Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 July 2016 | 8(7): 9027–9029
Tahsinur Rahman Shihan
Junior Wildlife Researcher, Department of Zoology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh
Present address: Belgachi Railgate Para, Chuadanga, Bangladesh
Editor: Sanjay Sondhi, Titli Trust, Dehradun, India. Date of publication: 26 July 2016 (online & print)
Manuscript details: Ms # 1813 | Received 10 January 2016 | Final received 01 July 2016 | Finally accepted 03 July 2016
Citation: Shihan, T.R. (2016). A confirmation of the occurrence of Euploea sylvester hopei Felder & Felder, 1865 (Double-branded Blue Crow) from Kaptai National Park, Rangamati District, Bangladesh. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(7): 9027–9029; 9027-9029
Copyright: © Shihan 2016. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the author and the source of publication.
Funding: Monitoring and Conservation of Wildlife in Kaptai National Park of Bangladesh Project.
Conflict of Interest: The author declares no competing interests.
Acknowledgements: The author is grateful to Dr. M. Monirul H. Khan, Shihab Khaledin Aungkur, Mohammed Arif Hossain Prodhan, Dr. Md. Mofizul Kabir, Dr. Md. Kamrul Hasan, Bayezid Khan, Nimus Sadat Khan and Rahul Basak.
The Double-branded Blue Crow Euploea sylvester hopei Felder & Felder, 1865 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae) is a member of the genus Euploea Fabricius, 1807 and ranges through South Asia, Southeast Asia and parts of Australia.
Previously Euploea sylvester hopei was reported by Larsen (2004) in Bangladesh from Sylhet, the northeastern part and Bengalia (part of Bangladesh, with the location not clearly mentioned). Larsen (2004) also mentioned that it should occur in the eastern part of Bangladesh. However, the distribution of this species as recorded from the Indian subcontinent is listed as eastern Nepal to Arunachal, West Bengal, Sikkim, northeastern India and Burma to the southern Shan States (Evans 1932; Talbot 1947; Wynter-Blyth 1957; Larsen 2004; Kunte et al. 2012; Varshney & Smetacek 2015; Anonymous 2016). But there are no recent published records of this species from Bangladesh (Ahmad et al. 2009; Chowdhury & Hossain 2013; Khandokar et al. 2013; Bashar 2014; Feeroz 2014; Hossain et al. 2014).
Other closely related subspecies, Euploea sylvester coreta is known from Dhaka (as coreoides Moore 1877; Alam 1962). It ranges from southern India to northern Maharashtra and northern Andhra Pradesh and Evans (1927) mentioned it was “not rare”.
Chowdhury & Mohiuddin (2003) reported Euploea sylvester harrisii in Rangamati, Bangladesh. It ranges from Karen Hills to southern Myanmar, is reported as “not rare” and a “straggler” in the Andamans (Evans 1932). Another subspecies of Euploea sylvester was recorded as Euploea sylvester montana (= lankana) in Sri Lanka as “common” (Evans 1932; Talbot 1947; Wynter-Blyth 1957).
A field study was conducted from 12 June to 14 June 2014 in the Kaptai National Park to survey butterflies. Kaptai National Park is situated in Kaptai, Rangamati District, Bangladesh (22030’08”N & 92016’02”E) (Nishorgo 2007). The park was originally a natural mixed semi-evergreen forest in the hills, but most of the natural forests were replaced by Tectona grandis (Teak) plantation by the British in 1873. The area was declared a National Park by the Government of Bangladesh in 1999. Other than mixed evergreen forests and plantations, the area has diverse habitats for butterflies.
During the course of a field visit to the Park, the author recorded an individual of Euploea sylvester hopei on 14 June 2014 at the Rampahar balurchar (22030’29.57”N & 92011’36.60”E) in Kaptai National Park of Rangamati District, Bangladesh (Image 1). The male individual was caught at 12:40+6GMT and photographed (Images 2−4). Two other individuals of the subspecies were observed during the field visit period, suggesting that this is not a common species in that area. However, no specimens were collected, due to a lack of collection permits.
According to Talbot (1947), a comparison of three subspecies of “Euploea sylvester” is as follows:
Euploea sylvester coreta Godart, 1819: Upperside dark brown, paler over the discal areas. Forewing with a sub-marginal series of yellowish-white spots. Blue gloss absent.
Euploea sylvester harrisi Felder & Felder, 1865: Upperside dark velvety brown. Fore wing glossed with blue form base to upper margin; a sub-marginal series of bright blue spots; an ante-marginal series of dots, not extending above veins 4 or 5. Hind wing only glossed with blue over the disc; sub-marginal and ante-marginal series of white spots, the latter smaller and the series generally incomplete. Underside dark umber brown. Fore wing slightly glossed with blue over the disc; markings as on upperside, but with the following additional spots on both wings: A spot at apex of cell; five to seven bluish-white discal spots, one or more being minute or absent. Antennae black; head, thorax and abdomen dark brown, the head and thorax slightly and minutely spotted with white.
Euploea sylvester hopei Felder & Felder, 1865: Upperside of fore wing in addition to sub-marginal and ante-marginal spot with harrisi, a spot in apex of cell, and a row of from two to seven discal spots. Hind wing with the sub-marginal and ante-marginal spots reduced to two or three apical ones. Underside of both wings with the sub-marginal and ante-marginal spots reduced to dots, the former commencing at the tornus and not reaching the apex.
The observed individuals match with the description of Euploea sylvester hopei and there is no doubt about the identity of the butterfly, since the characteristic double brands and other distinguished spots and dots are clearly visible in the forewing and hind wing.
The current record extends the known distribution of the subspecies to eastern Bangladesh and confirms what was already suspected (Larsen 2004). However, it is worthy of note in that there is now a known locality for the subspecies in Bangladesh in addition to Sylhet in northeastern Bangladesh (Larsen 2004).
The community of butterfly species of Kaptai National Park is still unknown and the discovery of this butterfly there suggests that there are further discoveries to be made in that area.
Ahmad, M., S.M.H. Kabir, A.T.A. Ahmed, Z.U. Ahmed, M.A. Hassan, Z.N.T. Begum & M. Khondker (eds.) (2009). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh - Vol. 21(III). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, xxxxix+460pp.
Alam, M.Z. (1962). The butterflies of Dhaka. The Scientist 5: 1–12.
Anonymous (2016). Euploea sylvester Fabricius, 1793 - Double-branded Crow. In: Kunte, K., P. Roy, S. Kalesh & U. Kodandaramaiah (eds.). Butterflies of India, v. 2.21. Indian Foundation for Butterflies. Downloaded on 07 February 2016.
Bashar, M.A. (2014). Butterflies of Bangladesh. A Broad Approach for Nature Lovers - Vol 1. (Papilionidae, Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Danaidae and Lycaenidae). Biodiversity Conservation Trust Foundation, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh, xii+514pp.
Chowdhury, S.H. & M. Hossain (2013). Butterflies of Bangladesh - A Pictorial Handbook (Revised and enlarged version I). Skylark Printers. Dhaka, Bangladesh, 260pp.
Chowdhury, S.H. & M. Mohiuddin (2003). Butterflies of the eastern border of Bangladesh - a checklist. University Journal of Zoology, Rajshahi University 22: 1–9.
Evans, W.H. (1927). The Identification of Indian Butterflies. Bombay Natural History Society, Madras, 318pp.
Evans, W.H. (1932). The Identification of Indian Butterflies - 2nd Edition. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, 454pp.
Feeroz, M.M. (eds.) (2014). Biodiversity of Chunati Wildlife Sanctuary: Fauna. Arannyak Foundation and Bangladesh Forest Department, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 200pp.
Hossain, M., M.S.A. Habib, M.S. Islam, S. Saif, A. Bhattacharjee, K.F. Iqubal & M.M.M. Jewel (2014). Butterflies of Bangladesh. Inventory - Third Phase. Jibon bikash karjocrom, Dhaka, 91pp.
Khandokar, F., M. Rashid, D.K. Das & M. Hossain (2013). Species diversity and abundance of Butterflies in the Lawachara National Park, Bangladesh. Jahangirnagar University Journal of Biological Sciences 2(2): 121–127.
Kunte, K., S. Sondhi, B.M. Sangma, R. Lovalekar, K. Tokekar & G. Agavekar (2012). Butterflies of the Garo Hills of Meghalaya, northeastern India: their diversity and conservation. Journal of Threatened Taxa 4(10): 2933–2992;
Larsen, T.B. (2004). Butterflies of Bangladesh - An Annotated Checklist. IUCN Bangladesh Country Office, Dhaka, 147pp.
Nishorgo Support Project (2007). Protected Areas of Bangladesh: A Visitor Guide. Nishorgo Program, Bangladesh Forest Department, Dhaka, 2p. www.nishorgo.com
Talbot, G. (1947). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma: Butterflies, Vol. 2. Taylor and Francis, London, 506pp
Varshney, R.K. & P. Smetacek (eds.) (2015). A Synoptic Catalogue of the Butterflies of India. Butterfly Research Centre, Bhimtal and Indinov Publishing, New Delhi, ii+261pp.
Wynter-Blyth, M.A. (1957). Butterflies of the Indian Region. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, 523pp.