3+R4. Hindwings yellowish-brown. Abdomen yellowish-brown (Solovyev 2014).

i. Melinaria repanda (Walker, 1855) (Image 4)

Neaera repanda Walker, 1855, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 5: 1141. Type locality: “North India”.

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057.032’N & 90006.874’E, altitude 1,247 m, 21.v.2013, 5 specimens to light, 28.vii.2014, 1 specimen by day; Dagana District, Dagapela, 26056’29.56”N & 89055’22.06”E, 1,597m, 12.vii.2014, 1 specimen to MV light; Sarpang District, Sarpang Tar, 26052’0.23”N & 90016’3.71”E, 345m, 12.vi.2014, 1 specimen to MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang, Dagapela), Nepal (Yoshimoto 1994), northeastern India, Myanmar (Solovyev 2014).

Remarks: The species is a new record for Bhutan.

 

Genus Setora Walker, 1855

Setora Walker, 1855, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 5: 978 (key), 1069. Type species: Setora nitens Walker, 1855.

The genus Setora was erected by Walker in 1855 based on type species Setora nitens Walker. The genera is characterised by the antennae broadly bipectinate to one third. Medium sized body with bronzy brownish coloration. The forewing fasciae have a more or less oblique, curved post-medial converges at the costa with a usually diffuse, reflective, and often obscure sub-margin. In many species, there is a triangular zone of paler brown sub-apically on the costa (Holloway 1986).The genus is a new record for Bhutan.

i. Setora postornata (Hampson, 1900) (Image 5)

Setora sinensis Moore, 1877, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 20: 93.Type locality: “Shanghai”.

Thosea postornata ab. Hampsoni Strand, 1916, Arch. Naturg 82 A, 2: 89. Type locality: “Sikkim”.

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, altitude 1,247m, 20.v.2013, 2 specimens came to light; Sarpang District, Sarpang, 26052’0.23”N & 90016’3.71”E, 345m, 27.iv.2015, 2 specimens to MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang, Sarpang), northeastern India (Hampson 1892), Nepal, southern China, Taiwan, Vietnam (Solovyev & Witt 2009).

Remarks: The species is a new record for Bhutan. It is a minor pest on the plants of Fagaceae, Platanaceae and Rutaceae (Solovyev et al. 2009). Pest status in Bhutan is unknown and needs further investigation.

ii. Setora fletcheri Holloway, 1987 (Image 6)

Setora fletcheri Holloway, 1987, Slug and Nettle Caterpillars: 82, pl. 21, 13. Type locality: ”Rangoon”.

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, 1,247m, 13.v.2014, 3 specimens to MV light. 02.vi.2015, 1 specimen to MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang), Myanmar, Bangladesh, India, western and southern China, Thailand, central and southern Vietnam (Solovyev & Witt 2009).

Remarks: The species is a new record for Bhutan.

 

Genus Praesetora Hering, 1931

Praesetora Hering, 1931, in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 10: 672 (key), 711. Type species: Setora divergens Moore, 1879.

The genus Praesetora was erected by Hering in 1931 based on type series Setora divergens Moore. The genera is characterised by medium sized body with reddish-brown coloration. The forewings having two fine, straight fasciae darker reddish-brown, a sub marginal arising from the tornus that converges with or meets an oblique post medial at the costa. The post-medial arise sub basally on the dorsum. The fore tibia and coxa have an apical white patch (Holloway 1986).

i. Praesetora (cf) divergens (Moore, 1879) (Image 7)

Setora divergens Moore, 1879, Lep. Atkins.: 75, t. 3, f. 23. Type locality: “Darjiling”.

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, 1,247m, 06.v.2013, 2 specimens, 13.v.2014, 2 specimens to light. 10.v.2015, 1 specimen to MV light; Tsirang District, Damphu, 27001’04.60”N & 90007’18.18”E, 1,469m, 05.vi.2015, 2 specimens to MV light; Dagana district, Dagapela, 26056’29.56”N & 89055’22.06”E, 1,597m, 12.vii.2014, 1 specimen at MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang, Damphu, Dagapela), Nepal (Yoshimoto 1994), northeastern India (Hampson 1892), northern Thailand (Nakao 2014), central Vietnam (Solovyev & Witt 2009), Hong Kong (Kendrick 2002).

Remarks: The species was recorded earlier from Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900). Species identification is to be confirmed through genitalia study in order to separate the species reliably from Setora species.

 

Genus Scopelodes Westwood, 1841

Scopelodes Westwood, 1841, in Jardine, Naturalist’s Libr. (Ed. 1) 33: 222. Type species: Scopelodes unicolor Westwood, 1841.

Bethura Walker, 1862, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. (Zool.) 6: 173. Type species: Bethura minax Walker, 1862.

The genus Scopelodes was erected by Westwood in 1841 based on the type species Scopelodes unicolor Westwood. The genera is characterised by medium to large sized moths. Antennae of the male bipectinate in basal half. Externally, they are distinguished from other genera by long second and third segment of labial palps with tufts of scales at the end. Wingspan about 40–78 mm length in males and 30–34 mm in females. The forewing is unicoloured with longitudinal or transverse shadows; the abdomen usually is yellow with transverse brown or black stripes. Strong sexual dimorphism in size, pattern and coloration is typical for most species (Wu & Fang 2009b; Solovyev & Witt 2009).

i. Scopelodes vulpina Moore, 1879 (Image 8)

Scopelodes vulpina Moore, 1879, Descr. New Ind. Lep. Colln. late Atkinson 1: 73. Type locality: “Darjiling”.

Scopelodes tantula Swinhoe, 1904, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 7(14): 132. Type locality: “Khasia Hills”.

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057.032’N & 900 06.874’E, 1,247m, 22.vi.2013, 3specimens to MV light; Dagana district, Dagapela, 26056’29.56”N & 89055’22.06”E, 1,597m, 12.vii.2014, 1 specimen at MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang, Dagana, Dochu-la, Thimphu, Wangduephodrang), Nepal (Yoshimoto 1994), northeastern India, northern Thailand, northern Vietnam (Solovyev & Witt 2009).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan from Wangduephodrang by W. Dierl (1975). Later, the species was also recorded by D.B. Chettri (2014) from Dochu-la, Thimphu and Wangduephodrang.

ii. Scopelodes testacea Butler, 1886 (Image 9)

Scopelodes testacea Butler, 1886, Ill. Typ. Brit. Mus. Specimens Colln. Br. Mus. 6: 3. Type locality: “Silhet”.

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, 1,247m, 05.vi.2013, 1 specimen, 09.vi.2013, 2 specimens, 15.vi.2013, 1 specimen to light, 23.vii.2013, 2 specimens to light, 02.vi.2015, 2 specimens to MV Light; Dagana District, Dagapela, 26056’29.56”N & 89055’22.06”E, 1,597m, 12.vii.2014, 2 specimens at MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang), Nepal (Yoshimoto 1994), India, China, northern Thailand, Cambodia, central and southern Vietnam (Solovyev & Witt 2009).

Remarks: The species is a new record for Bhutan. It is a minor pest on the plants of family: Anacardiaceae, Ebenaceae, Lythraceae, Musaceae and Sapindaceae (Solovyev et al. 2009).

iii. Scopelodes venosa Walker, 1855

Scopelodes venosa Walker, 1855, List Lep.Het.Br. Mus. 5:1, 105.Type locality: “Silhet”.

Scopelodes aurogrisea Moore, Lep.Ceyl. 2: 126, pl. 128, figs 1a-b.Type locality: [Ceylon].

Scopelodes ursina Butler, 1886, Ill. Het.Colln.Br. Mus. 6: 3, pl. 101, figs 7,8.Type locality: “Silhet”.

Record: None.

Distribution: Bhutan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, China (Wu & Fang 2009c).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900), but misidentified, and confused with forms ursina Butler, 1866 and testacea Butler, 1866. The species was not recorded during our study.

iv. Scopelodes contracta Walker, 1855

Scopelodes contracta Walker, 1855, List Lep.Het.Br. Mus. 5: 1, 105.

Record: None.

Distribution: Bhutan, India, China, Taiwan, Japan (Wu & Fang 2009c).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900). The species was not recorded during our study.

v. Scopelodes unicolor Westwood, 1841

Scopelodes unicolor Westwood, 1841, in Jardine, Nat. Lib. 31: 222, Pl. 28, fig. 2.Type locality: “Java”.

Scopelodes palpalis Walker, 1855, List SpecimensLepid.Insects Colln Br. Mus. 5: 1, 105.Type locality: “Java”.

Dalcera palpigera Herrich-Schäffer, 1856, Samml. Aussereur. Schmett. 1: fig. 509.Type locality: “Java”.

Bethura minax Walker, 1862, J. Linn. Soc. Lond. (Zool.) 6: 207.Type locality: “Sarawak”.

Nyssia micacea Walker, 1865, List Specimens.lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 32: 481. Type locality: “Java”.

Scopelodes lutea Hering, 1931, in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 10: 690.Type locality: “Java”.

Record: None.

Distribution: Bhutan, India, Myanmar, China, Indonesia (Wu & Fang 2009c), Sundaland (Holloway 1985), Hong Kong (Kendrick 2002).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900). The species was not recorded during our study. The host-plants recorded are Theobroma (Sterculiaceae), Eugenia (Myrtaceae) and many fruit trees (Kalshoven) (Holloway 1986). Piepers & Snellen (1900) recorded it on Ricinus (Euphorbiaceae), and it also feeds on Nephelium (Sapindaceae).

 

 

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Genus Squamosa Bethune-Baker, 1908

Squamosa Bethune-Baker, 1908, Novit. zool. 15: 183.Type species: Squamosa ferruginea Bethune-Baker, 1908.

The genus Squamosa was erected by Bethune-Baker in 1904 based on the type species Squamosa ferruginea Bethune-Baker. The genera is characterised by medium to large size of adults with yellow ground colour. Male antennae bipectinate to middle and then serrate. Wingspan 31–42 mm length in males but female are unknown. The forewings have a characteristic large, rounded, silky brown, medial spot and very narrow, dark, curved external fascia; R3-5 stalked and R2 separate. (Wu & Fang 2009a; Solovyev & Witt 2009)

i. Squamosa ocellata (Moore, 1879) (Image 10)

Monema ocellata Moore, 1879, Lep. Atkins.: 74. Type locality: “Darjiling”.

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, 1,247m, 31.v.2014, 1 specimen to MV light; Tsirang District, Damphu, 27001’04.60”N & 90007’18.18”E, 1,469m, 05.vi.2015, 5 specimens to MV light; Dagana District, Dagapela, 26056’29.56”N & 89055’22.06”E, 1,597m, 05.vi.2015, 4 specimens to MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang, Damphu, Dagapela, Chukha, Phuentsholing, Wangduephodrang), Nepal (Yoshimoto 1994), northeastern India, Myanmar (Hampson 1892).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900) and later it was also recorded from Wangdi-Dorju La (Wangduephodrang) by W. Dierl (1975) and D.B. Chettri (2014) from Chukha and Phuentsholing.

 

Genus Chalcoscelides Hering, 1931

Chalcoscelides Hering, 1931, in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 10: 686.Type species: Miresa castaneipars Moore, 1865.

The genus Chalcoscelides was erected by Hering in 1931 based on the type species Miresa castaneipars Moore. The genus contains only the one species. The male antennae are bipectinate to the apex, the palps upcurved. The forewing facies over the distal half with a fine dark brown line; the veins also grade dark brown towards the margin and the hindwing is similar. The genus is characterized in facies by the rectangular dark brown zone, set obliquely in the wing, the basal corner of which is pale purple (Holloway, 1986). The genus is known from northeastern India to Sundaland (Solovyev & Witt, 2009).

i. Chalcoscelides castaneipars (Moore, 1865) (Image 11)

Miresa castaneipars Moore, 1865, Proc. zool. Soc. Lond.: 819.Type locality: “Darjeeling”.

Chalcoscelides castaneipars Moore; Hering 1931: 686.

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, 1,247m, 27.v.2013, 1 specimen to MV light, 25.vii.2013, 2 specimens to MV light; Tsirang District, Damphu, 27001’04.60”N & 90007’18.18”E, 1,469m, 05.vi.2015, 2 specimens to MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang, Damphu), Nepal (Yoshimoto 1994), northeastern India (Hampson 1892), Myanmar, Taiwan, Vietnam and Sundaland (Solovyev & Witt 2009).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900). The larvae of the species feed on Citrus sp. (Rutaceae), Cinnamomum sp. (Lauraceae), Cassia sp. (Fabaceae), Spondias sp. (Anacardiaceae), Theobroma sp. (Sterculiaceae), Trevesia sp. (Araliaceae) (Holloway 1986).

 

Genus Altha Walker, 1862

Altha Walker, 1862, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. 6: 173. Type species: Altha nivea Walker, 1862.

The genus Altha was erected by Walker in 1862 based on type species Altha nivea Walker 1862. The genus is characterized by small sized moth with wingspan 20–32 mm length; in male, the antennae are strongly bipectinate in basal third (Solovyev & Witt 2009). The moths have a white ground colour, shaded with orange or brown on the forewing. There are prominent dark dots at one third from the apex on the margin of both wings (Holloway 1986).

i. Altha (Altha) nivea Walker, 1862 (Image 12)

Altha nivea Walker, 1862, J. Proc. Linn. Soc. 6: 173. Type locality: [Sarawak].

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, 1,247m, 26.vii.2013, 1 specimen to MV light; Sarpang District, Sarpang, 26052’0.23”N & 90016’3.71”E, 345m, 27.iv.2015, 2 specimens to MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang, Sarpang), India to Sundaland and Palawan, southern China, Taiwan (Solovyev & Witt 2009).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900). The species is a minor pest on the plants of family: Theaceae, Bombaceae, Lauraceae, Rutaceae, Annonaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Combretaceae and Menispermaceae (Solovyev et al. 2009). Their pest status in Bhutan needs further investigation.

 

Genus Thosea Walker, 1855

Thosea Walker, 1855, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 5: 979 (key), 1068. Type species: Thosea unifascia Walker, 1855.

Autocopa Meyrick, 1889, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond.: 457. Type species: Autocopa monoloncha Meyrick, 1889.

Anzabe Walker, 1855, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 5: 1093. Type species: Anzabe sinensis Walker, 1855.

Dasycomota Lower, 1902, Trans. Proc. R. Soc. Aust. 26: 220. Type species: Dasycomota pyrrhoea Lower, 1902.

The genus was erected by Walker in 1855 based on the type species Thosea unifascia Walker, 1855. The genus is characterized by mid-sized moths, male about 34mm wingspan length and female 20–41 mm length. Males usually have bipectinate antennae. Usually having grey forewings with a black discal spot with an oblique, dark, straight post medial distal to which the ground colour is darker (Holloway 1986; Solovyev & Witt 2009).

i. Thosea magna Hering, 1931 (Image 13)

Thosea magna Hering, 1931, in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 10: 711. Type locality: “Khasis” [India].

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, 1,247m, 13.v.2014, 1 specimen to light; 20.v.2015 1 specimen to MV light, 02.vi.2015 1 specimen to MV light; Tsirang District, Damphu, 27001’04.60”N & 90007’18.18”E, 1,469m, 05.vi.2015, 5 specimens to MV light; Dagana district, Dagapela, 26056’29.56”N & 89055’22.06”E, 1,597m, 05.vi.2015, 4 specimens to MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang, Damphu, Dagapela), Nepal (Yoshimoto 1994), India, China (Wei & Wu 2008).

Remarks: The species is a new record for Bhutan.

ii. Thosea sinensis (Walker, 1855)

Anzabe sinensis Walker, 1855, List. Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 5: 1093. Type locality: “Hong Kong”.

Susica taiwana Shiraki, 1913, Spec. Rep. Formosa Agric. Sta. 8: 401. Type locality: “Formosa (Taihoku)”.

Record: None.

Distribution: Bhutan (Samtse), China, Taiwan, Korea, northern Thailand, Cambodia, northern and central Vietnam (Holloway et al. 1987; Solovyev & Witt 2009), Hong Kong (Kendrick 2002).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan from Samchi (Samtse) at 300m by W. Dierl (1975). Not recorded during the present study.

 

Genus Hindothosea Holloway, 1987

Hindothosea Holloway, 1987, in Cock et al. (ed), Slug and Nettle Caterpillars: 68. Type species: Thosea cervina Moore, 1877.

The genus was erected by Holloway in 1987 based on the type species Thosea cervina Moore, 1877. The moth of the genus resembles Thosea in facies but has the post-medial less oblique, edged paler on the exterior rather than on the interior. In the male genitalia the valve is simple, lacking even the vestige of a furca, and the uncus apex has a ventral spur. The female genitalia are of the crescent-signum type but the eighth segment is weak, not expanded as in Thosea (Holloway et al. 1987).

i. Hindothosea cervina (Moore, 1877)

Thosea cervina Moore, 1877, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4) 20: 348.Type locality: “Ceylon”.

Thosea duplexa Moore, 1883, Lepidoptera of Ceylon 2: 130. Type locality: “Ceylon”.

Record: None.

Distribution: Bhutan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Holloway et al. 1987)

Remarks: Recorded for the first time in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900). The species was not recorded during our study. The larva feeds on Albizia sp. and tea (Holloway et al. 1987).

Genus Griseothosea Holloway, 1986

Griseothosea Holloway, 1986, Malayan Nature Journal 1: 123. Type species: Nyssia cruda Walker, 1862.

Medium-sized moths with greyish-brown ground colour. The forewing patterns are characteristic, with a black discal spot and three darker diffuse fasciae at right angle to dorsum of forewing; the external fascia is entire, zig-zag; usually forewing is darker basally.

i. Griseothosea fasciata (Moore, 1888)

Aphendala fasciata Moore, 1888, Proc. zool. Soc. Lond.: 403. Type locality: “Dharmsala”.

Record: None.

Distribution: Bhutan, India, Nepal, southern and western China, Taiwan, Thailand, northern Vietnam (Solovyev & Witt 2009), Hong Kong (Kendrick 2002).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900). The species was not recorded during our study.

 

Genus Phocoderma Butler, 1886

Phocoderma Butler, 1886, Illust. Lepid. Heterocera Br. Mus. 6: 4. Type species: Gastropacha velutina Kollar, 1844.

The genus Phocoderma was erected by Butler in 1886 based on the type individual Gastropacha velutina Kollar. The genus includes large moths with wingspan of 51–72 mm length; silky-brown ground colour. Antennae bipectinate in males and filiform in females. The forewing fascia is characteristic, with a darker sub marginal curved round parallel to the margin, and the area basal to this divided by an oblique line with an angle sub apically (Solovyev 2008).

i. Phocoderma velutina (Kollar, 1844) (Image 14)

Gastropacha velutina Kollar, 1844, in Hügel, Kaschmir und das Reich der Siek 4 (part 2), Aufzählung und Beschreibung der von Freiherrn Carl v. Hügel auf seiner Reise durch Kaschmir und das Himaleyagebirge gesammelten Insecten: 473. Type locality: [north India] “Himal., Massuri”.

Natada rugosa Walker, 1855: 1109. Type locality: “Scinde?”.

Natada velutina Kollar; Hampson 1892: 382; Hering 1933: 343.

Phocoderma velutina Kollar; Butler 1886: 4; Leech 1899: 103; van Eecke 1925: 27; Holloway 1982: 40, pl. 2 fi g. 24; Holloway 1986: 100, pl. 7 figs 163, 164, 168; Holloway 1990: 49, pl. 2 fi g. 25; Yoshimoto 1994: 86.

Phocoderma velutinum Kollar; Hering 1931: 720.

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, 1,247m, 08.vi.2013, 1 specimen to light; Sarpang District, Sarpang Tar, 26052’0.23”N & 90016’3.71”E, 345m, 12.vi.2014, 2 specimens to MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang, Sarpang Tar), Nepal (Yoshimoto 1994), India, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra (Solovyev 2008).

Remarks: The larvae of this species feed on the plants of Anacardiaceae, Bombacaceae, Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Sapindaceae and Theaceae but they are not considered as important pest species (Solovyev et al. 2009). The pest status in Bhutan is unknown and needs further investigation.

 

Genus Miresa Walker, 1855

Miresa Walker, 1855, List Specimens.lepid. Insects Colln. Br. Mus. 5: 1103, 1123. Type species: Nyssia albipuncta Herrich-Schäffer, [1854].

The genus Miresa was erected by Walker in 1855 based on the type species Nyssia albipuncta Herrich-Schäffer. The moths are medium-sized with yellowish brown and pale ground colour. The forewings with S-shaped post-medial fascia, the medial spot, post-medial and external fasciae are silver coloured (Solovyev & Witt 2009; Solovyev & Wu 2011). The antennae are bipectinate up to basal half and the palps are somewhat curving upward with the third segment inconspicuous. The genus is found from India to Sundaland (Holloway 1986).

i. Miresa bracteata Butler, 1880 (Image 15)

Miresa bracteata Butler, 1880, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) 6: 64.Type locality: “Darjeeling”.

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, 1,247m, 29.v.2013, 2 specimens, 30.v.2013, 3specimens to light; Tsirang District, Damphu, 27001’04.60”N & 90007’18.18”E, 1,469m, 05.vi.2015, 3 specimens to MV light; Dagana District, Dagapela, 26056’29.56”N & 89055’22.06”E, 1,597m, 05.vi.2015, 4 specimens to MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang, Damphu, Dagapela, Phuentsholing, Thimphu, Wangduephodrang), India, Nepal, southwestern China, Thailand, Malaysia, Sundaland (Wu & Solovyev 2011).

Remarks: The species was very common in all the study areas. Recorded in Bhutan between Thimphu to Phuentsholing (1,680m) and Wangduephodrang (1,700–2,000 m) by W. Dierl (1975).

ii. Miresa fulgida Wileman, 1910 (Image 16)

Miresa fulgida Wileman, 1910, Entomol. 43: 192. Type locality: “Kanshirei (1000 ft.)” [Taiwan].

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, 1,247m, 03.vi.2013, 3 specimens to light; Tsirang District, Damphu, 27001’04.60”N &90007’18.18”E, 1,469m, 05.vi.2015, 5 specimens to MV light; Dagana District, Dagapela, 26056’29.56”N & 89055’22.06”E, 1,597m, 05.vi.2015, 4 specimens to MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang, Damphu, Dagapela), China, southern Japan, Vietnam (Wu & Solovyev 2011).

Remarks: The species is a new record for Bhutan.

iii. Miresa decedens Walker, 1855

Miresa decedens Walker, 1855, List Specimens lepid. Ins. Colln Br. Mus. 5:1125. Type locality: “North India”.

Record: None.

Distribution: Bhutan (Dudgeon 1900).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900). The species was not recorded during our study.

 

Genus Susica Walker, 1855

Susica Walker, 1855, List Specimens. lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 5: 1103 (key), 1113. Type species: Susica pallida Walker, 1855.

The genus Susica was erected by Walker in 1855 based on the type species Susica pallida Walker, 1855. The genus includes medium-sized moths. The ground colour of the wing is greyish-brown. The male antennae are broadly bipectinate and simple in females. The forewings are short, broad and rounded, with dark curved transverse medial fascia and sinusoidal external fascia near apex, usually with sparse dark scales and with distinct medial dark spot. Hind tibia with two pairs of spurs in both sexes. Wingspan about 25mm in males and 48mm in females (Hampson 1892; Solovyev & Witt 2009).

i. Susica himalayana (Holloway, 1982) (Image 17)

Susica himalayana Holloway, 1982, in Barlow, Introd. moths SE Asia: 186. Type locality: “Sikkim”.

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, 1,247m,07.vi.2013, 3 specimens to light. 02.vi.2015, 2 specimens at MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang), northeastern India (Holloway 1982), Nepal (Yoshimoto 1994).

Remarks: The species is a new record for Bhutan.

ii. Susica sp. A (Image 18)

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, 1,247m, 07.vi.2013, 1 specimen to light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang).

Remarks: The species identity could not be confirmed beyond the genus level due to lack of voucher specimen for genitalia examination.

iii. Susica pallida Walker, 1855

Susica pallida Walker, 1855, List Specimens lepid. Insects. Colln.Br. Mus. 5:1114.Type locality: [India].

Record: None

Distribution: Bhutan (Dudgeon 1900), India, Nepal (Cotes & Swinhoe 1887)

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900). The species was not recorded during our study.

 

Genus Tennya Solovyev & Witt, 2009

Tennya Solovyev & Witt, 2009, Entomofauna 16: 63. Type species: Narosa propolia Hampson, 1900.

The genus Tennya was erected by Solovyev & Witt in 2009 based on the type species Narosa propolia Hampson. The genus is characterised by small moths; 19–24 mm wingspan in males and 13–15 mm viz. 26–30 mm in females. The male antennae are filiform and simple in females. The females have more elongate forewings than the males. The outer margin of forewings has black spots, decorated with white colour between veins (Solovyev & Witt 2009). The genus is a new record for Bhutan.

i. Tennya propolia (Hampson, 1900) (Image 19)

Narosa propolia Hampson, 1900, Journ. Bomb. Soc. 13: 232. Type locality: “Sikhim, 2,800”.

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, 1,247m, 08.v.2013, 1 specimen to light; Tsirang District, Damphu, 27001’04.60”N & 90007’18.18”E, 1,469m, 05.vi.2015, 5 specimens to MV light; Dagana District, Dagapela, 26056’29.56”N & 89055’22.06”E, 1,597m, 05.vi.2015, 4 specimens to MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang, Damphu, Dagapela), India, Nepal, China, Vietnam (Solovyev & Witt 2009).

Remarks: The species is a new record for Bhutan.

 

 

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Genus Aphendala Walker, 1865

Aphendala Walker, 1865, List Specimenslepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 32: 494. Type species: Aphendala transversata Walker, 1865.

The genus Aphendala was erected by Walker in 1865, based on the type species Aphendala transversata Walker. At present, the genus contains more than 20 species in the Oriental region (Holloway 1986, 1987; Yoshimoto 1994). The genus can be easily distinguished by male antenna bipectinate and filiform in female. Forewing with R2 separate and R3+5 stalked. Hindwing with M1 and RS stalked (Solovyev & Witt 2009).

i. Aphendala imitabilis (Hering, 1931) (Image 20)

Thosea imitabilis Hering, 1931, in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 10: 713. Type-locality: [northern India] “Pedong (Sikkim)”.

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, 1,247m, 26.viii.2014, 1 specimento light; Dagana District, Dagapela, 26056’29.56”N & 89055’22.06”E, 1,597m, 2 specimens to MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang, Dagapela, Thimphu, Paro), eastern Afghanistan, Pakistan, northern India, Nepal, China, Myanmar, Sri Lanka (Wu & Fang 2008; Solovyev 2010).

Remarks: The species was recorded from Thimphu and Paro (2,300m) by W. Dierl (1975). The specimens were collected in late April, early May, mid June, July, and early November at altitudes of 1,500–2,700 m in all its distribution range (Solovyev & Witt 2009).

ii. Aphendala cana (Walker, 1865)

Parasa cana Walker, 1865, List Specimens Lepid. Ins. Colln Br. Mus. 32: 484. Type-locality: “South Hindostan”. Holotype (by monotypy):

Thosea barikoti Daniel, 1965, Z. Wien.Ent. Ges. 50: 140. Type-locality: “Afghanistan, Nuristan, 25km N v. Barikot, 1800m”.

Record: None.

Distribution: Bhutan (Dudgeon 1900), Nepal (Yoshimoto 1994), Sri Lanka (Light 1927), eastern Afghanistan, Pakistan, India (Solovyev 2010), Taiwan (Inoue 1992).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900). The species was not recorded during our study. A pest on tea plants (Solovyev 2010).

iii. Aphendala unicolor (Moore, 1859)

Parasa unicolor Moore, 1859, Cat.Lepid. Ins. Mus. Nat. Hist. East-India House 1: 415. Type-locality: “N. India”.

Aphendala transversata Walker, 1865, List Specimens lepid. Insects. Colln. Br. Mus. 32: 495. Type-locality: “North Hindostan”.

Aphendala tripartita Moore, 1884, Trans. Ent. Soc. London: 376. Type-locality: “Manpuri”[northern India].

Thosea phaeobasis Hering, 1935, Stylops 4: 86. Type-locality: [south-western India] “S. Mangalore, 400, Madras”.

Thosea discipunctata Hering, 1931, in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 10: 713. Type-locality: “Palli Hill, Bandora”[south-western India].

Aphendala mechiensis Yoshimoto, 1994, Moths of Nepal 3, Tinea 14 (Suppl.1): 88. Type-locality: “Mechi, Godok”[Nepal].

Record: None

Distribution: Bhutan (Dudgeon 1900), Nepal (Yoshimoto 1994), India (Solovyev 2010).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900). The species was not recorded during our study.

 

 

Genus Iraga Matsumura, 1927

Iraga Matsumura, 1927, J. Coll. Agric. Hokkaido imp. Univ.19: 89. Type species: Tetraphleps (?) rugosa Wileman, 1911.

The genus Iraga was erected by Matsumura in 1927 based on type species Tetraphleps (?) rugosa Wileman. The genus is represented by only one species. The moths are brown; broad, smooth yellowish dorsal band at head, thorax and abdomen; antennae filiform in males (Solovyev & Witt 2009).

i. Iraga rugosa (Wileman, 1911) (Image 21)

Tetraphleps (?) rugosa Wileman, 1911, Entomol. 44: 205. Type locality: “Kanshirei (1000 ft.)” [Taiwan].

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, 1,247m, 13.vi.2013, 1 specimento light, 23.vi.2015, 2 specimens to light; Dagana District, Dagapela, 26056’29.56”N & 89055’22.06”E, 1,597m, 12.vii.2014, 2 specimens to MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang, Dagapela), Southern China, Taiwan, Cambodia, northern Laos, northern Vietnam (Solovyev & Witt 2009).

Remarks: The species is a new record for Bhutan.

Genus Monema Walker, 1855

Monema Walker, 1855, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 5: 1102, 1112. Type species: Monema flavescens Walker, 1855.

Cnidocampa Dyar, 1905, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 28: 950.Type species: Monema flavescens Walker, 1855.

The genus Monema was erected by Walker in 1855, based on the type species, Monema flavescens Walker. The moths have a yellowish body and are medium-sized. Male have filiform antennae and thicker than in female. Labial palpi extremely long. Forewings with R3 + R4 stalked from R5 and R2 stalked with their stem. Hindwings with M1 and Rs stalked. Forewings with two narrow brown fasciae running from apex to 3/4 and 1/3 of inner margin respectively; basal part of forewing bordered by proximal fascia yellow, rest brown. Hind tibiae with two pairs of spurs (Pan et al.2013).

i. Monema coralina Dudgeon, 1895 (Image 22)

Monema coralina Dudgeon, 1895, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond.: 290. Type locality: “Bhután”.

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, 1,247m, 22.viii.2013, 1 specimento light; Sarpang District, Sarpang Tar, 26052’0.23”N & 90016’3.71”E, 345m, 12.vi.2014, 2 specimens to MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang, Sarpang Tar), Nepal (Inoue 1970), China (Pan et al. 2013).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900).

Genus Cheromettia Moore, 1883

Cheromettia Moore, 1883, Lepid. Ceylon 2: 133.Type species: Belippa ferruginea Moore, 1877.

The genus Cheromettia was erected by Moore in 1883, based on the type species Belippa ferruginea Moore. The species of genus are sexually dimorphic in forewing pattern and coloration. The males are rufous brown or blackish with broadly bipectinate antennae only in the basal quarter. The male forewings are narrow, elongate, with black apex; the hind wings are medially transparent in some taxa. The females are paler, rufous yellow; the forewings are broader than in males, also with black apex (Solovyev & Witt 2009). Moreover, there are no strong characters to separate the species using females. Thus, the identification of Cheromettia sp. is very difficult without genitalia dissection of voucher specimens. The genus is known from India subregion (Holloway 1986), southern China, Vietnam, northern Thailand, peninsular Malaysia and Sundaland (Solovyev & Witt 2009).

i. Cheromettia ferruginea (Moore, 1877) (Image 23)

Belippa ferruginea Moore, 1877, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 4(20): 348.Type locality: “Ceylon”.

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Damphu, 27014.56’N & 900718.18’E, 1,469m, 30.v.2014, 2 specimens to light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Damphu), India, Myanmar and Sri Lanka (Hampson 1892; Holloway 1986).

Remarks: The species is a new record for Bhutan.

ii. Cheromettia apicata (Moore, 1879) (Image 24)

Belippa apicata Moore, 1879, Lep.Atkins.: 75. Type locality: “Darjeeling”.

Parasa laleana Moore, 1859, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4)20: 417.Type locality: “N. India”.

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, 1,247m, 20.v.2013, 2 specimens to MV light; Tsirang District, Damphu, 27001’04.60”N & 90007’18.18”E, 1,469m, 10.iv.2015, 1 specimen to light; Sarpang District, Sarpang Tar, 26052’0.23”N & 90016’3.71”E, 345m, 1 specimen to MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang, Damphu, Sarpang Tar, Phuentsholing), Nepal (Yoshimoto 1994), northeastern India (Hampson 1892; Holloway 1986).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900). Later the species was also recorded from Phuentsholing at 200–500 m (Dierl 1975).

 

Genus Vanlangia (Solovyev & Witt, 2009)

Vanlangia Solovyev & Witt, 2009, Entomofauna 16: 173. Type species: Thosea castanea Wileman, 1911.

The genus Vanlangia was erected by Solovyev & Witt in 2009 based on the type species Thosea castanea Wileman. The genus is characterized by small sized moth with wingspan 21–29 mm length. The male antennae are bipectinate with short rami. The forewings with pale medial fascia with darker border and greyish distal semicircular field near apex. The forewing with vein R5 stalked with R3+R4; the medial stem is well developed, not branched distally (Solovyev & Witt 2009).The genus is widely distributed in China and northern Vietnam (Solovyev & Witt 2009). The genus is a new record for Bhutan.

i. Vanlangia cf. uniformis (Hering, 1931) (Image 25)

Iragoides uniformis Hering, 1931, in Seitz, Gross-Schmett.Erde.10: 710. Type locality: “Lung-tao-shan”.

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, 1,247m, 25.vii.2013, 1 specimen to light; Tsirang District, Damphu, 27001’04.60”N & 90007’18.18”E, 1,469m, 05.vi.2015, 5 specimens to MV light; Dagana District, Dagapela, 26056’29.56”N & 89055’22.06”E, 1,597m, 05.vi.2015, 4 specimens to MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang, Damphu, Dagapela), China, northern Vietnam (Solovyev & Witt 2009).

Remarks: The species is a new record for Bhutan. The recorded individual is near to V. uniformis but we could not confirm the species identity based on photographs alone. Voucher specimen for genitalia dissection is not available.

 

 

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Genus Sansarea Solovyev & Witt, 2009

Sansarea Solovyev & Witt, 2009, Entomofauna 16: 173. Type species: Trichogyia circulifera Hering, 1933.

The genus Sansarea was erected by Solovyev & Witt in 2009 based on the type species Trichogyia circulifera Hering. The genus is characterised by middle-sized moths with forewing 22–28 mm length wingspan in males, 14–30 mm in females. The ground colour is brownish-ochre. The male antennae are filiform. The forewing with large post medial dark brown rounded spot with post medial, ante medial and not well-defined external zigzag fasciae. The outer marginal area of forewing bears small dark spots on the veins. The hindwing is dark with bright fringe and dorsal margin (Solovyev & Witt 2009). The genus is a new record for Bhutan.

i. Sansarea cf. circulifera (Hering, 1933) (Image 26)

Trichogyia circulifera Hering, 1933, in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde, Suppl. 2: 207.Type locality: “Kwanshien, China”.

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Damphu, 27014.56’N & 900718.18’E, altitude 1,469m, 30.v.2014, 2 specimens to light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Damphu), Nepal, Taiwan, Japan (Yoshimoto 1993).

Remarks: The species is a new record for Bhutan. The recorded individual is near to S. circulifera but we could not confirm the species identity from the photograph alone. Voucher specimen for genitalia dissection is not available.

 

Genus Belippa Walker 1865

Belippa Walker, 1865, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 32: 508. Type species: Belippa horrida Walker, 1865.

Contheyloides Matsumura, 1931, Ins. Mats. 5: 104. Type species: Contheyloides boninensis Matsumura, 1931.

The genus Belippa was erected by Walker based on the type species Belippa horrida Walker. The moths of the genus are characterised by medium-sized moths with wingspan 28–35 mm. The congeners differ from each other externally, but are associated together by the similar male genitalia in which the juxta is divided in two flattened lateral parts with dorsal row of large spurs and cranial finger-shaped process (Solovyev & Witt 2009).

i. Belippa horrida Walker, 1865 (Image 27)

Belippa horrida Walker, 1865, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 32: 509. Type locality: “North China”.

Cheromettia formosaensis Kawada, 1930, J. Imp. Agric. Expt. Sta. Nishigahara 1: 257. Type locality: “Horisya in Formosa”.

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057’0.57”N & 90006’51.78”E, 1,247m, 10.v.2015, 3 specimens to MV light; Damphu, 27001’04.60”N & 90007’18.18”E, 1,469m, 14.v.2015, 1 specimen to light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang, Damphu), India, Japan, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Laos, northern Vietnam (Solovyev & Witt 2009).

Remarks: The species is a new record for Bhutan.

 

Genus Caissa Hering, 1931

Caissa Hering, 1931, in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde. 10: 670 (key), 700. Type species: Caissa caissa Hering, 1931.

The genus Caissa was erected by Hering based on the type species Caissa caissa Hering. The moths of the genus are characterised by medium-sized moths with forewing length of 1015 mm in males and 1315 mm in females. Male antennae filiform, dark discal spot in forewing and dark tornal spot in hindwing. The hindwings always have a dark brown, slightly fuzzy, spot near the tornus (Solovyev & Saldaitis 2013). The genus ranges across Southeast Asia, India, Nepal, Myanmar, China, Thailand and Vietnam (Solovyev & Witt 2009; Solovyev & Saldaitis 2013).

i. Caissa fasciatum (Hampson, 1893) (Image 28)

Ceratonema fasciatum Hampson, 1893, Fauna Br. India (Moths) 1: 394. Type locality: “Nágas, 6000 feet” [India].

Record: Bhutan: Tsirang District, Mendrelgang, 26057.032’N & 900 06.874’E, 1,247m, 02.vi.2015, 2 specimens to light. Dagana District, Dagapela, 26056’29.56”N & 89055’22.06”E, 1,597m, 12.vii.2014, 1 specimen to MV light.

Distribution: Bhutan (Mendrelgang, Dagapela), Nepal, India (Hampson 1892).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900).

 

Genus Parasa Moore, 1859 sensu lato

Parasa Moore, 1859, Cat. lep. Ins. Mus. East India Coy 2: 413. Type species: Neaera chloris Herrich-Schäffer, 1854,by subsequent designation by Fletcher & Nye, 1982: 120. =Neaera Herrich-Schäffer, 1854Samml. aussereurop. Schmett. 1 (1): wrapper, pl. 37, figs 176, 177. Type species: Neaera chloris Herrich-Schäffer, 1854 by subsequent designation by Fletcher &Nye, 1982: 120. A junior homonym of Neaera Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Insecta, Diptera) = Callochlora Packard, 1864, Proc. ent. Soc. Philad.3: 339. Type species: Callochlora vernata Packard, 1864, by monotypy.

= Neaerasa Staudinger, 1892, Mém. Lépid.6: 298. Type species: Neaera chloris Herrich-Schäffer, 1854, by subsequent designation by Fletcher & Nye 1982: 120.

The genus Parasa sensu lato includes small to large sized moths, joined together under the single character; presence of green colour on the wings or body. The larvae of known species belong to the nettle-type. The genus is thoroughly revised by Solovyev & Witt (2009), Solovyev (2014).

i. Parasa himalepida Holloway, 1987

Parasa himalepida Holloway, 1987, Slug and Nettle Caterpillars: 31, pls 4, 5, 19. Type locality: “Upper Burma, Htawgaw, 6000 ft”.

Record: None.

Distribution: Bhutan, Nepal, northeastern India, Myanmar, China (Solovyev 2014).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Solovyev 2014. The species was not recorded during the study.

ii. Parasa pastoralis Butler, 1885

Parasa pastoralis Butler, 1885, Ann.Mag.nat.Hist. 6(5): 63. Type locality: [Bhutan].

Parasa pastoralis tonkinensis Hering, 1931, in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 10: 696. Type locality: “Tonkin”.

Record: None.

Distribution: Bhutan (Dudgeon 1900), Nepal (Inoue 1970), Pakistan, India, Myanmar, southern China, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Bali (Solovyev & Witt 2009), Hong Kong (Kendrick 2002).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900). The species was not recorded during our study.

 

Genus Aergina Solovyev, 2014

Aergina Solovyev, 2014, Proc. Mus. Witt Munich 1: 59. Type species: Limacodes hilaris Westwood, 1848.

The genus includes medium-sized moths. Before 2014 the members of the genus were placed in Parasa Moore, 1859. The head, thorax and forewings are green (however, the green pattern on the forewing can be lost in some species); the moths have highly diagnostic basal pentagon-shaped brown spot on the forewings.

i. Aergina hilaris (Westwood, 1848)

Limacodes hilaris Westwood, 1848, Cab. Orient. Ent. 50, t. 24: fig. 3. Type locality: “central India”.

Parasa hockingii Moore, 1888, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.: 403. Type locality: “Kangra Valley (3000 feet)”.

Parasa argaleaWest, 1937, Ann. Mag.nat. Hist. 10(10): 80, pl. II: fig. 7. Type locality: “India, Jubbulpore”.

Record: None.

Distribution: Bhutan (Dudgeon 1900), Pakistan, India, Nepal.

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900). The species was not recorded during our study.

 

Genus Birthamiodes Hering, 1931

Birthamiodes Hering, 1931, in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 10: 671 (key), 703. Type species: Hyblaea junctura Walker, 1865.

The genus was erected by Hering based on the type species Hyblaea junctura Walker. The genus is externally characterized by medium sized, reddish-brown moths. The forewing pattern is characteristic, includes transverse ante-medial fascia from 1/2 costa to 1/3 dorsum; the basal area bordered by this fascia is darker than the rest of the forewing; the external fascia is shaded, and borders the lighter apical part of the forewing; the medial fascia is shaded, perpendicular to dorsum (Solovyev & Witt 2009). The genitalia have an asymmetrically armed juxta or furca (Holloway et al. 1987).

i. Birthamiodes junctura (Walker, 1865)

Hyblaea junctura Walker, 1865, List. Specimens lepid. Insects Colln. Br. Mus. 33: 857. Type locality: “Cambodia”.

Record: None.

Distribution: Bhutan (Wangduephodrang), India, Andaman Islands, Myanmar, Cambodia, Thailand, central and southern Vietnam, Bali, Borneo, Sumatra, Java (Dierl 1975; Solovyev & Witt 2009).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan from Wangduephodrang (1,300m) by Dierl (1975). The species was not recorded during our study.

 

Genus Prapata Holloway, 1990

Prapata Holloway, 1990, Heterocera Sumatrana 6: 40. Type species: Prapata bisinuosa Holloway, 1990.

The genus is well defined externally by obscure blackish-brown coloration; the hindwings are pale, grayish-brown. The forewings with characteristic black discal streak. The male antennae are broadly bipectinate over the basal third. All species extremely similar to each other in appearance, therefore the morphology of male genitalia are diagnostic (Solovyev & Witt 2009)

i. Prapata scotopepla (Hampson, 1900)

Miresa scotopepla Hampson, 1900, Journ. Bom. Soc. 13: 231. Type locality: “Sikhim, 5,000’”.

Record: None.

Distribution: Bhutan (Thimphu), Nepal (Yoshimoto 1994).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan from Thimphu as Miresa scotopepla by Dierl (1975). The species was not recorded during our study.

 

Genus Cania Walker, 1855

Cania Walker, 1855, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 5: 1159 (key), 1177. Type species: Cania sericea Walker, 1855.

The genus includes medium-sized moths with yellowish ground colour. Usually, the species of the genus are characterized by slightly curved, shaded darkish post-medial and medial fasciae of the forewings. The antennae are bipectinate in males. The larvae are of the nettle-type, semiovoid with long lateral and short subdorsal scoli. The genus is similar to Rhamnosa Fixsen, 1887 but differs by the absence of the tornal incision of the forewings (Solovyev & Witt 2009).

i. Cania bilinea (Walker, 1855)

Neaera bilineata Walker, 1855, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 5: 1142. Type locality: “China”.

Aspidiotus bicarinatus Walker, 1858, List Homopt. Ins. Suppl.: 306.

Record: None.

Distribution: Bhutan (Dudgeon 1900), India, Malacca, Sumatra Java, Formosa (Inoue 1970), southern China, northern and central Vietnam (Solovyev & Witt 2009).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900) and could be misidentified as Cania himalayana Holloway, 1987. The species was not recorded during our study.

 

Genus Ceratonema Hampson, 1893

Ceratonema Hampson, 1893, Fauna Br. India Moths 1: 373 (key), 393.

Type species: Limacodes retractata Walker, 1865.

The genus includes medium-sized yellow moths. The forewings have 3 characteristic dark fasciae: 1 - from 1/3 dorsum to 1/2 costa, the second from tornus to 3/4 costa, and the third short, from 3/4 dorsum to centre of wing, parallel to outer margin. The male genitalia are slightly modified, with well-developed uncus and gnathos, valvae without saccular processes, but the aedeagus is tube-shaped, curved with characteristic apical zone of small denticles (Solovyev & Witt 2009).

i. Ceratonema retractata (Walker, 1865)

Limacodes retractata Walker, 1865, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 32: 487. Type locality: “Darjeeling”.

Record: None.

Distribution: Bhutan (Dudgeon 1900), northeastern India (Sikkim, Darjeeling) (Hampson 1892).

Remarks: Recorded for the first time for Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900). The species was not recorded during our study.

 

Genus Euphlyctinides Hering, 1931

Euphlyctinides Hering, 1931, in Seitz, Gross-Schmett. Erde 10: 704. Type species: Euphlyctinides rava Hering, 1931.

The male antennae is filiform. The ground colour is yellowish-brown. The forewings are elongate, covered with sparse dark scales, with two dark smooth fasciae. The genus is known from India, northern and western Thailand and northern Vietnam (Solovyev & Witt 2009).

i. Euphlyctinides albifusum (Hampson, 1892)

Ceratonema albifusum Hampson, 1892, Faun. Brit. Ind. Moths 1: 394. Type locality: “Nágas, 6000 feet”.

Record: None.

Distribution: Bhutan (Dudgeon 1900), India, Nepal (Yoshimoto 1993; Solovyev 2009a)

Remarks: Recorded for the first time for Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900). The species was not recorded during our study.

 

Genus Tetraphleba Strand, 1920

Tetraphleba Strand, 1920, Int. ent. Z. 14: 174. Type species: Miresa brevilinea Walker, 1865.

= Tetraphleps Hampson, 1893, Fauna Br. India (Moths) 1: 372 (key), 383 [homonym of Tetraphleps Fieber, 1860, Wien. Ent. Monatschr.4: 262 (Hemiptera)]. Type species: Miresa brevilinea Walker, 1865.

= Tetraphlebs Strand, 1920, Int. ent. Z. 14: 174 [incorrect subsequent spelling of Tetraphleba].

The genus is monotypical, known from the Indian region. The moths are medium-sized, with forewing length is about 12mm. The male antennae are broadly bipectinate, with very long rami. The head, thorax and forewings are uniform brown; the hindwings and the abdomen are ochre.

i. Tetraphleba brevilinea (Walker, 1865)

Miresa brevilinea Walker, 1865, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 32: 475. Type locality: “Darjeeling”.

Record: None.

Distribution: Bhutan (Dudgeon 1900), Nepal (Inoue 1970).

Remarks: Recorded for the first time for Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900). The species was not recorded during our study.

 

Genus Trichogyia Hampson, 1894

Trichogyia Hampson, 1894, Faun. Br. Ind. Moths 2: 103. Type species:Trichogyia semifascia Hampson, 1894.

The genus was erected by Hampson in 1894 based on the type species Trichogyia semifascia Hampson. The male of the genus has palpi upturned, the second joint reaching above vertex of head, and third short. The antennae are minutely ciliated and tibia hairy. Forewing short and broad and the apex nearly rectangular, inner margin much arched. Veins 2 and 3 from near angle of cell and much bent at base; 4 and 5 from the angle; 6 and 7 from close to upper angle; 8, 9, 10 stalked from the before the angle. Hindwing ample; veins 3 and 4 stalked; 5 from above angle of cell; 6 and 7 from cell (Hampson 1894).

i. Trichogyia semifascia Hampson, 1894

Trichogyia semifascia Hampson, 1894, Faun. Br. Ind. Moths 2: 103, Fig. 68. Type locality: “Tenasserim”.

Ceratinema albidivisum Hampson, 1900, J. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc. 13: 232. Type locality: “Sikhim, 1,800’”.

Record: None.

Distribution: Bhutan (Dudgeon 1900), India, Myanmar, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java (Hampson 1894).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900). The species was not recorded during our study.

 

Genus Atosia Snellen, 1900

Atosia Snellen, 1900, Tijdschr. Ent. 43: 50 (key), 92. Type species: Parasa doenia Moore, 1859.

The genus is well distinguished externally by the hook-like pattern in forewing; its curvation contains a white mark. The apex of forewing is dark brown. The male genitalia are simple; the aedeagus with a terminal spine or a scobinate lobe. The larvae are of the smooth-type. The cocoon is spherical, dark brown (Holloway 1986). It ranges from India to Sundaland (Solovyev & Witt 2009).

i. Atosia doenia (Moore, 1859)

Parasa doenia Moore, 1859, Cat. Lep.Mus. E.I.C. 2: 416, t.11a, fig. 10. Type locality: “Java”.

Record: None.

Distribution: Bhutan (Dudgeon 1900), southern Myanmar, Java, Sumatra, Borneo.

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900) and probably misidentified (probable correct name is Atosia himalayana Holloway, 1986). The species was not recorded during our study.

 

Genus Narosa Walker, 1855

Narosa Walker, 1855, List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 5: 1103 (key), 1151. Type species: Narosa conspersa Walker, 1855.

The genus Narosa was erected by Walker based on type species Narosa conspersa Walker. It includes small-sized moths with forewing length 8–9 mm and wingspan 14–18 mm in male. The species are without strong sexual dimorphism; the females are just slightly larger than males (forewing length 9–10 mm and wingspan 19–20 mm). The forewings are yellowish with dark spots and fasciae. The presence of apical small streaks and narrow post-medial transverse fasciae is diagnostic. The outer margin of forewing bears dark spots ornamented by white colour between veins (Solovyev & Witt 2009).

i. Narosa conspersa Walker, 1855

Narosa conspersa Walker, 1855 List Specimens lepid. Insects Colln Br. Mus. 5: 1151, Type locality: “Ceylon”.

Record: None.

Distribution: Bhutan (Dudgeon 1900), Sri Lanka (Walker 1855).

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900). The species was not recorded during our study and probably mistakenly identified by Dudgeon (1900).

 

Genus Ploneta Snellen, 1900

Ploneta Snellen, 1900, Tijdschr. Ent. 43: 52 (key), 105. Type species: Ploneta diducta Snellen, 1900.

The genus includes medium-sized limacodids. The male antennae are broadly bipectinate up to the apex. The ground colour is brown, and the moths are almost uniformly coloured; the males are usually paler than the females, with well-developed submarginal fascia. The male genitalia are mostly diagnostic (Holloway 1986). The genus is sometimes considered as a subgenus within Darna Walker, 1862 sensu lato (Holloway 1986).

i. Ploneta cotesi (Swinhoe, 1893)

Thosea cotesi Swinhoe, 1893, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6)12: 211. Type locality: “Darang, Assam”.

Record: None.

Distribution: Bhutan (Dudgeon 1900), northeastern India.

Remarks: Recorded in Bhutan by Dudgeon (1900). Not recorded during the present study.

 

 

Conclusion

 

 

The studies on Lepidoptera fauna in Bhutan are in the initial stages, thus data deficient. The present study provides a preliminary checklist on the family Limacodidae of Bhutan, which reports the presence of six genera and twelve species as new records for Bhutan. This family is also a very important pest and defoliators of many plant species. As an agricultural based country, it becomes a necessity to understand the ecology and pest status of this family of moths in Bhutan. The lack of available literature on Lepidoptera fauna particularly of Bhutan creates a gap in understanding the diversity, ecology and their importance in Bhutan. Research initiatives and funding from public and private initiatives on Lepidoptera studies is advisable to encourage the study on this magnificent group of insects.

 

 

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