Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 August 2016 | 8(9): 9195–9197
H. Ahnelt 1,2
1 University of Vienna, Department of Theoretical Biology, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria
2 Natural History Museum in Vienna, Ichthyology Collection, Burgring 7, 1010 Vienna, Austria
Editor: Jörg Freyhof, Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany. Date of publication: 26 August 2016 (online & print)
Manuscript details: Ms # 2055 | Received 23 January 2016 | Final received 11 August 2016 | Finally accepted 14 August 2016
Citation: Ahnelt, H. (2016). A second record of Knipowitschia byblisia Ahnelt, 2011 (Teleostei: Perciformes: Gobiidae) from southwestern Anatolia, Turkey. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(9): 9195–9197; 9195-9197
Copyright: © Ahnelt 2016. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.
Conflict of Interest: The author declares no competing interests.
Acknowledgements: Technical support was provided by D. Ramler. The English was corrected by T. Peterson.
Abstract: Knipowitschia byblisia Ahnelt, 2011 is only known from the single record from the small coastal brackish lake Köycegiz, Turkey. The present record from a brook in the city of Marmaris (Province Mugla, southwestern Turkey) is the second record of this dwarf goby. This is the western most record of this species, the first outside of the Köycegiz-Dalyan watershed and the first from fresh waters.
Keywords: Freshwater, Gobiidae, Knipowitschia byblisia, mediterra-nean region, Turkey.
Abbreviations: D - posterior interorbital pore; E - dorsal postorbital pore; F - ventral postorbital pore; SL - standard length.
Five species of the genus Knipowitschia Iljin, 1927 occur in western and southern continental Anatolia. Three species are known from the Anatolian Aegean watershed: Knipowitschia caucasica (Berg, 1916), K. ephesi Ahnelt, 1995 and K. mermere Ahnelt, 1995; two species from the Anatolian Mediterranean Sea watershed, K. byblisia Ahnelt, 2011 and K. caunosi Ahnelt, 2011 (Ahnelt 1995, 2011; van Neer 1999; Fricke et al. 2007) (Fig. 1). Except for K. caucasica all of the species listed above are endemic in western and southwestern Anatolia and known only from isolated habitats (Ahnelt et al. 1995; Ahnelt 1995, 2011; Turan et al. 2005).
Knipowitschia byblisia is only known from Lake Köycegiz, an enclosed water body and a highly sensitive and vulnerable ecosystem (Bann & Basak 2013; Baloch et al. 2015). This goby was recently listed from the outflow of Lake Köycegiz (Geiger et al. 2015).
This study reports a new record of K. byblisia, the first record from fresh water, the first from outside of the Köycegiz-Dalyan watershed and the western most appearance of this species from the sand goby group.
Naturhistorisches Museum in Wien, NMW 98608,14, one male, 18.3mm SL; three females, 25.7–26.3 mm SL; 10 juveniles, 9.0–16.9 mm SL; 14 April 1964, small brook in Marmaris (36051’N & 28016’E), southwestern Turkey; Josef Eiselt (Table 1; Image 1).
Knipowitschia differs from all other species of the genus by the following combination of characters: (1) Canals of the head lateral line system reduced to two short postorbital canals not fused in lateral midline; (2) squamation is reduced to two patches in the axillary area and on the caudal peduncle respectively, unconnected or connected by a narrow band of scales along lateral midline; (3) caudal peduncle immediately anterior to the caudal fin naked; (4) first dorsal fin with six to seven rays. The variability of the head lateral line canals and of the squamation is shown in Table 1.
There are many threats to the fresh water fish fauna of the coastal areas of continental western Anatolia, e.g., agriculture, hydro power stations, pollution, and increasing tourism (e.g., Innal & Erk’akan 2006; Yilmaz et al. 2006). Additionally, the introduction of alien species is a threat (e.g., Barlas & Dirizan 2004; Innal & Erk’akan 2006; Taseli 2009; Özdemir et al. 2015; Tarkan et al. 2015). Nevertheless, K. byblisia has been recently assessed against the IUCN Red List Categories based on the assumption that “there seems to be no or very few threats (current or potential) in Lake Köycegiz drainage affecting this species” (Freyhof 2014). Environmental pressures on Lake Köycegiz and its tributaries are manifold. They are attributed to agricultural run-off and untreated human waste (Orhan & Scheumann 2011; Bann & Basak 2013; Özelik 2015), to habitat destruction by reed belt fragmentation due to intentional burning and to increasing siltation of the lake due to erosion caused by deforestation and sand mining in rivers discharging into the lake (Bann & Basak 2013) and to the introduction of various fish species (Innal et Erk’akan 2006; Yilmaz et al. 2006). However, the the conservation status of both endemic Knipowitschia species should be re-studied.
It is interesting to note that the confirmed records of K. byblisia are based on museum material (Ahnelt 2011, this study). This highlights the importance of Natural History Museums not only as institutions crucial for the documentation of biodiversity but also important for conservation. This is especially evident in the case of K. byblisia, which is seemingly easily confused with K. caucasica, a congener repeatedly introduced in different European freshwater bodies and generally classified there as invasive (van Neer 1999; Innal et Erk’akan 2006; Harka et al. 2013; Tarkan et al. 2015). Confusion or misidentification of Knipowitschia species native to western and southwestern Turkey, such as K. mermere, K. ephesi, K. caunosi and K. byblisia with the introduced K. caucasica could therefore lead to an unintended (and tragic) threat by conservation management.
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