Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 July 2016 | 8(7): 9014–9023

 

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A first note on foliicolous lichens of Assam, India

 

Pooja Gupta 1 & G.P. Sinha 2

 

1,2 Botanical Survey of India, Central Regional Centre, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh 211002, India

1 poojaguptafri09@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 drgpsinha@gmail.com

 

 

 

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/jott.1882.8.7.9014-9023

 

Editor: Sanjeeva Nayaka, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India. Date of publication: 26 July 2016 (online & print)

 

Manuscript details: Ms # 1882 | Received 30 May 2015 | Final received 14 June 2016 | Finally accepted 01 July 2016

 

Citation: Gupta, P. & G.P. Sinha (2016). A first note on foliicolous lichens of Assam, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 90149023; http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/jott.1882.8.7.9014-9023

 

Copyright: © Gupta & Sinha 2016. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.

 

Funding: The work was carried out in All India Co-ordinated Project on Taxonomy (AICOPTAX) under financial assistance from

Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change, New Delhi.

 

Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Acknowledgements: The authors are thankful to Dr. Paramjit Singh, Director, Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata, for providing facilities and to the Ministry of Environment, Forests, & Climate Change, New Delhi for financial assistance under the All India Co–ordinated Project on Taxonomy (AICOPTAX).

 

 

Abstract: A first note on foliicolous lichens of Assam enumerating 26 species belonging to 15 genera and eight families are provided. Four species viz., Bacidina apiahica, Byssoloma chlorinum, Calopadia fusca and Strigula nitidula are reported for the first time from Assam. A number of rare species are present, including Aulaxina uniseptata, Calenia aspidota and Psorotheciopsis patellarioides.

Keywords: Assam, foliicolous lichens, new records.

Lichens inhabiting on living leaves belong to a wide range of systematic groups, comprising ca. 925 species worldwide and ca. 136 species in India (Awasthi 2010). Publications on the lichen mycota of Assam are mainly restricted to corticolous and saxicolous species (Rout et al. 2005, 2010; Sinha et al. 2013) and a comprehensive study on foliicolous lichens is unavailable except for a few sporadic records (Santesson 1952; Gupta & Sinha 2014; Singh & Pinokiyo 2014) although the state is well known for its tea gardens which have perennial leaves to support the growth of foliicolous lichens. This is the first report on foliicolous lichens from Assam enumerating 26 species with four additional records, viz., Bacidina apiahica, Byssoloma chlorinum, Calopadia fusca and Strigula nitidula, for Assam. These findings will lead to further research on foliicolous lichens and contribute to a better knowledge of their distribution in Assam as well as in India.

Materials and Methods

This study was based on freshly collected specimens from the state, deposited in the herbarium of Botanical Survey of India, Central Regional Centre, Allahabad (BSA) except for one report from the literature (Calenia aspidota). Species were identified mainly with the help of keys and descriptions provided by Santesson (1952) and Lücking (2008). All observations concerning morphological and anatomical details of thalii and ascomata were examined using an Olympus SZ61 Stereo microscope and a Nikon Eclipse 50i compound microscope. Squash preparations were studied in water or KOH solution (K) and the amyloid reactions were tested with Lugol’s reagents, without (I) or with pre-treatment of KOH (K/I). A key to the species is provided for easy identification along with alphabetical enumeration of all taxa. The species marked by an asterisk (*) are additions to the lichen mycota of Assam.

1. Asterothyrium microsporum R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 320. 1952; Gupta & Sinha, Geophytology 44(1): 69. 2014. (Asterothyriaceae)

Specimen examined: 5521B (BSA), 20.iv.2010, Assam, Manas Tiger Reserve, coll. G.P. Sinha & Pooja Gupta.

Description: Thallus crustose, smooth, dispersed into rounded, confluent patches, light silvery grey to white; apothecia rounded, immersed-erumpent, 0.1–1 mm diam.; disc plane, pale yellow; margin thin, black, prominent, irregularly dissected; excipulum 6–9 μm thick; hymenium colourless, 40–45 μm high; asci 25–42 × 4–6 μm; ascospores fusiform-ellipsoid, transversely 1–septate, 7–13 × 2–6 μm.

Range of distribution: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Paraguay (Lücking et al. 2008), Bolivia (Flakus & Lücking 2008), Venezuela (Neuwirth 2007), and India (Assam).

2. Aulaxina uniseptata R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upasal. 12(1): 298. 1952; Singh & Pinokiyo, Indian J. Forest. Addl. Ser. 4: 183–184. 2014. (Gomphillaceae)

Specimen examined: 5521A (BSA), 20.iv.2010, Assam, Manas Tiger Reserve, Mathanguri, up to 20 km area, coll. G.P. Sinha & Pooja Gupta.

Description: Thallus crustose, smooth to rough, irregular in outline, greenish-grey; apothecia rounded, adnate, crater-like, 0.2–0.3 mm diam.; disc plane, epruinose; thalline margin distinct, prominent, black; hymenium colourless, 30–35 μm high; asci 20–25 × 6–8 μm; ascospores ellipsoid, transversely 1–septate, 6–9 × 2.5–3 μm.

Range of distribution: Brazil, Germany (Santesson 1952), and India (Assam).

*3. Bacidina apiahica (Müll. Arg.) Vězda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 25(4): 432. 1990; Singh & Pinokiyo, Indian J. Forest. Addl. Ser. 4: 212–214. 2014. Patellaria apiahica Müll. Arg., Lich. Epiph. Novi: 9. 1890. (Ramalinaceae) (Image 1).

Specimen examined: 3322D (BSA), 15.v.2006, Assam, Lakhimpur district, Koilamari, Koilamari T.E., coll. V.N. Singh.

Description: Thallus farinose, greenish-grey to pale green; apothecia rounded, 0.3–0.5 mm diam.; disc plane to slightly convex, pale yellow to orange-yellow; margin thin, evanescent, concolorous with disc or somewhat paler; excipulum 30–40 μm thick; hymenium colourless, 32–40 μm high; asci 30–38 × 5–7 μm; ascospores transversely 3 –septate, 22–38 × 1.5–2.0 μm.

Range of distribution: Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, New Zealand, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela (Lücking 2008), Australia (Lücking et al. 2001), Trinidad (Farkas & Hawksworth 2004), and India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Tamil Nadu).

*4. Byssoloma chlorinum (Vain.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 8: 233. 1932; Singh & Pinokiyo, Indian J. Forest. Addl. Ser. 4: 227–229. 2014. Pilocarpon chlorinum Vain., Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 12: 11. 1924. (Pilocarpaceae) (Image 2).

Specimen examined: 3322C (BSA), 15.v.2006, Assam, Lakhimpur District, Koilamari, Koilamari T.E., coll. V.N. Singh.

Description: Thallus crustose, minutely farinose to granulose, pale green; apothecia rounded, 0.2–0.7 mm diam.; disc plane, dark brown to brown black; margin well–developed, densely byssoid, persistent and spreading laterally over thallus surface, white; excipulum 40–90 μm thick; hymenium colourless, 45–50 μm high; asci 30–40 × 8–12 μm; ascospores oblong –ellipsoid, transversely 3–septate, 12–15 × 3–3.5 μm.

Range of distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Florida, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru, Paraguay Society Islands (Lücking 2008), Australia (Lücking et al. 2001), and India (Andaman Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland).

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5. Calenia aspidota (Vain.) Vĕzda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 19(2): 195. 1984; Singh & Pinokiyo, Indian J. Forest. Addl. Ser. 4: 184–186. 2014. Ectolechia aspidota Vain. in Hiern, Cat. Welw. Afr. Pl. 2: 428. 1901. (Gomphillaceae)

Description: Thallus crustose, dispersed into rounded patches, white; apothecia rounded to slightly irregular in outline, immersed, 0.2–0.5 mm diam.; disc yellowish-grey but often with white pruina; margin distinct, strongly prominent, white; excipulum 5–15 μm thick; hymenium colourless, 60–90 μm high; asci 50–85 × 15–32 μm; ascospores oblong to ellipsoid, muriform, 40–80 × 15–35 μm.

The species was first reported from India (Assam, Tingah Bam Jungle, near Naga Hills, 1899 Prain’s collectors, Pothos cathartii: UPS) by Santesson (1952) as Gyalectidium aspidatum. It is included here on the basis of the earlier record.

Range of distribution: Brazil, Costa Rica, Cuba, Mexico (Lücking 2008), and India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Tamil Nadu).

*6. Calopadia fusca Vězda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 21: 208. 1986; Singh & Pinokiyo, Indian J. Forest. Addl. Ser. 4: 236–237. 2014. (Pilocarpaceae) (Image 3).

Specimen examined: 5523B (BSA), 20.iv.2010, Assam, Manas Tiger Reserve, coll. G.P. Sinha & Pooja Gupta.

Description: Thallus crustose, smooth, greenish, dispersed into rounded confluent patches; apothecia rounded, sessile, constricted at base, 0.2–0.5 mm diam.; disc plane, brown, epruinose; margin distinct, grey; excipulum 30–65 μm thick; hymenium colourless, 150–200 μm high; asci 100–120 × 35–45 μm; ascospores oblong, muriform, 82–100 × 20–38 μm.

Range of distribution: Angola, Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama, Peru, U.S.A., Venezuela (Lücking 2008), Australia (Lücking et al. 2001), Bolivia (Flakus & Lücking 2008), and India (Andaman Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland and Tamil Nadu).

7. Calopadia subcoerulenscens (Zahlbr.) Vězda, Sched. Lich. Sel. Exs., Fasc. 88: 3, no. 2185. 1988; Singh & Pinokiyo, Indian J. Forest. Addl. Ser. 4: 242–244. 2014. Lopadium subcoerulescens Zahlbr. in Zahlbr. & al., Trans. Proc. New Zealand Inst. 59: 312. 1928. (Pilocarpaceae) (Image 4).

Specimen examined: 5523A (BSA), 20.iv.2010, Assam, Manas Tiger Reserve, coll. G.P. Sinha & Pooja Gupta.

Description: Thallus crustose, smooth, dispered into rounded, confluent patches, pale grey; apothecia rounded, 0.2–0.5 mm diam.; disc plane to somewhat convex, black; margin thin, grey, base aeruginous; excipulum 16–20 μm thick; hymenium colourless, 85–90 μm high; asci 65–75 × 20–25 μm; ascospores ellipsoid, muriform, 70–85 × 20–25 μm.

Range of distribution: Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guyana, French Guiana, Honduras, Leeward Island, Mexico, U.S.A. (Lücking 2008), Australia (Lücking et al. 2001), Venezuela (Neuwirth 2007), Vietnam (Nguyen et al. 2011), and India (Andaman Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal).

8. Coenogonium dilucidum (Kremp.) Kalb & Lücking, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 122: 29. 2000; Singh & Pinokiyo, Indian J. Forest. Addl. Ser. 4: 201–202. 2014. Lecidea dilucida Kremp., J. Mus. Godeffroy 1(4): 103. 1873. (Coenogoniaceae) (Image 5).

Specimen examined: 3273B (BSA), 15.v.2006, Assam, Lakhimpur district, Seajuli T. E., coll. V.N. Singh.

Description: Thallus crustose, slightly verrucose, smooth, green; apothecia rounded, sessile, attached to the substratum, 0.15–0.8 mm diam.; disc plane-concave, yellowish-brown, slightly translucent; margin prominent, smooth, concolorous with disc; excipulum 12–15 μm thick; hymenium colourless, I+ blue, 35–50 μm high; asci 40–45 × 3–3.5 μm; ascospores ellipsoid, transversely 1-septate, 9–12 × 2–3 μm.

Range of distribution: Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Thailand (Lücking 2008), and India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Assam).

9. Coenogonium interplexum Nyl., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., Ser. 4, 16: 92. 1862; Gupta & Sinha, Geophytology 44(1): 70. 2014. (Coenogoniaceae)

Specimen examined: 3271A (BSA), 15.v.2006, Assam, Lakhimpur district, Koilamari T. E., coll. V.N. Singh.

Description: Thallus filamentous, filaments 0.1–1.5 mm long, forming 3–5 mm across loose mats on substrate, yellowish-green; apothecia rounded, sessile to shortly stipitate, 0.3–0.6 mm diam.; disc plane, yellow to pale orange; margin thin, not prominent, smooth, light–brown; excipulum 14–18 μm thick; hymenium colourless, 46–57 μm high; asci 46–48 × 5–7 μm; ascospores ellipsoid, transversely 1-septate, 6–9 × 2–3 μm.

Range of distribution: Brazil, Costa Rica, French Guiana, Guyana (Lücking 2008), and India (Assam).

10. Coenogonium minimum (Müll. Arg.) Lücking, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 103: 572. 2008; Gupta & Sinha, Geophytology 44(1): 70. 2014. Biatorinopsis minima Müll. Arg. in Durand & Pittier, Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. 30: 74. 1891. (Coenogoniaceae)

Specimen examined: 5523F (BSA), 20.iv.2010, Assam, Manas Tiger Reserve, coll. G.P. Sinha & Pooja Gupta.

Description: Thallus crustose, smooth, greenish-grey; apothecia sessile, strongly constricted at the base, 0.1–0.18 mm diam; disc plane or slightly concave, light yellowish-brown; margin somewhat prominent, thin, pale yellow, smooth; excipulum 16–24 μm thick; hymenium colourless, 40–52 μm high; asci 35–42 × 9–12 μm; ascospores ellipsoidal-fusiform, transversely 1-septate, 10–12 × 3–4 μm.

Range of distribution: Costa Rica, Leeward Islands, Mexico, Panama (Lücking 2008), Venezuela (Neuwirth 2007), Vietnam (Nguyen et al. 2011), and India (Assam),

11. Echinoplaca marginata Lücking, Biblioth. Lichenol. 65: 57. 1997; Gupta & Sinha, Geophytology 44(1): 82. 2014. (Gomphillaceae)

Specimen examined: 5522C (BSA), 20.iv.2010, Assam, Manas Tiger Reserve, coll. G.P. Sinha & Pooja Gupta.

Description: Thallus crustose, uneven to finely verrucose, verrucae 0.07–0.5 mm diam., greyish-white; apothecia rounded, adnate, spot-like, sometimes bordered by a thin, white thalline margin 0.1–0.7 mm diam.; disc plane-convex, dark brownish-black; margin absent or thin, slightly prominent, white, thalline margin present; excipulum 12–28 μm thick; hymenium colourless, 52–85 μm high; asci 47–72 × 16–30 μm; ascospores ellipsoid-ovoid, muriform, 45–62 × 14–24 μm.

Range of distribution: Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Leeward Islands, Peru, Puerto Rico, Trininad, Tobago (Lücking 2008), Venezuela (Neuwirth 2007), and India (Assam).

12. Fellhanera bouteillei (Desm.) Vězda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 21: 214. 1986; Singh & Pinokiyo, Indian J. Forest. Addl. Ser. 4: 247–249. 2014. Parmelia bouteillei Desm., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 3 8: 191. 1847. (Gomphillaceae) (Image 6)

Specimen examined: 3273B (BSA), 15.v.2006. Assam, Lakhimpur district, Seajuli T. E., coll. V.N. Singh.

Description: Thallus crustose, granulose, pale bluish-grey; apothecia rounded, 0.1–0.3 mm diam.; disc plane-convex, yellowish-orange; margin thin, pale-whitish, smooth; excipulum 15–18 μm thick; hymenium colourless, 45–55 μm high; asci 38–50 × 10–15 μm; ascospores 10–14 × 2–4 μm.

Range of distribution: Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Colombia, Cuba, Eduador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, U.S.A. (Lücking 2008), and India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal).

13. Fellhanera semecarpi (Vain.) Vězda, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 21: 215. 1986; Singh & Pinokiyo, Indian J. Forest. Addl. Ser. 4: 251–254. 2014. Catillaria semecarpi Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., Ser. A, 15: 110. 1921. (Gomphillaceae)

Specimen examined: F746A, Assam, Kamrup district, Jhorabat hills, altitude 220m, Pinokiyo.

Description: Thallus crustose, smooth, dispersed into rounded patches, pale greenish-grey; apothecia rounded to slightly irregular in outline, 0.1–0.3 mm diam.; disc plane, ochraceous yellow to reddish-brown; margin thin, evanescent, pale grey; excipulum 10–12 μm thick; hymenium colourless, 45–50 μm high; asci 32–48 × 8–10 μm; ascospores oblong-ovoid, transversely 1-septate, 10–12 × 4–6 μm.

Range of distribution: Australia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, New Zealand, Paraguay, Philippines (Lücking 2008), Venezuela (Neuwirth 2007), Vietnam (Nguyen et al. 2011), and India (Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal).

14. Mazosia melanophthalma (Müll. Arg.) R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 117. 1952; Singh & Pinokiyo, Indian J. Forest. Addl. Ser. 4: 68–70. 2014. Opegrapha melanophthalma Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 348. 1883. (Roccellaceae)

Specimen Examined: 765 A, Assam, Kamrup district, Botahguli gaon, alt. 125m, Pinokiyo.

Description: Thallus crustose, finely verrucose, verrucae 0.05–0.1mm diam., slightly paler than thallus; apothecia rounded, 0.3–0.7 mm diam.; disc dark grey to black, translucent when moistened; margin gently sloping outwards; excipulum 10–15 μm thick; hymenium 50–75 μm high; asci 8-spored; ascospores fusiform, transversely 3-septate, 15–22 × 3–5 μm.

Range of distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, New Zealand, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, St. Vincent, Venezuela (Lücking 2008), Tanzania (Farkas 1987), and India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Kerala, Nagaland and Tamil Nadu).

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15. Porina karnatakensis Makhija, Adaw. & Patw., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 18(3): 538. 1994; Singh & Pinokiyo, Indian J. Forest. Addl. Ser. 4: 135–137. 2014. (Porinaceae) (Image 7)

Specimen examined: 3273B (BSA), 15.v.2006, Assam, Lakhimpur district, Seajuli T. E., coll. V.N. Singh.

Description: Thallus crustose, minutely verrucose, uneven, greenish-grey, calcium oxalate crystals present; perithecia conical to wart shaped, adnate, surface smooth, surrounded by thallus but with black dot around ostiole, 0.5–0.7 mm diam.; excipulum 10–12 μm thick; asci 58–70 × 13–16 μm; ascospores oblong to fusiform, transversely 7-septate, 24–26 × 3–3.5 μm.

Range of distribution: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Brunei, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Darussalam, Dominica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Honduras, Kenya, Mexico, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Peru, St. Vincent, Thailand, Vietnam (Lücking 2008), Bolivia (Flakus & Lücking 2008), Venezuela (Neuwirth 2007), and India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu).

16. Psorotheciopsis patellarioides (Rehm.) R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 336. 1952; Gupta & Sinha, Feddis Repert. 124: 154–156. 2013. Calloria patellarioides Rehm, Hedwigia 39: 85. 1900. (Asterothyriaceae)

Specimen examined: 3271B (BSA), 15.v.2006, Assam, Lakhimpur district, Koilamari T. E., coll. V.N. Singh.

Description: Thallus crustose, smooth, dispersed into rounded patches, white-silvery grey, incrusted with crystals, and each patch bordered by a thin, black line; apothecia rounded, sessile, constricted at the base, mostly appear from margin of the patch, 0.1–0.5 mm diam.; disc plane to slightly concave, yellowish-grey, translucent (especially when wet); margin thin, slightly prominent, minutely verruculose-dentate, black; excipulum 18–45 μm thick; hymenium colourless, 50–57 μm high; asci 28–40 × 4–6 μm; ascospores oblong –ellipsoid, transversely 1 –septate, 8–11 × 3–4 μm.

Range of distribution: Belgium Congo, Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Gold Coast, Mexico, New Guinea, Nigeria, Philippines, Togoland and Uganda (Lücking 2008), Australia (Lücking et al. 2001), and India (Assam).

17. Strigula antillarum (Fée) Müll. Arg., Bot. Jahrb. 6: 379. 1885; Singh & Pinokiyo, Indian J. Forest. Addl. Ser. 4: 84–85. 2014. Melanophthalmus antillarum Fée, Essai Crypt. Ecorc.: 94, 100, 1824. (Strigulaceae)

Specimen Examined: 775, Assam, Kamrup district, Rani Reserve forest, alt. 140–300 m, Pinokiyo.

Description: Thallus crustose, subcuticular, dispersed into rounded, confluent patches; perithecia hemispherical to wart-shaped, 0.3–0.5 mm diam., black; excipulum 7–12 μm thick; involucrellum carbonaceous, 20–30 μm thick; asci 60–70 × 8–11 μm; ascospores fusiform, transversely 1-septate, 15–25 × 4–6 μm.

Range of distribution: Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Meghalaya), Mexico, Panama, Peru (Lücking 2008), Bolivia (Flakus & Lücking 2008), and Australia (Lücking et al. 2001).

18. Strigula maculata (Cooke & Massee) R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 186. 1952; Singh & Pinokiyo, Indian J. Forest. Addl. Ser. 4: 88 90. 2014. Micropeltis maculata Cooke & Masse in Cooke, Grevillea 18: 35. 1889. (Strigulaceae)

Specimen Examined: 777, Assam, Kamrup district, Rani Reserve forest, alt. 140–300 m, Pinokiyo.

Description: Thallus crustose, subcuticular, forming thin, completely confluent lobes, typically with crenulate margins and individual lobes bordered by thin, black line; perithecia completely exposed but covered by a thin, thallus layer up to ostiole, conical, 0.3–0.5 mm diam., grayish to greenish-black; excipulum 10–15 μm thick; involucrellum carbonaceous, 15–30μm thick; asci 40–60 × 5–8 μm; ascospores oblong to bacillar, transversely 1-septate, 12–18 × 2.5–3.5 μm.

Range of distribution: Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Indonesia, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines (Lücking 2008), Australia (Lücking et al. 2001), Tanzania (Farkas 1987), and India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Kerala, Meghalaya, Sikkim and West Bengal).

19. Strigula nemathora Mont. in Sagra, Hist. Phys. Cuba, Bot., Pl. Cell.: 143. 1842; Singh & Pinokiyo, Indian J. Forest. Addl. Ser. 4: 94–96. 2014. (Strigulaceae)

Specimens Examined: 774, Assam, Kamrup district, Rani Reserve forest, alt. 140–300 m, Pinokiyo.

Description: Thallus crustose, subcuticular, forming thin to rather broad, radiating, often confluent lobes, minutely papillose; perithecia wart-shaped and often ridged, semi-immersed and covered by a thick thallus layer up to the ostiole, 0.4–0.7 mm diam., greenish-grey to white but upper part often darker grey; excipulum 10–15 μm thick; involucrellum colourless to pale brown, 20–40 μm thick; asci 70–100 × 7–10 μm; ascospores fusiform, transversely 1-septate, 15–22 × 4–6 μm.

Range of distribution: Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Trininad & Tobago, Venezuela, Vietnam (Lücking 2008), Tanzania (Farkas 1987), and India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Tamil Nadu).

*20. Strigula nitidula Mont. in Sagra, Hist. Phys. Cuba, Bot., Pl. Cell.: 184. 1842; Singh & Pinokiyo, Indian J. Forest. Addl. Ser. 4: 96–98. 2014. (Strigulaceae)

Specimen examined: 5523F (BSA), 20.iv.2010, Assam, Manas Tiger Reserve, coll. G.P. Sinha & Pooja Gupta.

Description: Thallus crustose, subcuticular, partly confluent patches, more rarely laciniate; perithecia wart-shaped to almost conical, completely exposed, 0.2–0.5 mm diam., black and shiny; excipulum 8–12 μm thick; involucrellum carbonaceous, 12–32 μm thick; asci 55–82 × 4–6 μm; ascospores ellipsoid, transversely 1–septate, 8–14 × 2–3 μm.

Range of distribution: Argentina, Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, Cuba, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Leeward Island, Mexico, Peru, Paraguay, Venezuela (Lücking 2008), Papua New Guinea (Lücking et al. 2001), Tanzania (Farkas 1987), and India (Andaman Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal).

21. Strigula orbicularis Fr., Linnaea 5: 549. 1830; Singh & Pinokiyo, Indian J. Forest. Addl. Ser. 4: 99–101. 2014. (Strigulaceae)

Specimen Examined: 763A, Assam, Kamrup district, Jhorabat hills, Pinokiyo.

Description: Thallus crustose, subcuticular, with crenulate or shortly lobulate margins and often furnished with white to yellow hairs, pale greyish-green; perithecia wart-shaped and typically with applanate top, semi-immersed and covered with thick thallus layer almost up to the ostiole, 0.2–0.3 mm diam., pale greyish-green to white but top usually with a black spot; excipulum 5–10 μm thick; involucrellum weakly carbonaceous, 10–20 μm thick; ascospores oblong, 3-septate, 14–24 × 4–6 μm.

Range of distribution: Angola, Brazil, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Haiti, Indonesia, Mexico, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Trininad & Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela (Lücking 2008), Bolivia (Flakus & Lücking 2008), and India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Kerala and Meghalaya).

22. Strigula phyllogena (Müll. Arg.) R.C. Harris, More Florida Lichens: 159. 1995; Singh & Pinokiyo, Indian J. Forest. Addl. Ser. 4: 101 103. 2014. Porina phyllogena Müll. Arg., Flora 66: 335. 1883. (Strigulaceae) (Image 8)

Specimen examined: 5523(BSA), 20.iv.2010, Assam, Manas Tiger Reserve, coll. G.P. Sinha & Pooja Gupta.

Description: Thallus crustose, smooth, greenish-grey; perithecia conical, exposed, sometimes covered by a thin thallus layer, 0.2–0.5 mm diam., black; excipulum 8–10 μm thick; involucrellum carbonaceous, 15–20 μm thick; asci 20–30 × 4–6 μm; ascospores fusiform-ellipsoid, transversely 1–septate, 8–10 × 2–2.5 μm.

Range of distribution: Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Surinam, Venezuela (Lücking 2008), and India (Andaman Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal).

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23. Strigula smaragdula Fr., Linnaea 5: 550. 1830; Singh & Pinokiyo, Indian J. Forest. Addl. Ser. 4: 103–105. 2014. (Strigulaceae) (Image 9)

Specimen examined: 3273A (BSA), 15.v.2006, Assam, Lakhimpur district, Seajuli T. E., coll. V.N. Singh.

Description: Thallus crustose, dispersed into rounded to irregular, partly confluent patches, bright green; perithecia hemispherical, immersed-errumpent, covered by thallus tissue up to the ostiole, 0.2–0.5 mm diam., black; excipulum 10–15 μm thick; involucrellum carbonaceous, 20–25 μm thick; asci 50–60 × 8–10 μm; ascospores fusiform, transversely 1–septate, 12–20 × 4–5 μm.

Range of distribution: Angola, Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Cameroon, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Indonesia, Japan, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mexico, Nepal, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Sri Lanka, Surinam, Trininad & Tobago, U.S.A., Venezuela, Virgin Islands (Lücking 2008), Australia (Lücking et al. 2001), and India (Andaman Islands, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal).

24. Strigula subelegans Vain., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., Ser. A, 19: 23. 1923; Singh & Pinokiyo, Indian J. Forest. Addl. Ser. 4: 106–107. 2014. (Strigulaceae) (Image 10)

Specimen examined: 3322B (BSA), 15.v.2006, Assam, Lakhimpur district, Koilamari, Koilamari T.E., coll. V.N. Singh.

Description: Thallus crustose, smooth dispersed into rounded, pale greenish-grey, partly confluent patches, white, lacking black line; perithecia rounded, immersed–errumpent, 0.3–0.5 mm diam., excipulum 8–10 μm thick; involucrellum carbonaceous, 20–22 μm thick; hymenium colourless, 32–40 μm high; asci 48–57 × 10–12 μm; ascospores ellipsoid–fusiform, transversely 1-septate, 12–20 × 3–3.5 μm.

Range of distribution: Brazil, Costa Rica, French Guiana, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rica (Lücking 2008), Australia (Lücking et al. 2001), and India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal)

25. Tricharia farinosa R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 387. 1952; Gupta & Sinha, Geophytology 44(1): 84. 2014. (Pilocarpaceae)

Specimen examined: 5523E (BSA), 20.iv.2010, India, Assam, Manas Tiger Reserve, G.P. Sinha & Pooja Gupta.

Description: Thallus crustose, coarsely verrucose due to incrustation with calcium oxalate crystals, white, furnished with black, tapering 0.8–1 mm long hairs; apothecia rounded, sessile, strongly constricted at the base, 0.3–0.6 mm diam.; disc plane to slightly concave, with brown farinose covering; margin slightly prominent; hymenium colourless, 78–92 μm high; asci 72–92 × 20–28 μm; ascospores ellipsoid-oblong, muriform, 68–84 × 18–25 μm.

Range of distribution: Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Columbia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Guatemala, Venezuela (Lücking 2008), India (Assam).

26. Tricharia vainioi R. Sant., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 382. 1952; Singh & Pinokiyo, Indian J. Forest. Addl. Ser. 4: 199 200. 2014. (Pilocarpaceae)

Specimen examined: 767, Assam, Kamrup district, Botaguli Goan, alt. 200m, Pinokiyo.

Description: Thallus crustose, smooth and lacking calcium oxalate crystals, with numerous, sterile setae, pale greenish-grey; setae 0.5–1 mm long, black; apothecia rounded, sessile, 0.3–0.5 mm diam.; disc plane, yellowish-brown to brown, slightly translucent; margin thin, not prominent, smooth, brown to dark brown; excipulum 10–30 μm thick; hymenium colourless, 50–70 μm high; asci 50–70 × 20–30 μm; ascospores ellipsoid, muriform, 35–65 × 15–28 μm.

Range of distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Malaysia, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, tropical Africa, U.S.A. (Lücking 2008), Australia (Lücking et al. 2001), Venezuela (Neuwirth 2007), and India (Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland).

References

Awasthi, D.D. (2010). Foliicolous lichens of the world. A review. Volume 12. Indian Journal of Forestry, Additional Series 2. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, India, vii+133pp.

Farkas, E. (1987). Foliicolous lichens of the Usambara Mountain, Tanzania I. Lichenologist 19(1): 43–59.

Farkas, E. & D.L. Hawksworth (2004). New foliicolous lichen records from two different habit in Trinidad. Caribbean Journal of Science 40(3): 399–401.

Flakus, A. & R. Lücking (2008). New species and additional records of foliicolous lichenized fungi from Bolivia. Lichenologist 40(5): 423–436; http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0024282908007378

Gupta, P. & G.P. Sinha (2014). New records of Foliicolous Lichens from India. Geophytology 44(1): 81–84.

Gupta, P. G.P. Sinha & C.M. Solanki (2013). Epiphytic lichens in Tea Gardens of Assam, India. Indian Journal of Forestry 36(2): 279–284.

Lücking, R. (2008). Foliicolous Lichenized Fungi. Flora of Neotropica (Monograph) 103: 1–867.

Lücking, R., H. Streimann & A.E. John (2001). Further records of foliicolous lichens and lichenicolous fungi from Australia, with an update checklist for continental Australia. Lichenologist 33(3): 195–210; http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/lich.2000.0316

Lücking, R., E. Serusiaux, L.C. Maias & E.C.G. Pereira (1998). A revision of the names of foliicolous lichenized fungi published by Batista and co-workers between 1960 and 1975. Lichenologist 30(2): 121–191.

Neuwirth, G. (2007). Foliicolous lichens from Venezuela with new or remarkable records. Herzogia 20: 319–326.

Nguyen, T.T., Y. Joshi, R. Lücking, A.D. Nguyen, X.Y. Wang, Y.J. Koh & J.S. Hur (2011). Seven new records of foliicolous lichens from Vietnam. Mycotaxon 117: 93–99; http://dx.doi.org/10.5248/117.93

Rout, J., P. Das & D.K. Upreti (2010). Epiphytic lichen diversity in a Reserve Forest in south Assam, northeast India. Tropical Ecology 51(2): 281–288.

Rout, J., R. Rongmei & P. Das (2005). Epiphytic lichen flora of a pristine habitat (NIT Campus) in Southern Assam, India. Phytotaxonomy 5: 117–119.

Santesson, R. (1952). Foliicolous lichens I. A revision of the taxonomy of the obligately foliicolous lichenized fungi. Volume 12 – Symbolae Botanicae. Upsalienses (1): 590pp.

Sinha, G.P., P. Gupta, T.A.M.J. Ram & C.M. Solanki (2013). A contribution to the lichen flora of Assam, India. Indian Journal of Forestry 36(3): 393–400.

Singh, K.P. & A. Pinokiyo (2014). Foliicolous lichens of India. Indian Journal of Forestry, Additional Series 4(1). Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, India, v+335pp.

 

Key to the foliicolous lichen species of Assam

1a. Ascomata apothecia …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………….. 2

1b. Ascomata perithecia …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…………………… 18

2a. Apothecia immersed-erumpent ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

2b. Apothecia otherwise ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6

3a. Thallus ecorticate or cortex cartilaginous or formed by an irregular layer of rounded cells ………………………………………… 4

3b. Thallus with distinct cortex formed by rectangular, dead cells in regularly radiate visible plates above; ascospores often

thick walled ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5

4a. Thallus finely verrucose ………………………………………………..................……………………………………. Mazosia melanophthalma

4b. Thallus smooth …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Aulaxina uniseptata

5a. Apothecia immersed, zeorine; excipulum I+ red ……………………………………………………………… Asterothyrium microsporum

5b. Apothecia sessile, lecideine; excipulum I- ……………………………………………………………………… Psorotheciopsis patellarioides

6a. Apothecia spot–like, not raised over the thallus, emarginated ………………………………………………. Echinoplaca marginata

6b. Apothecia sessile ………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………... 7

7a. Hyphophores present ....………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………. 8

7b. Hyphophores absent ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10

8a. Setae or hairs pale or white ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Calenia aspidota

8b. Setae or hairs black .............………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………… 9

9a. Ascospores large, 68–84 × 18–25 μm ……………………………………………………………………………………………… Tricharia farinosa

9b. Ascospores smaller, 34–48 × 12–28 μm ………………………………………………………………………………….………… Tricharia vainioi

10a. Photobiont Trentepohlia; asci entirely thin-walled, unitunicate, I– or I+ bluish-brownish; paraphyses unbranched,

distinct ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...… 11

10b. Photobiont chlorococcoid; asci apically thick-walled, lecanoroid, I+ bluish; paraphyses usually branched or

anastomosing, indistinct ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….........………… 13

11a. Thallus filamentous or densely pilose ………………………………………………………………….....………… Coenogonium interplexum

11b. Thallus crustose ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12

12a. Apothecia pale-yellow to orange–brown; ascospores 9–12 × 2–3 μm ……………………………………… Coenogonium dilucidum

12b. Apothecia light brown, wax coloured; ascospores 10–12 × 3–4 μm ……………………………………… Coenogonium minimum

13a. Conidiomata campylidia ……………………………………………………………………………………………......…………………………….……… 14

13b. Conidiomata pycnidia ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….....……………………………… 15

14a. Apothecial disc dark brown; spores 82–100 × 20–38 μm ……………………………………………………….....……… Calopadia fusca

14b. Apothecial disc greenish-black; spores 70–85 × 20–25 μm ………………………………......………… Calopadia subcoerulenscens

15a. Ascospores bacillary ……………...………………………………………………………………………………....…………....……… Bacidina apiahica

15b. Ascospores oblong-ellipsoid …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16

16a. Apothecia with byssoid margin …………………………………………………………………………………………………… Byssoloma chlorinum

16b. Apothecia with compact margin ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17

17a. Thallus with distinguished bluish-tinge, sorediate ………………………………………………………………………… Fellhanera bouteillei

17b. Thallus without bluish-tinge, esorediate …………………………………………………………………………………… Fellhanera semecarpi

18a. Asci functionally unitunicate, entirely thin-walled ……………………………………………………………...……… Porina karnatakensis

18b. Asci functionally bitunicate (fissitunicate), apically thick-walled ………………………………………………………...........…………… 19

19a. Thallus supracuticular, smooth, easily separable from leaf ………………………………………..………………… Strigula phyllogena

19b. Thallus subcuticular, not separable from leaf…………………………………………………………………………..................……………… 20

20a. Involucrellum colourless ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Strigula nemathora

20b. Involucrellum black …...........…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21

21a. Perithecia wart shaped; ascospores 3-septate ………………………………………………………...……………………… Strigula orbicularis

21b. Perithecia conical; ascospores 1-septate …………………………………………………………………………………..........................……… 22

22a. Thallus thicker, pale greenish-grey to bright green, thallus lobes without black line …………….............................……… 23

22b. Thallus very thin, green to dark green or greenish-brown, thallus lobes with black line ……….............................……… 25

23a. Thallus pale greenish-to bluish-grey …………………………………………………………………………………………….... Strigula subelegans

23b. Thallus bright green ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….................………… 24

24a. Perithecia exposed, black; ascospore one cell enlarged …………………………………………………………………… Strigula antillarum

24b. Perithecia covered by thallus tissue, dark green, Upper part black ………………………………………...…… Strigula smaragdula

25a. Perithecia pure black, totally exposed; ascospores 8–14 μm long, uniseriate ……………………...…………… Strigula nitidula

25b. Perithecia greish-black, covered by thin thallus layer; ascospores 14–24 μm long, biseriate ............... Strigula maculata