Freshwater Ostracoda (Crustacea) of India - a checklist

 

M. Karuthapandi 1, D.V. Rao 2 & B. Xavier Innocent 3

 

1,2 Freshwater Biological Regional Center, Zoological Survey of India, Plot No.-366/1, Attapur(V), Near O/o DFO Flying Squad Hyderguda, P.O. Ring Road, Hyderabad, Telangana 500048, India

3 Department of Zoology, St. Xavier’s College (Autonomous), Palayamkottai, Tamil Nadu 627002, India

1 kpandi83@gmail.com (corresponding author), 2 drraodv@gmail.com,

3 xiyuvaraj1010@gmail.com

 

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3682.6576-81 | ZooBank: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:1BFB200A-B63E-4B10-938F-23345E78C920

 

Editor: Ivana Karanovic, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea. Date of publication: 26 November 2014 (online & print)

 

Manuscript details: Ms # o3682 | Received 26 June 2013 | Final received 12 September 2014 | Finally accepted 28 October 2014

 

Citation: Karuthapandi, M., D.V. Rao & B.X. Innocent (2014). Freshwater Ostracoda (Crustacea) of India - a checklist. Journal of Threatened Taxa 6(12): 6576–6581; http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3682.6576-81

 

Copyright: © Karuthapandi 2014. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.

 

Funding: Funding by Zoological Survey of India to M. Karuthapandi, SRF.

 

Competing Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.

 

Acknowledgements: The authors are thankful to Dr. K. Venkataraman, Director, Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, and the Officer-in-Charge, Freshwater Biology Regional Centre, Hyderabad for facilitates and constant encouragements. We also thank Dr. Y. Ranga Reddy, Emeritus Professor, ANU University, Nagarjunga Nagar, Guntur for his support in supplying literature on Ostracoda.

 

 

Note

 

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Ostracoda is one of the most diverse groups of crustaceans living in all aquatic ecosystems: marine, brackish, and freshwater (including subterranean ecosystems). They are cosmopolitan in distribution and play a vital role in the food chain and energy flow in the aquatic ecosystem. Ostracoda is considered as a separate class under Crustacea and it has been divided into the subclasses Myodocopa (only marine representatives) and Podocopa (Martin & Davis 2001; Horne et al. 2002). The subclass Podocopa has the following three orders: Platycopida, which includes marine and a very few brackish water forms; Podocopida which is present in both freshwater and the marine environment; and Palaeocopida known only from fossils records (Karanovic 2012). Globally, there are about 2103 species of non-marine Ostracoda and they are classified into 209 genera, 15 families and three superfamilies: Darwinuloidae, Cytheroidea, and Cypridoidea (Martens & Savatenalinton 2011; Karanovic 2012). Among the different zoogeographic regions, the oriental region has 200 species, of which 83% are endemic and the Australian region alone accounts for 176 species (Martens et al. 2008). Freshwater habitat exhibits a high Ostracoda diversity inspite of a rapid decline in freshwater biodiversity (Dudgeon et al. 2006, Martens & Savatenalinton 2011).

The taxonomic studies on Indian Ostracods were initiated by Baird (1859). Later, Victor & Fernando (1979) listed about 56 freshwater Ostracoda species from the Indian subcontinent. Further, Venkataraman & Krishnamoorthy (1998) estimated that there were 120 species of Ostracoda from freshwater and marine habitats, which included 24 genera and four families, but there was no comprehensive list. Therefore, based on the review of published data in Baird (1859), Gurney (1907), Klie (1927), Arora (1931), Brehm (1950), Hartmann (1964), Deb (1972, 1973a,b,c, 1983), Victor & Michael (1975), Victor & Fernando (1979, 1981), Battish (1978, 1981, 1998), Harshey & Victor (1983), Harshey & Shrivastava (1983), Gupta (1984, 1988 & 1991), Harshey & Srinivasan (1984), Harshey et al. (1987), Harshey & Patil (1988), Harshey (1996, 2008), George (1993), Jayasree et al. (1994) Venkataraman (1999), Patil (2002), George & Martens (2002, 2003, 2004), Patil & Talmale (2005a,b, 2012), Karanovic & Reddy (2008) and Harshey & Thilak (2011), we compile a checklist of Indian Ostracoda and discuss their status.

In the present review of Indian freshwater ostracods, we list 152 valid species belonging to 39 genera, five families and two super families (Tables 1,2). Further, the status of the uncertain species is marked with hash sign (#) in the checklist. It is found that 50 species reported from India have been synonymised (Martens & Savatenalinton 2011; Karanovic 2012) and their current valid nomenclature is also given in Table 3.

Literature reveals that there were several new species described in the past few decades from the Indian subcontinent by various workers, but the descriptions of most of the species seem to be insufficient to give the status of new species. Although most Indian taxonomists emphasized carapace morphology in ostracod identification, recent studies highlight that, in fact, soft parts morphology was crucial for their proper systematic placement. It was also observed that most of the species reported from India lack voucher and type locality information, which additionally contributes to the instability of the current Ostracoda nomenclature and validity of the species. Hence, the present checklist uses the type locality information provided in Karanovic (2012).

Freshwater faunal studies of Indian Ostracoda are limited and scattered, when compared to the global studies. In fact, the studies in this country are confined to a few states like Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, and a few parts of Delhi. India is one of the biodiversity rich countries in the world. The oriental region is the hotspot of ostracoda diversity with 200 species, of which 83% are endemic (Martens et al. 2008) and nearly 58% of the species are endemic to India within the oriental region. This study emphasizes the need for further detailed investigation to confirm the validity and status of the majority of ostracod species reported from India.

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Systematic list of Indian Freshwater Ostracoda

Class: Ostracoda

Subclass: Prodocopa

Order: Podocopida

Suborder: Cypridocopina

Super family: Cypridoidea

Family: Cyprididae

Subfamily: Cyprettinae

  1. Cypretta alagarkoilensis Victor & Michael, 1975
  2. Cypretta fontinalis Hartman, 1964
  3. Cypretta foveata Hartmann, 1964
  4. Cypretta gargi Deb, 1983
  5. Cypretta globosa (Brady, 1886)
  6. Cypretta globula (Sars, 1889)
  7. Cypretta patialaensis Battish, 1982
  8. Cypretta raciborskii (Grochmalicki, 1915)
  9. Cypretta ramai Deb, 1984
  10. Cypretta seurati Gauthier, 1929
  11. Cypretta turgida Sars, 1896
  12. Pseudocypretta maculata Klie, 1932 Subfamily: Cypricercinae
  13. Astenocypris papyracea (Sars, 1903)
  14. Bradleycypris vittata (Sars, 1903)
  15. Bradleystrandesia dani (George & Martens, 1993)
  16. Bradleystrandesia mollis (Furtos, 1936)
  17. Bradleystrandesia parva (Hartmann, 1964)
  18. Bradleystrandesia reticulata (Zaddach, 1844)
  19. Bradleystrandesia trichurensis (Victor et al., 1980)
  20. Bradleystrandesia weberi (Moniez, 1892)
  21. Bradleytriebella tuberculata (Hartmann, 1964)
  22. Cypricercus indrani Deb, 1983 #
  23. Cypricercus munshii Deb and Nasar, 1977 #
  24. Cypricercus setosus Farkas, 1957
  25. Cypricercus vietsi Farkas, 1957
  26. Strandesia antetuberculata Hartmann & Petersen, 1985
  27. Strandesia bicornuta Hartmann, 1964
  28. Strandesia flavescens Klie, 1932
  29. Strandesia calapanensis Tressler, 1937
  30. Strandesia gopinathani George & Martens, 1993
  31. Strandesia hartmanni Victor et al., 1980
  32. Strandesia labiata Hartmann, 1964
  33. Strandesia madhuriae Harshey & Srinivasan 1984
  34. Strandesia odiosa (Moniez, 1892)
  35. Strandesia perakensis Victor & Fernando, 1981
  36. Strandesia bornemiszai Klie, 1935
  37. Strandesia purpurascens (Brady, 1886)
  38. Strandesia quasirotunda Hartmann & Petersen, 1985
  39. Strandesia vinciguerrae (Masi, 1905)
  40. Strandesia saetosa Hartmann, 1964
  41. Strandesia victori Harshey & Srinivasan, 1984
  42. Tanycypris pellucida pellucida (Klie, 1932)Subfamily: Cypridinae
  43. Cypris debi Deb, 1983 #
  44. Cypris decaryi Gauthier, 1933
  45. Cypris dravidensis Victor & Michael, 1975 #
  46. Cypris elongata Deb, 1983 #
  47. Cypris globosa Deb, 1983 #
  48. Cypris kumari (Arora, 1931) #
  49. Cypris protubera Victor & Fernando, 1978 #
  50. Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840
  51. Pseudocypris patialaensis Battish, 1977 Subfamily: Cypridopsinae
  52. Cypridopsis maduraiensis Victor & Michael, 1975
  53. Klieopsis horai (Klie, 1927)
  54. Plesiocypridopsis angularis (Victor & Michael, 1975)
  55. Plesiocypridopsis dispar (Hartmann, 1964)
  56. Plesiocypridopsis newtoni (Brady & Robertson, 1870)
  57. Potamocypris dubia (Masi, 1905)
  58. Potamocypris narayanani George & Martens, 2002
  59. Sarscypridopsis ochracea (Sars, 1924) Subfamily Cyprinotinae
  60. Cyprinotus cingalensis Brady, 1886
  61. Hemicypris anomala (Klie, 1938)
  62. Hemicypris arorai (Battish, 1981)
  63. Hemicypris bairdi Martens & Wouters 1985
  64. Hemicypris bhatiai Battish, 1981
  65. Hemicypris dentatomarginata (Baird, 1859)
  66. Hemicypris derweshensis Battish, 1981
  67. Hemicypris dissonus Victor & Fernando, 1976
  68. Hemicypris falcatus Victor & Fernando 1976
  69. Hemicypris gillensis (Battish, 1981)
  70. Hemicypris malerkotlaensis Battish, 1981
  71. Hemicypris megalops Sars, 1903
  72. Hemicypris ovata Sars, 1903
  73. Hemicypris pailensis Battish, 1981
  74. Hemicypris pyxidata (Moniez, 1892)
  75. Heterocypris anitae Battish, 1981
  76. Heterocypris aurea Sars, 1895
  77. Heterocypris chandrai (Arora, 1931)
  78. Heterocypris fluviatilis (Furtos, 1933)
  79. Heterocypris giesbrechti (G.W. Müller, 1898)
  80. Heterocypris incongruens (Ramdohr, 1808)
  81. Heterocypris indica (Battish, 1981)
  82. Heterocypris makua (Tressler, 1937)
  83. Heterocypris malini Deb, 1983
  84. Heterocypris nuda (Victor & Michael, 1975)
  85. Heterocypris salina (Brady, 1868) Subfamily: Dolerocypridinae
  86. Dolerocypris sinensis Sars, 1903 Subfamily: Eucypridinae
  87. Eucypris biharensis Deb, 1984
  88. Eucypris bispinosa (Victor & Michael, 1975)
  89. Eucypris compressa Deb, 1983
  90. Eucypris ellipticalis Deb, 1983
  91. Eucypris gomti Deb, 1983
  92. Eucypris himani Deb, 1983
  93. Eucypris indica Deb, 1983
  94. Eucypris inaequalis Deb, 1983
  95. Eucypris munia Deb, 1983
  96. Eucypris sonia Deb, 1983 Subfamily: Herpetocypridinae
  97. Chrissia achandii (George & Martens, 1993)
  98. Chrissia biswasi (Deb, 1972)
  99. Chrissia canaliculata (Hartmann, 1964)
  100. Chrissia dyalpurensis Battish, 1998
  101. Chrissia fasciculata (Daday, 1910)
  102. Chrissia formosa (Klie, 1938)
  103. Chrissia fuelleborni (Daday, 1910)
  104. Chrissia goddeerisi (George et al., 1993)
  105. Chrissia halyi (Ferguson, 1969)
  106. Chrissia hislopi (Ferguson, 1969)
  107. Chrissia humilis (Klie, 1932)
  108. Chrissia humilis indica Hartmann, 1964
  109. Chrissia khopoliensis (Deb, 1983)
  110. Chrissia krishnakantai (Deb, 1972)
  111. Chrissia spinosa (Tressler, 1937)
  112. Herpetocypris ludhianensis Battish, 1982
  113. Humphcypris sewelli (Klie, 1927)
  114. Stenocypris derupta Vavra, 1906
  115. Stenocypris distincta Victor & Fernando, 1978
  116. Stenocypris jabalpurensis Harshey & Patil, 1988
  117. Stenocypris major (Baird, 1859)
  118. Stenocypris sohni Deb, 1983 Subfamily: Megalocypridinae
  119. Sclerocypris rajasthaniensis Deb, 1973 Family: Candonidae Subfamily: Candoninae
  120. Candonopsis (Candonopsis) putealis Klie, 1932
  121. Candonopsis (Candonopsis) urmilae Gupta, 1988
  122. Indocandona krishnakanti Gupta, 1984
  123. Indocandona nagarjuna Karanovic & Ranga Reedy, 2008 Subfamily: Cyclocypridinae
  124. Cypria brevisetigera Cole, 1965
  125. Cypria devai (Arora, 1931)
  126. Cypria javana javana G.W. Müller, 1906
  127. Cypria minutua (Victor & Michael, 1975)
  128. Cypria sharmai Battish, 1985
  129. Physocypria armata (G.W. Muller, 1897)
  130. Physocypria crenulata (Sars, 1903)
  131. Physocypria furfuracea (Brady, 1886) Family: Ilyocyprididae Subfamily: Ilyocypridinae
  132. Ilyocypris australiensis Sars, 1889
  133. Ilyocypris bradyi Sars, 1890
  134. Ilyocypris dentifera Sars, 1903
  135. Ilyocypris gibba (Ramdohr, 1808)
  136. Ilyocypris mckenziei Bhatia & Mannikeri, 1975
  137. Ilyocypris nagamalaiensis Victor & Michael, 1975 Family: Notodromadidae Subfamily: Indiacypridinae
  138. Indiacypris chalakkudensis George & Martens, 2004.
  139. Indiacypris dispar Hartman, 1964 Subfamily: Notodromadinae
  140. Centrocypris bhagirathiae Battish, 1981
  141. Centrocypris horrida (Vavra, 1895)
  142. Centrocypris indica Gupta, 1991
  143. Centrocypris madani Battish, 1981
  144. Centrocypris matthaii (Arora, 1931)
  145. Gurayacypris kangraensis Battish, 1987
  146. Newnhamia dumonti George & Martens, 2004
  147. Newnhamia fenestrata King, 1855
  148. Notodromas serrata Deb, 1984 Subfamily: Oncocypridinae
  149. Oncocypris bhatiai Battish, 1982
  150. Oncocypris voeltzkowi G.W. Muller, 1898
  151. Sataracypris gibbosa (Baird, 1837) #

Super family: Darwinuloidea

Family: Darwinulidae

152. Darwinula stevensoni (Brady & Robertson, 1885)

# Uncertain species

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