Foliicolous fungi of Wayanad District in Kerala State, India     

 

V.B. Hosagoudar & A. Sabeena

 

 

Journal of Threatened Taxa

July 2014 | Vol. 6 | No. 7 | Pages: 5909–6052 | Date of Publication: 19 July 2014

 

 

 

Contents

Introduction............................................................................................................................................

Key to groups..........................................................................................................................................

The genus Amazonia...............................................................................................................................

The genus Appendiculella.......................................................................................................................

The genus Armatella ..............................................................................................................................

The genus  Asteridiella ...........................................................................................................................

The genus Irenopsis ................................................................................................................................

The genus Meliola ..................................................................................................................................

Meliolinaceae ........................................................................................................................................

Asterinales ............................................................................................................................................

The genus Asterina ................................................................................................................................

The genus Asterolibertia ........................................................................................................................

The genus Ishwaramyces .......................................................................................................................

The genus Meliolaster ...........................................................................................................................

The genus Prillieuxina ............................................................................................................................

Key to the Anamorphic Genera .............................................................................................................

The genus Asterostomella .....................................................................................................................

The genus Asterostomula .....................................................................................................................

The genus Mahanteshamyces ................................................................................................................

Lembosiaceae .....................................................................................................................................

The genus Echidnodella .........................................................................................................................

The genus Lembosia ..............................................................................................................................

Schiffnerulaceae ....................................................................................................................................

Phyllachorales .......................................................................................................................................

Other Ascomycetes ................................................................................................................................

Key to the Hyphomycetes ......................................................................................................................

References ............................................................................................................................................

28.  Host family-Hosts-Fungus Index .............................................................................................................

 

 

 

 

Foliicolous fungi of Wayanad District in Kerala State, India

 

V.B. Hosagoudar 1 & A. Sabeena 2

 

1&2 Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695562, India

-1 vbhosagoudar@rediffmail.com (corresponding author), 2 asabeenarasheed@gmail.com

 

 

Abstract: This comprises an account of the 580 foliicolous fungal collections collected along with the host leaves of 220 host plants belonging to 70 families of flowering plants from Wayanad District resulted in recording 175 fungal species distributed among 29 fungal genera, belonging to black mildews, Meliolales: namely, Amazonia (6), Appendiculella (1), Armatella (6), Asteridiella (12), Irenopsis (7), Meliola (96); Meliolinaceae: Meliolina (1); Asterinales: Asterinaceae: Asterina (47), Asterolibertia (1), Ishwaramyces (1), Meliolaster (1), Prillieuxina (2), Asterostomella (1), Asterostomula (1), Mahanteshamyces (1), Lembosiaceae: Echidnodella (1), Lembosia (2), Schiffnerulaceae: Questieriella (2), Sarcinella (4), Schiffnerula (9); Phyllachoraceae: phyllachora (5); Hyphomycetes: Acrodictys (1), Spiropes (3), Ampullifera (1), Passalora (1), Colemaniella (1), Acremoniula (1); Other Ascomycetes: Leptosphaerulina (1), Rehmidothis (1).

 

Keywords: Foliicolous fungi, India, taxonomy, Western Ghats.

 

 

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3658.5909-6052   

                                   

Editor: B. Shivaraju, Bengaluru, India.           Date of publication: 19 July 2014 (online & print)

                                   

Manuscript details: Ms # o3658 | Received 03 August 2013 | Final received 08 December 2013 | Finally accepted 05 February 2014

                                   

Citation: Hosagoudar, V.B. & A. Sabeena (2014). Foliicolous fungi of Wayanad District in Kerala State, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 6(7): 5909–6052; http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3658.5909-6052

                                   

Copyright: Hosagoudar & Sabeena 2014. Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.

                                   

Funding: Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden & Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

 

Competing Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.

                       

Author Contribution: VBH has identified the fungi and AS has  studied and helped in the preperation of the manuscript.

 

Author Details: V.B. Hosagoudar has been working on the taxonomy of foliicolous fungi for nearly four decades; A. Sabeena has been working on the same topic since eight years.

 

Acknowledgements: We are grateful to Dr. P.G. Latha, Director, JNTBGRI, Palode for the facilities.

 

 

 

For figures, images, tables -- click here

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Wayanad, the 12th district in Kerala State, was formed from Kozhikode and Kannur Districts on 01 November  1980, with Kalpetta as its district head quarters.  It has an area of 2132km2, located towards north-east of Kerala, 11027–15058N & 75047–70027E  (Image 1), stands on the southern tip of the Deccan Plateau and has a glory of majestic rugged terrain of the Western Ghats, having lofty ridges interspersed with dense forest, tangled with jungles and deep valleys, located at an altitude ranging from 700–2100 m.  The name Wayanad originated from Mayakshetra (Mayas land).  It is also known as Vayal (paddy fields) and Naad (land), a land of paddy fields.  Since large area of the district is covered by forest and is a hilly terrain, the district is with least population.

According to archaeological evidence, the Wayanad forests have been inhabited for more than 3,000 years.  Historians are of the view that human settlement existed in these parts for at least 3,000 years.  Much evidences of new stone age civilization can be seen in the hills throughout the present day Wayanad District.  The two caves of Ampukuthimala, with pictures on their walls and pictorial writings, speak volumes of a bygone civilization.  The recorded history of this district exists only from the 18th century onwards.  In ancient times, this land was ruled by the Rajas of the Veda Dynasty.  In later days, Wayanad came under the rule of the Pazhassi Raja Dynasty of ancient Kottayam.  When Hyder Ali became the ruler of Mysore, he invaded Wayanad and brought it under his sway.  In the days of Tippu Sultan, Wayanad was restored to the Kottayam royal dynasty.  But Tippu handed over the entire region of northern Kerala to the British, signing the treaty of Srirangapattana with British army officer and colonial administrator Cornwallis.  This was followed by fierce and internecine encounters between the British and Pazhassi Raja of Kottayam.  When the Raja was driven to the wilderness of Wayanad, he organised the war-like Kurichiya tribals into a sort of peoples militia and engaged the British in several guerrilla type encounters.  In the end, the British could get only the dead body of the Raja, who committed suicide in the forest.  Thus, Wayanad fell into the hands of the British and with it came a new era.  The British authorities opened up the plateau to cultivation of tea and other cash crops by constructing roads across the dangerous slopes of Wayanad, to Kozhikode and Thalassery.  Later, they extended these new roads to the cities of Mysore and Ooty through Gudalur.  Settlers emigrated from all parts of Kerala and the fecund lands proved a veritable goldmine with incredible yields of cash crops.  When the State of Kerala came into being in November 1956, Wayanad was part of Kannur District.  Later, southern Wayanad was added to Kozhikode District.  In order to fulfill the aspirations of the people of Wayanad for development, North Wayanad and South Wayanad were carved out and joined together to form the present district of Wayanad.  This district consists of three taluks: Vythiri, Mananthavady and Sultans Battery.

There are tribal populations in the area who still practice age-old customs and rituals and live a nomadic life.  Some of the tribal populations include Paniyas, Adiyas, Kattunayakan, Kurumans and Kurichiyans.  It is the district with the highest share in the adivasi population (about 36%) of Kerala.  Wayanad also has a large settler population.  The Jains from Karnataka came in the 13th century.  The Hindu Nairs from Kottayam-Kurumbranadu, in Kannur District, made an entry in the 14th century and established their feudal system.  They were followed by Muslims.  There were large scale migrations from southern Kerala in the early 1940s.  Christians came in the 1950s from Travancore region.  In the last few decades there was a complete marginalisation of the indigenous people.  Alienated from their land, exploited by the settlers and neglected by the state, their struggle for rights to the land has so far been unsuccessful.

 

Forest Types

The flora of Wayanad are characteristic of the Western Ghats and the plantation crops grown in the cool climate.  A major portion of the district is covered by coffee.  Trees of the wild type like rose-wood, anjili (Artocarpus), mullumurikku (Erythrina), several species of cassia and many other nondescript varieties are still preserved here and there, to give shade to the coffee plants.  These trees give a sembalance of wilderness to the landscape of Wayanad.  In a majority of coffee plantations, the age-old species are replaced by the silver-oak which is suited to the cold climate.   This tree grows quickly and its cultivation is widespread among coffee plantations for shade and for giving support to pepper.  It is used for the Plywood Industry and thus is economical to the farmers.  Eucalyptus grandis, a shorter variety of eucalyptus, whose fragrant smell suffuses the very air around it, is cultivated on a large scale in certain parts of the district.  Eucalyptus oil is extracted on commercial basis from its leaves.  Of the 20,864ha of reserve forest, the major portion is teak plantation.  Areca nut palms and jack trees are also grown here.  Tea is grown as an industry in large estates.  The soil and climate of Wayanad are suitable for horticulture on commercial basis.  For promoting the cultivation of vegetables and raising of orchards, the Kerala Agricultural University is running a Regional Agricultural Research Station at Ambalavayal.  With the clearing of forests, the diverse and bustling animal life, characteristic of the forests of Western Ghats, has vanished from Wayanad.  One can still see the Bonnet Macaque, Slender Loris, mongooses, Jungle Cats, squirrels, jackals, hares, etc., in the limited forest areas.  The worlds largest venomous snake, the King Cobra is also found here.  Elephant, bear and other wild animals from the neighbouring wild life sanctuaries of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, stray into the Begur forest range and the forests around Muthanga, which is 20km away from the town of Sulthan Bathery.  Karapuzha Dam near Menangadi 10km, Banasura Sagar Dam 20km from Vythiri.  Today large game is found only in region that border with Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.  Here there is one of the largest concentrations of wild Asiatic Elephants in whole world.  Tiger, Bison, Sambhar, Spotted Deer, Boar, Leopard, Wild Dog and other Large Mammals are also present in fairly decent numbers.  Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary is the core forest region of this district.  The native Adivasis mainly consist of various sects like Paniyas, Kurumas, Adiyars, Kurichyas, Ooralis, Kattunaikkans, etc.

This district comprises: west coast tropical semi-evergreen forests, southern moist mixed deciduous forest, southern dry mixed deciduous forests and moist bamboo brakes and this rich forest has been protected in the form of Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary, harbouring more than 2000 flowering plant species and the present work on the foliicolous fungi forms the first of its kind for the this area.

 

Mountains

Chembra Peak (2,100m), Banasura Peak (2,073 m), Bramhagiri (1,608m) are some of the important mountains in the district.

 

Rivers

The Kabini River, one of the three east flowing rivers of Kerala, is an important tributary of the Kaveri River.  Almost the entire Wayanad District is drained by Kabini and its three tributaries, the Panamaram, Mananthavady, and Kalindy rivers.  The Banasura Sagar Dam is built on one of the tributaries of the Kabini River.

 

Climate

The distance from the mean sea level and the amount of forest cover creates a pleasant climate in the region.  Generally the year is divided into four seasons; cold weather (December–February) hot weather (March–May) south-west monsoon (June–September) and north-east monsoon (October–November).  During the hot weather the temperature goes up to a maximum of 350C (950F) and during the cold weather the temperature goes down to 070C (450F).  The greater temperature variation in the last 5–6 years is in the range of 180C (640F)–280C (820F).  The average rainfall is 2,500mm per year.

 

Economy

Wayanad is 3.79% urbanised.  Agriculture, is the main stay of the economy.  Coffee, tea, cocoa, pepper, plantain and vanilla are the main crops.  Besides these cash crops, the most important crop in the district is rice.

 

Key to groups

1. Produce black mycelial colonies on the host surface ...............Black mildews

1. Not so....................................................................2

2. Produce tar spots.............................Phyllachoraceae

2. Not so......................................................................3

3. Produce yellow rust pustules on the host surface....... ..............Rust fungi

3. Not so......................................................................4

4. Produce superficial perithecia which are attached to host surface.......... .......Leptospharulina

4. Persist only in conidial form...............Hyphomycetes

 

BLACK MILDEWS

These are the ectophytic, black colony forming fungi belong to different groups

 

Key to the groups of Black Mildews

1. Produce thick, black, woolly colonies on the lower surface of the leaves............................Meliolinaceae

1. Always not so........................................................2

2. Produce two-celled appressoria and often phialides,

 ascomata perithecial..................................Meliolales

2. Produce 1-2-celled appressoria, phialides absent,

 ascomata thyriothecium...........................................3

3. Thyriothecia dehisce stellately or vertically, anamorph mostly pycnothyrial...................Asterinales

3. Thyriothecia dissolve at the centre, anamorph polymorphic, e.g, Sarcinella, Questieriella, etc............

............................................................Schiffnerulaceae

 

MELIOLALES

 

Meliolales Gaumann ex Hawksworth & O. Eriksson, Systema Ascomycetum 5: 142, 1986; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 28, 2008; Hosag. & Agarwal, Taxonomic studies of Meliolales. Identification Manual, p. 3, 2008.

Parasites on vascular plants.  Mycelium mostly superficial, appressoriate. Appressoria mostly two celled, rarely many celled.  Phialidic (in Meliolaceae), phialides unicellular.  Ascomata flattened-globose to globose, ostiolate, peridium smooth, surface cells protruded, often supplemented with setae and or appendages; asci born on basal hymenium, unitunicate, 2-8 spored, clavate to cylindrical, evanescent; ascospores 1-4 septate, brown at maturity.

 

Type family: Meliolaceae

 

Key to the families

1. Ascospores 1-2-septate .....................Armatellaceae

1. Ascospores 3-4-septate .........................Meliolaceae

 
Armatellaceae

Armatellaceae Hosag., Sydowia 55: 162, 2003; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 28, 2008; Hosag. & Agarwal, Taxonomic studies of Meliolales. Identification Manual, p. 3, 2008.

Leaf parasites, ectophytes, mycelium with appressoria, phialides absent, mycelial setae absent.  Perithecia on superficial hyphae, globose, verrucose; asci 4-8-spored; ascospores 1-2-septate, brown at maturity.

Type genus: Armatella Theiss. & Sydow

The family Armatellaceae includes the genera: Armatella and Basavamyces but the present study includes the former genus.

 

MELIOLACEAE

Meliolaceae Martin ex Hansf., Mycol. Pap. 15: 23, 1946; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 29, 2008; Hosag. & Agarwal, Taxonomic studies of Meliolales. Identification Manual, p. 4, 2008.

Parasitic on vascular plants; mycelium mostly superficial; appressoriate, phialidic.  Ascomata flattened-globose to globose, ostiolate, peridium with conoid cells, larviform and striated appendages, or with repent or strong setae.  Asci unitunicate, 2-4-spored, clavate to cylindrical, evanescent; ascospores 3-4-septate, brown at maturity.

Type genus: Meliola Fries

 

Key to the genera of Meliolaceae

 

1. Perithecia flattened-globose, hidden in the radiating mycelium ....................................................Amazonia

1. Perithecia globose, discrete, not hidden in the radiating mycelium.....................................................2

2. Mycelial setae present.....................................Meliola

2. Mycelial setae absent.................................................3

3. Perithecial setae and larviform appendages present           ......................................................................................4

3. Both perithecial setae and larviform appendages absent............................................................Asteridiella

4. Only perithecial setae present......................Irenopsis

4. Only larviform appendages present.....Appendiculella

 

Digital formula

After the generic level confirmation, a specific formula called the Beelis Formula (digital formula) is used for the identification up to species level.  Beeli Formula consists of eight digits.  The first four digits before the stop (left side to the stop) represent the morphological characters like ascospore septation, presence or absence and the nature of the perithecial setae or appendages, presence or absence and the nature of the mycelial setae and the arrangements of appressoria, respectively.  The second four digits, after the stop, represent the measurements such as length and breadth of ascospores, diameter of perithecia and length of mycelial setae, respectively.  The species having both simple and dentate setae is denoted by , while species having straight and uncinate setae are designated as ½.  The Beeli Formula is modified here to accommodate the genus Armatella having one septate ascospores.

 

MORPHOLOGY (first four digits from left)

 

1. Normal septation of ascospores

1. 1-septate

2. 3-septate

3. 4-septate

 

2. Perithecia

1. Without setae or appendages

2. With larviform, horizontally striated appendages

3. With uncinate or coiled setae

4. With straight setae

 

3. Mycelial setae (often on perithecia and from subiculam)

1. Absent

2. Simple

3. Simple, entire, uncinate or coiled

4. Dentate or shortly furcate (up to 30m)

5. Branched (branches more than 30m)

 

4. Appressoria

1. Alternate or unilateral (less than 1% opposite)

2. Regularly opposite

3. Both opposite and alternate

 

II. MEASUREMENTS (second four digits from the full stop)

5. Maximum ascospore length

1. Up to 20 m

2. 21–30 m

3. 31–40 m

4. 41–50 m

5. 51–60 m

6. More than 60m long

 

6. Maximum ascospore width

1. Up to 10m

2. 11–20 m

3. 21–30 m

4. More than 31m

 

7. Maximum diameter of perithecia

1. Up to 100m

2. 101–200 m

3. 201–300 m

4. More than 301m

 

8. Maximum length of mycelial setae

1. Up to 300m

2. 301–500 m

3. 501–1000 m

4. More than 1000m

5. Absent.

 

The treatment of species and varieties consists of the original citation of the correct name, citation of the world monograph and Indian monographs, relevant synonyms (if any) based on the monographs of Hansford (1961) and Hosagoudar (1996).  The citation is followed by the description based on the present collections, which are deposited in TBGT (Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram), HCIO (Herbarium Cryptogamae Indiae Orientalis), New Delhi and at STET Herbarium, Mannargudi, Tamil Nadu.  At the end of the description of each taxon, notes have been provided regarding their identification and distribution.  Line drawings have been provided to the studied taxa.

 

The genus Amazonia

Amazonia Theiss., Ann. Mycol. 11: 499, 1913.

Actinodothis Sydow & Sydow, Philippine J. Sci. 9: 174, 1914.

Meliolaster Doidge, Trans. Royal Soc. South Africa 8: 123, 1920 (non Meliolaster Hohnel).

Amazoniella Bat. & Maia, Broteria 29: 73, 1960.

Mycelium superficial, brown, septate, branched, appressoriate.  Perithecia borne under radiating mycelium, wall radial, shield like, non-ostiolate to ostiolate, hemispherical, inner wall pale, thin. Asci 2-4 spored, evanescent; ascospores brown, 3-4 septate.

Type: A. psychotriae (P. Henn.) Theiss.

 

Amazonia flacourtiae Hosag., Siddappa & Udaiyan, Nova Hedwigia 56:193, 1993; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 68, 1996. (Fig. 1).

Materials examined: TBGT 5947, 30.ix.2007, on leaves of Flacourtia sp. (Flacourtiaceae), Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies amphigenous, thin to subdense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching opposite at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 12.5–22x6–9.5 m.  Appressoria alternate, straight, rarely curved, antrorse, 15.5–25 m long; stalk cells cuneate, 3–6.5 m long; head cells ovate, entire, 12.5–20.5x8–14 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 15.5–22x6–9.5 m.  Perithecia flattened-globose, scattered, up to 124m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, strongly constricted at the septa, 34–46.5x12.5–18.5 m.

 

Amazonia goniothalami Hosag., Rajkumar, C.K. Biju & Abraham, Mycotaxon 72: 431, 2001; Hosag., Zoos Print J. 21:2322, 2006; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 187, 2008. (Fig. 2).

Materials examined: HCIO 44801, TBGT 1038,  26.xii.2002, on leaves of Goniothalamus wyanadensis (Bedd.) Bedd. (Annonaceae), Chandanathode, coll. M. Kamarudeen & P.A. Jose.

Colonies predominantly hypophyllous, subdense to dense, up to 5mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight, branching alternate to opposite at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 9–16x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to closely antrorse, straight, 18–26 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 6–8 m long; head cells ovate, oblong to cylindrical, entire, 12–15x8–12 m.  Phialides not seen.  Perithecia flattened-globose, radiating, up to 160m in diameter; ascospores oblong to ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 44–48x20–23 m.

This is the only record of the genus Amazonia on the members of the family Annonaceae (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996; Hosagoudar et al. 1997).

 

Amazonia gordoniicola Hosag., C.K. Biju & Abraham, Nova Hedwigia 80: 467, 2005; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 87, 2008. (Fig. 3).

Materials examined: HCIO 43677, TBGT 330, 16.iv.1999, on leaves of Gordonia sp. (Theaceae), Banasuran mala, coll. C.K. Biju.

Colonies mostly epiphyllous, subdense, up to 3mm diam., confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching in alternate to opposite position at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 19–24x5–7 m.  Appressoria alternate, about 1% opposite, antrorse to subantrorse, 12–20 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–5 m long; head cells ovate, rarely oblong to globose, entire, rarely angular to truncate at the apex, 9–15x9–13 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 16–20x6–8 m.  Perithecia scattered, in radiating hyphae, up to 150m diameter; ascospores oblong to rarely slightly ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 35–37x15–17 m.

The similar A. toquian Petrak is known on Ternstroemia toquian (Theaceae) from the Philippines. Contrasting with A. toquian, this species has loosely reticulate mycelia, numerous appressoria, and 4-septate smaller ascospores (Hansford 1961).

 

Amazonia peregrina Sydow & Sydow, Ann. Mycol. 15: 238, 1917; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2:507, 1961; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 36: 236, 1989; 42:126, 1991; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p.74, 1996.

Meliola peregrina Sydow & Sydow, Philippine J. Sci. 8: 479, 1913. (Fig. 4).

Materials examined: HCIO 50329, TBGT 4246, 31.x.2007, on leaves Maesa indica (Roxb.) DC. (Myrsinaceae), 10th Mile, Banasura sagar, coll. V.B. Hosagoudar et al.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly hypophyllous, crustaceous, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to undulating, branching alternate to opposite at acute angles, closely reticulate, forming solid mycelial mat and impart thalloid appearance, cells 13–16.6x6–8  m.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, very closely arranged, antrorse, straight to curved, 13–16.5 m long; stalk cells cuneate, 3.5–5 m long; head cells globose, entire, 10–13x10–11.5 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate, ampulliform, 13–16.5x6.5–8  m.  Perithecia mostly aggregated, flattened-globose, glabrous, black, up to 281m in diameter; ascospores cylindrical to obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 36–43x13–16 m.

This species mostly occurs on the leaves infected with Meliola groteana Sydow but can be easily distinguished by its crustose colonies.

 

Amazonia syzygii Hosag. in Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 36: 236, 1989; 42:126, 1991; Hosag., Dayal & Goos, Mycotaxon 46: 202,1993; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p.74, 1996. (Fig. 5).

Materials examined: HCIO 49847, TBGT 3999, 12.ii.2009, on leaves of Syzygium sp. (Myrtaceae), Wayanad, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.

Colonies amphigenous, subdense, crustose to slightly velvety, up to 2mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae substraight to slightly undulate, branching mostly opposite at wide angles, closely reticulate, cells 16–20x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate, straight, antrorse to spreading, 18–20 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–8 m long; head cells ovate to subglobose, entire, 10–14x8–10 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, conoid to ampulliform, 20–24x8–10 m.  Perithecia flattened-globose, scattered to grouped, up to 180m in diameter; ascospores obovate, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 44–48x16–20 m.

Amazonia vaccinii Hosag., C.K. Biju & Abraham, Nova Hedwigia 80: 468, 2005; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 87, 2008. (Fig. 6).

Materials examined: HCIO 43603, TBGT 289, 20.xi.1998, on leaves of Vaccinium sp. (Vacciniaceae), Banasuran mala, coll. C.K. Biju.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, thin to subdense, up to 5mm diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching in opposite to unilateral position at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 12–28x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate, straight to slightly curved, antrorse to spreading, 14–18 m long; stalk cells cuneate, 4–7m long; head cells oblong to globose, straight to slightly curved, entire to sublobate, 9–13x8–10 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria but apparently on separate mycelial branches, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–23x6–8 m.  Perithecia hidden in the radiating mycelium, flattened-globose, fringed hyphae appressoriate, up to 120m diameter; ascospores oblong, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 33–37x14–16 m.

The similar A. kakachiana Hosag. is known on Vaccinium leschenaultii var. zeylanicum (Ericaceae) from the southern Western Ghats of peninsular India.  Contrasting with A. kakachiana, has 4-septate ascospores (Hosagoudar, 1996).

 

The genus Appendiculella

 

Appendiculella Hohn. in Sitz. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw. Kl. 128: 556, 1919.

Irene Stev., Ann. Mycol. 25: 420, 1927 (non Irene Theiss. & Sydow, 1917).

Mycelium superficial, brown, septate, branched, appressoriate. Perithecia globose, discrete, ostiolate, larviform and striated appendages present; asci 2-4 spored; ascospores brown 3-4 septate.

Type: A. calostroma (Desm.) Hohn.

 

Appendiculella calostroma (Desm.) Hohnel in Sitzb. K.Akad. Wissen. Wien. Math. Naturw. KI. 138:556, 1919; Kapoor, Indian Phytopathol. 20: 151, 1967; Kar & Maity, Norw. J. Bot. 19: 248, 1972; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 77, 1996

Meliola calostroma (Desm.) Hohnel, Ann. Mycol. 15:363, 1917.

Irene calostroma (Desm.) Hohnel, Ann. Mycol. 16:213, 1918.

Meliola rubicola Henn., Hedwigia 43: 140, 1904.

Irenina rubi Stev. & Rold. var. angulosa Stev. & Rold., Philippine J. Sci. 56: 52, 1935.

Irenopsis crataegi Bose, Indian Phytopathol. 13:144, 1962. (Fig. 7).

Materials Examined:  TBGT 5691, 23.xii.2007, on leaves of Rubus ellipticus Smith (Rosaceae), Banasuran mala, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, dense, crustose, up to 2mm in diameter.  Hyphae mostly straight, branching mostly opposite at wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 37–50x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to spreading, 24–28 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 9–12.5 m long; head cells globose, irregularly sublobate, 12–15.5x18–25 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, conoid to ampulliform, 18–28x9–12.5 m.  Perithecia mostly grouped at the centre of the colony, up to 300m in diameter; perithecial appendages many, cylindrical to conoid, twisted, rounded at the apex, 49–95x18–25  m;  ascospores ellipsoidal, mostly curved, 3-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 40–43.5x15–18 m.

 

The genus Armatella

 

Armatella Theiss. & Sydow, Ann. Mycol. 13: 235, 1915; 15: 410, 1917. Arx, Fungus (Wageningen) 28: 1, 1958. Verona & Benedek, Mycopath. Mycol. appl. 18: pl. 6, 115, 1961; Muller & Arx, Beitr. Krypt. Der schweiz 2: 882, 1962; Katumoto, Bull. Fac. Agric. Yamaguti Univ. 13: 291, 1962; Hosag., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 15: 195, 1991.

Armata Yamam., Sci. Rep. Hyago Univ. Agric., Agric. Biol. Ser. 3: 89, 1958.

Artallendea Bat. & Maia, Atas Inst. Micol. Univ. Recife 1: 221, 1960; Katumoto, Bull. Fac. Agric. Yamaguti Univ. 13: 291, 1962.

Mycelium superficial, brown, septate, branched, appressoriate.  Perithecia globose, non-ostiolate or ostiolate, thick walled, verrucose.  Mycelial setae, perithecial setae and perithecial appendages lacking. Asci usually 4–8 spored; ascospores typically brown (initially hyaline, later turn brown) and one septate at maturity.

Type: A. litseae (P. Henn.) Theiss. & Sydow

 

Armatella apollonigena Hosag. & Sabeena, J. Threatened Taxa 5(13): 4805, 2013.

Material examined: TBGT 6536 (holotype), PBL 129 (isotype), 30.xi.2007, on leaves of Apollonias sp. (Lauraceae), Padinharathara, Puducherry Kadavu, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies amphigenous, thin to subdense, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae flexuous to crooked, branching irregular at acute to wide angles, form loosely and irregularly reticulate mycelial net, cells 35–45×5–7 μm.  Appressoria alternate, rarely opposite, straight to variously curved, antrorse to subantrorse, 12–32 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical, often gibbous, 5–12 μm long; head cells ovate, oblong, straight to curved, mostly entire, but rarely sinuate, 7–20x7–12 μm.  Perithecia scattered, up to 350m in diameter; perithecial wall cells mammiform, up to 17m long; ascospores oblong, uniseptate, slightly constricted at the septum, 32–37x10–12 m, wall smooth.

There are 16 species of the genus Armatella are known on the members of family Lauraceae.  Of these, Armatella apolloniadis (Hosagoudar et al. 2005) is known on this host from the Western Ghats region of Kerala State.  However, Armatella apollonigena differs from Armatella apaolloniadis Hosag. et al. in having unicellular basal cells of the appressoria, entire to sublobate and globose to oblong head cells in contrast to globose angular to sublobate ones (Hosagoudar 2008).  Ascospores germinated by producing appressoria from the apical portion of each cells but no symptom of collapsing cells.

 

Armatella balakrishnanii Hosag., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 15: 196, 1991; Hosag., Sarbhoy, Agarwal & Khan, Mycotaxon 56: 348, 1995; Hosag. & Abraham, J. Mycopathol. Res. 38: 2, 2000; J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 25: 562, 2001; Hosag., Zoos Print J. 21: 2323, 2006; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2:103, 2008 (Fig. 9).

Materials examined: 28.xii.2008 HCIO 50580, TBGT 4495, on leaves of Cinnamomum malabatrum (Burm.f.) Blume (Lauraceae), 16th mile, Padinharathara, M.C. Riju; HCIO 50578, TBGT 4497 14.ii.2009, Tirunelly, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies hypophyllous, thin, spreading, up to 8mm in diameter.  Hyphae smooth walled, crooked, branching alternate to irregular at acute angles, closely reticulate, cells 9–25x4–7 μm.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to reflexed, 15–115 μm long; stalk cells aseptate to several septate, straight to tortuous, 3–103 μm long; head cells globose, narrowly ovate, angular, entire, 9–13x10–12 μm.  Perithecia scattered, globose, verrucose, up to 115μm in diam.; ascospores ellipsoidal, mostly aseptate but few ascospores septate, cells unequal, 43–50x18–22 μm.

Multiseptate basal cells, entire head of the appressoria and the ascospores not constricted at the septum are the characters of this taxon.

 

Armatella cinnamomicola Hansf., Reinwardtia 3: 87, 1954; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 36: 237, 1989; Hosag., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 15: 197, 1991; Hosag., Sarbhoy, Agarwal & Khan, Mycotaxon 56: 349, 1995; Hosag. & Balakr., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 19: 363, 1995; Hosag. & Abraham, J. Mycopathol. Res. 38: 2, 2000; J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 25: 563, 2001; Hosag., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 29: 435, 2005; Zoos Print J. 21: 2323, 2006; Meliolales of India 2:107, 2008 (Fig. 10).

Materials examined: HCIO 45293, TBGT 1331 16.x.2001, on leaves of Cinnamomum malabatrum (Burm.f.) Blume (Lauraceae), Wayanad, coll. M. Kamarudeen; HCIO 49648, TBGT 3890, 17.ix.2008, Periya, coll. M. Harish & P.J. Robin; HCIO 49205, TBGT 3444, 14.ii.2009, Tirunelly, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.;  HCIO 49813, TBGT 3965, 16.ii.2009, Periya, coll. Gireesh et al.

Colonies epiphyllous, thin to subdense, crustose, up to 4 mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae crenulated, straight to substraight, branching alternate to irregular at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 15–40x6–9 μm, outer wall crenulated except the growing tips.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to spreading, straight to curved, 16–23 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–6 μm long; head cells ovate, broadly conoid, rarely globose, 13–20x8–13 μm, outer wall crenulated.  Perithecia seated on tortuous ex appressoriate mycelia, scattered, globose, up to 215μm in diameter; ascospores initially hyaline, continuous, oblong with rounded ends, dumbbell shaped, mature ascospores 1-septate with mostly equal cells, cinnamon brown to dark brown, 23–30x10–13 μm, germinating cells enlarge to form appressoria and the other one empties and collapses.

External surface of both hyphae and appressoria are crenulated.

 

Armatella cryptocaryae Hosag., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 15: 198, 1991; Sarbhoy, Agarwal & Khan, Mycotaxon 56: 350, 1995; Hosag. C.K. Biju & Abraham, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 25: 298, 2001; Hosag., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 29: 436, 2005; Hosag., Zoos Print J. 21: 2323, 2006; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 108, 2008 (Fig. 11).

Materials examined: HCIO 44698, TBGT 979, 6.ii.2002, on leaves of Litsea coriacea (Heyne ex Meissner) Hook.f. (Lauraceae), Chandanathode, coll. M. Kamarudeen; HCIO 45097, TBGT 1152, 21.iv.2003, L. deccanensis Gamble, Periya, coll. G. Rajkumar & P. A. Jose; HCIO 49814, TBGT 3966, 16.ii.2009, Phoebe sp. (Lauraceae), TBGT 6267, 5.xi.2009, Gurukulam Botanic Garden, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju.

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, crustose, up to 2mm in diameter.   Hyphae smooth walled, straight to substraight, branching alternate to irregular at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 12–19x4–7 μm.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to spreading, 15–25 μm long; stalk cells single celled, cylindrical to cuneate, 3–7 μm long; head cells ovoid, conoid, slightly angular, entire, outer wall crenulated, 12–19x9–13 μm.  Perithecia scattered, seated on exappressoriate mycelium, up to 140μm in diameter; ascospores ellipsoidal, 1-septate, brown, 31–37x12–13 μm.

Only apical cells of the appressoria are crenulated.

 

Armatella katumotoi Hosag., Sydowia 40: 113, 1987; J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 15: 199, 1991; Hosag. & Abraham, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 25: 564, 2001; Hosag., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot.29: 436, 2005; Meliolales of India 2:111, 2008 (Fig. 12).

Materials examined: HCIO 44273, TBGT 678, 9.i.2002,  on leaves of Persea macrantha (Nees) Kosteerm. (Machilus macrantha Nees) (Lauraceae), Wayanad, coll. M. Kamarudeen; HCIO 44811, TBGT 1048, 27.xii.2002, Persea sp., Periya, coll. M. Kamarudeen & P.A. Jose; HCIO 49868, TBGT 4020, 16.ii.2009, Litsea sp. (Lauraceae), Periya, coll. Harish et al.

Colonies hypophyllous, thin, scattered, diffused, up to 5mm in diameter.  Hyphae smooth walled, flexuous to crooked, branching alternate to irregular at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 15–46x4–6 μm.  Appressoria alternate, variously curved, 18–46 μm long; stalk cells aseptate to several septate, flexuous to crooked, 6–40.5 μm long; head cells ovate to globose, entire to stellately lobate, 6–13x12–16 μm.  Perithecia scattered, seated on exappressoriate mycelium, verrucose, up to 217μm in diameter; ascospores brown, ellipsoidal, 1-septate, 28–31x12–15 μm.

Multiseptate basal cells and lobate head cells of the appressoria distinguishes this species.

 

Armatella litseae (P. Henn.) Theiss. & Sydow, Ann. Mycol. 13: 235, 1915; Hansf. & Thirum., Farlowia 3: 286, 1984; Kar & Maity, Norway J. Bot. 19: 250, 1972; Hosag. J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 15: 200, 1991; Yanxing, Yousheng, Bin & Guangzheng, Flora Fungorum Sinicorum 4: 48, 1996; Hosag. & Abraham, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 25: 565, 2001; Hosag., C.K. Biju & Abraham, J. Mycopathol. Res. 40: 192, 2002; Hosag., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 29: 436, 2005; Zoos Print J. 21: 2324, 2006; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2:113, 2008.

Dimerosporium litseae P. Henn., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 32: 42, 1903.

Artallendea cinnamomi Bat. & Maia, Atas Inst. Micol. Recife 1: 222, 1960 (Fig. 13).

Materials examined: TBGT 6176, 4.xi.2009, on leaves of Cinnamomum malabathrum (Burm.f.) Blume (Lauraceae), Padinharathara, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju.

Colonies hypophyllous, thin, crustaceous, up to 6mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae smooth walled, substraight to undulate, branching mostly alternate at wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 16–30x6–8 μm.  Appressoria alternate, about 5% opposite, antrorse, straight to curved, 15–20 μm long; stalk cells single celled, cylindrical to cuneate, 3–6 μm long; head cells globose, stellately sublobate, 11–13x15–16 μm.  Perithecia seated on tortuous exappressoriate mycelium, scattered, verrucose, up to 300mm in diameter; ascospores initially hyaline and continuous, oblong with rounded ends, dumb bell shaped, matured spores 1-septate with unequal cells, 30–36x11–13 μm.  During germination, one cell of the spore enlarges to produce appressorium and the other empties into it and collapses.

Globose and lobate head cells of the appressoria are the characters of this taxon.

 

The genus Asteridiella

 

Asteridiella McAlpine, Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, p. 38, 1897.

Irene Theiss. & Sydow, Ann. Mycol. 15: 194, 1917 (non Irene Stev., 1927).

Irenina Stev., Ann. Mycol. 25: 411, 1927.

Mycelium superficial, brown, septate, branched, appressoriate, mycelial setae absent. Perithecia globose, discrete, ostiolate, without setae and appendages, conoid cells projecting and are non-striated; asci 2-4- spored, evanescent; ascospores brown, 3-4 septate.

Type: A. solani McAlpine

 

Asteridiella americana Hansf., Sydowia 10:51, 1957; Sydowia 2:529. 1961; Patil & Thite, J. Shivaji Univ.18:220, 1978; Hosag., Nova Hedwigia 47:537, 1988; Meliolales of India, p.79, 1996 (Fig. 14).

Materials Examined: HCIO 49641, TBGT 3883, 19.ii.2008, on leaves of Linoceira malabarica Wall. ex G. Don (Oleaceae), Periya, coll. M. Harish & P.J. Robin.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, crustose, up to 2mm in diameter.  Hyphae substraight to undulate, branching opposite to irregular at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 15–34x6–9 m.  Appressoria alternate, mostly antrorse, rarely recurved, 30–37m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 6–9 m long; head cells ovate, globose, deeply and irregularly lobate, 24–28x18–24 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, conoid to ampulliform, 18–31x9–12.5 m.  Perithecia scattered to loosely aggregated, up to 155m in diameter; perithecial cells conoid to mammiform, up to 22m long; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 40–43.5x15–18.6 m.

Ascospores in the present collection are considerably smaller as against reported (43–49x20–23 m) (Hansford 1957).

 

Asteridiella combreti (Stev.) Hansf. var. leonensis Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 20: 160, 1961; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 36: 238, 1989; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p 83, 1996 (Fig. 15).

Materials examined: HCIO 50861, TBGT 4778; HCIO 50863, TBGT 4780; HCIO 50867, TBGT 4784; HCIO 50869, TBGT 4786, 5.xi.2009,  on leaves of Terminalia sp. (Combretaceae), Gurukulam Botanic Garden, Periya, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju; HCIO 45253, TBGT 1291, 7.iii.2001, Combretaceae member, Periya, coll. G.Rajkumar & P.A. Jose

Colonies epiphyllous, subdense, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to undulate, branching alternate to opposite at wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 2134x68 m.  Appressoria alternate, straight, antrorse, 1927 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 68 m long; head cells globose, entire, angular, 1118x1116 m.  Phialides borne on a separate mycelial branch, opposite, ampulliform, 1325x48 m, tip twisted and variously bent.  Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 185m in diam.; perithecial cells mammiform, 811 m long; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 3542x1118 m.

Perithecia were widely opened at the centre

 

Asteridiella elaeocarpi-tuberculati Hosag., Crypt. Bot. 2/3: 183, 1987; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p.87, 1996(Fig. 16).

Materials examined: HCIO 48035, TBGT 2818, 7.xii.2006, on leaves of Elaeocarpus tuberculatus Roxb. (Elaeocarpaceae), Mylattumala, coll. M. Harish V. Gireesh Kumar & K. Anilkumar.

Colonies epiphyllous, subdense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to undulate, branching opposite at wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 31–36x4–6.5 m.  Appressoria alternate, straight to curved, antrorse, 18–28 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 6–9.5 m long; head cells globose, ovate, truncate at the apex, entire, 16–18.5x12–15.5 m.  Phialides borne on a separate mycelial branch, mostly opposite, ampulliform, 18–25x6–9.5 m.  Perithecia scattered, seated on exappressoriate mycelia, globose, up to 124m in diameter; perithecial cells conoid, curved, acute at the apex, up to 15m long; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 40–46.5x15–18.5 m.

 

Asteridiella formosensis (Yamam.) Hansf., Sydowia 10: 48, 1957; Sydowia Beih. 2: 686, 1961; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 36: 240, 1989; 42: 128, 1991; Hosag., Kaveriappa, Raghu & Goos, Mycotaxon 51:109, 1994; Hosag, Meliolales of India, p. 90, 1996.

Irene formosensis Yamam., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 31: 15, 1941.

Meliola formosensis (Yamam.) Cif., Mycopathologia 7: 87, 1954 (non Yamam., 1941). (Fig. 17).

Materials examined: HCIO 48178, TBGT 2914, 10.xi.2010, on leaves of Callicarpa sp. (Verbenaceae), 16th mile, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 50831, TBGT 4748, 4.xi.2009, Callicarpa arborea, Padiharathara, coll. M.C. Riju & A. Sabeena.

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, smooth, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to undulate, branching alternate at wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 28–43x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate, straight to curved, antrorse, spreading, 24–36 m long; stalk cells cuneate to cylindrical, 8–12 m long; head cells ovate, clavate, entire to sublobate, 17–23x11–16 m.  Phialides born on a separate mycelial branch, mostly opposite, rarely unilateral, often two phialides borne very closely on a single mycelial cell, ampulliform, 10–18x6–8 m.  Perithecia scattered, up to 216m in diameter; perithecial wall cells obtusely conoid, 6–10 m long; ascospores ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, middle cell slightly larger, 41–46x20–26 m.

These collections slightly differed from the species description in having smaller perithecial cells.

 

Asteridiella glycosmidis Hosag., C.K. Biju & Abraham, Nova Hedwigia 80: 478, 2005; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 134, 2008 (Fig. 18).

Materials examined: HCIO 43607, TBGT 292, 16.iv.1999, on leaves of Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC. (G. cochinchinensis sensu Gamble) (Rutaceae), on the way to Manandawadi, coll. C.K. Biju; HCIO 44628, TBGT 910, 23.ix.2002,  Tirunelly, coll. K. Vijayakumar.

Colonies amphigenous, crustose, up to 1mm diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae substraight, branching in irregular position at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, sometimes form solid mycelial mat, cells 9–15x3–5 m.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to closely antrorse, 14–23 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–10 m long; head cells straight to curved, ovate, cylindrical to globose, rarely entire, sublobate to deeply and irregularly lobate, 14–23x7–9 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, numerous in some colonies, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–23x7–9 m.  Perithecia not matured, up to 100m diameter; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 38–42x14–16 m.

The colonies of this taxon were mixed with the colonies of Meliola cadigensis Yates. var. glycosmidis (Kapoor) Hosag. Asteridiella glycosmidis is close to A. trachylaena (Sydow) Hansf. in having lobate head cells of the appressoria but differs from it in having shorter appressoria and smaller ascospores (Hansford 1961).  It also differs from A. acronychiae Hu in having lobate head cells of appressoria and smaller ascospores (Hu et al. 1996, 1999).

 

Asteridiella micheliae Hosag., Archana & Agarwal, Indian Phytopath. 60: 237, 2007; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 139, 2008 (Fig. 19).

Material examined: HCIO 51047, TBGT 4964, 27.xii.2008, on leaves of Michelia champaka L. (Magnoliaceae), Puthuserrykadavu, Wayanad, coll. M.C. Riju;  HCIO 49973, HCIO 47370, TBGT 4125, 14.iii.2007, 16th mile, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju.

 

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, up to 4mm in diameter.  Hyphae substraight, branching alternate to opposite at wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 19–22x3–5m.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse, mostly straight, 13–14 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–6 m long; head cells ovate, oblong, angular to sublobate, 8–10x6–8 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 12–13x4–5 m.  Perithecia scattered, globose, up to 145m in diameter; perithecial wall cells mammiform, obtuse at the tip, up to 20m long; ascospores obovoidal to slightly cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 20–29x10–12 m.

It differs from Asteridiella crustacea (Speg.) Hansf. and Asteridiella werdernannii Hansf. in having distinctly smaller ascospores and shorter appressoria (Hansford, 1961).

 

Asteridiella millettiicola sp. nov.

V.B. Hosagoudar & G.R. Archana (Fig. 20).

(urn:lsid:indexfungorum.org:names: 809136)

 

Material examined: HCIO 50888 (holotype), TBGT 4805 (isotype), 14.ii.2009, on leaves of Millettia sp. (Fabaceae), Tirunelly, coll. Girish Kumar et al.

Colonies hypophyllous, subdense, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching mostly opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 12–31 x 4-6.5 m.  Appressoria alternate, straight to curved, antrorse to subantrorse, 20–37 m long; stalk cells, 1–2 septate, cylindrical to cuneate in case of unicellular, while, straight, crooked to variously curved in case of multicellular, 4–27.5 m long; head cells straight to variously curved, ovate, oblong, entire to angular, sublobate to lobate, 16–21x9–16 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to unilateral, ampulliform, 12–24x6–8 m.  Perithecia scattered, up to 112m in diameter, perithecial wall cells conoid, mammiform, up to 16m long; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 40–43x17–21 m.

Etymology: Named after the host genus.

This species differs from Asteridiella millettiae Hosag. et al. in having straight to flexuous hyphae; having 1–2 septate stalk cells of the appressoria (Hosagoudar 2008).

 

Asteridiella phaulopsidis Hosag., Zoos Print J. 21: 2462, 2006; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 144, 2008 (Fig. 21).

Materials examined: HCIO 50607, TBGT 4524; HCIO 50609,TBGT 4526, 5.xi.2009, on leaves of Phaulopsis micranthus (Acanthaceae), Gurukulam Botanical Garden, Periya, coll. M.C. Riju & A. Sabeena.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, up to 1mm in diameter, often confluent.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching alternate to irregular at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 16–25x5–7 m.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to closely antrorse, 16–20 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–10 m long; head cells ovate to globose, entire, angular to stellately lobate, 9–12x9–11 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 16–19x5–7 m.  Perithecia scattered to loosely grouped, globose, up to 125m in diameter; perithecial wall cells conoid, projected, up to 13m long; ascospores oblong to ellipsoidal, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 30–36x11–13 m.

Based on the Beeli formula 3101. 3220, Asteridiella phaulopsidis can be compared with A. thumbergiae-chrysopsidis (Hansf. & Deight.) Hansf. known on Thunbergia chrysops from Sierra Leone but differs from it in having shorter appressoria with stellately lobate head cells and perithecial wall cells are conoid in contrast to mammiform (Hansford 1961).

 

Asteridialla scolopiae Hosag. Meliolales of India, p104, 1996 (Fig. 22).

Materials examined: HCIO 43609, TBGT 294, 14.iv.1999, on leaves of Scolopia crenata (Wight & Arn.) Clos (Flacourtiaceae), Chembra peak, coll. C.K. Biju.

Colonies amphigenous, dense, crustose, up to 3mm in diameter, scattered, rarely confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching mostly opposite at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 12–15.5x5–9 m.  Appressoria alternate, about 1% opposite in loosely reticulated colonies while about 5% opposite in densely reticulated colonies, antrorse, 15-28 m long; stalk cells cuneate, 3–12.5 m long; head cells globose, ovate, oblong, mostly entire, rarely angular, 12–15.5x9–12.5 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 15–18.8x5–7 m.  Perithecia scattered, up to 186m in diameter; perithecial cells mammiform, straight to curved, up to 22m long; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, strongly constricted at the septa, 43–47x17–19 m.

This species is close to Asteridiella deightonii Hansf. in having few opposite appressoria but differs from it in having substraight hyphae, entire to angular head cells of appressoria and smaller ascospores.

 

Asteridiella symploci-microphyllae Hosag. & Sabeena, Bioscience Discovery 2(1): 117, 2011; Hosag., J. Threatened Taxa 5(6): 4008, 2013 (Fig. 23).

Material examined: HCIO 50636, TBGT 4553, 1.xi.2007, on leaves of Symplocos macrophylla Wallich ex DC. (Symplocaceae), Banasuramala, coll. A. Chandraprabha.

Colonies amphigenous, subdense, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite to unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 17–32x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 15–20 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–7 m long; head cells globose to ovate, entire, 10–15x10–12 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 15–25x5–10 m.  Perithecia scattered, up to 240m in diameter.; perithecial wall cells conoid to mammiform, up to 50m long; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 32-40 x 15-17m.

 

Asteridiella vivekananthanii Hosag., Sydowia 40: 114, 1987; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 42: 120, 1991; Hosag., Kaveriappa, Raghu & Goos, Mycotaxon 51: 110, 1994, Hosag., Meliolales of India, p.105, 1996 (Fig. 24).

Materials examined: HCIO 43610, TBGT 295, 18.xi.1998, on leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum Vent (Verbenaceae), Chembra peak, coll. C.K. Biju; HCIO 49225, TBGT 3464, 16.ii.2009, Periya, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.

Colonies epiphyllous, subdense to dense, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae flexuous to crooked, branching alternate to irregular at acute angles, very closely reticulate, cells 15.5–18.5x4–6.5 m.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, straight to mostly curved, antrorse to spreading, 16–31 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–12.5 m long; head cells ovate, globose, entire to angulose, 15–18.5x12–15.5 m; few appressoria 46–50 m long and stalk cells 1-septate, 15–18.5 m long.  Phialides few, mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, conoid to ampulliform, 15–31x6–12.5 m.  Perithecia scattered, up to 250m in diameter; perithecial wall cells conoid to mammiform, up to 22m long; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, slightly curved, 31–37x12.5–18.5 m.

This species was mixed with Meliola clerodendricola Henn.

 

Asteridiella wyanadensis Hosag., C.K. Biju & Abraham, Nova Hedwigia 80: 479, 2005; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 152, 2008 (Fig. 25).

Materials examined: HCIO 43611, TBGT 329, 4.iv.1999,  on leaves of Mallotus sp. (Euphorbiaceae), Chembra, coll. C.K. Biju.

Colonies hypophyllous, thin, up to 3mm diameter. Hyphae flexuous, branching alternate to opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 1530x58 m.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to subantrorse, 1120 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 36 m long; head cells ovate to globose, entire, rarely angular, 813x913 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 1620x46 m.  Perithecia scattered, immature, up to 120m diam.; ascospores oblong, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 3336x1215 m.

This species is close to Asteridiella phyllanthi (Deight.) Hansf. known on Phyllanthus wildennannii from Sierra Leone.  However, differs from it in having flexuous hyphae, absence of opposite appressoria and having ovate and entire head cells of appressoria.

 

The genus Irenopsis

 

Irenopsis Stev., Ann. Mycol. 25: 411, 1927; Hansf., Sydowia Beih 2: 25, 1961; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p.107, 1996; Meliolales of India 2: 162, 2008; Hosag. & Agarwal, Taxonomic Studies of Meliolales. Identification manual, p. 121, 2008.

Mycelium superficial, brown, septate, branched, appressoriate, mycelial setae absent. Perithecia globose, descrete, ostiolate, with prominent, dark-brown setae, larviform appendages absent; asci 2-4 spored, evanescent; ascospores brown, 3-4 septate.

Type: I. tortuosa (Wint.) Stev.

 

Irenopsis benguetensis Stev. & Rold. ex Hansf., Sydowia 26: 311, 1963; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 36: 242, 1989; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 107, 1996.

Irenopsis benguetensis Stev. & Rold., Philippine J. Sci. 56: 49, 1935; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 321, 1961(nom. invalid.).

Meliola benguetensis (Stev. & Rold.) Cif., Mycopathologia 7:87, 1954 (non Stev. & Rold., 1935) (Fig. 26, Image 4).

Materials examined: HCIO 44790, TBGT 1027, 27.xii.2002, on leaves of Ficus exaspirata Vahl. (Moraceae), Periya, coll. M. Kamarudeen & P.A. Jose; HCIO 49998, TBGT 4150, 18.ix.2008, on Ficus sp., Tirunelly,  coll. P.J. Robin et al.; HCIO 50739, TBGT 4656, 6.xi.2009, Padinharathara, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, subdense to dense, up to 4mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae straight to undulate, branching alternate at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 16–36x4–10 m.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to subantrorse, spreading, 26–36 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 9–17 m long; head cells globose, subangulose to irregularly sublobate, 14–22x12–20 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria and also born on a separate mycelial branch, alternate, ampulliform, 16–24x7–10 m.  Perithecia scattered to aggregated, verrucose, up to 140m in diameter; perithecial setae 4–8, straight, spreading, dark-brown at base and pale brown towards the apex, obtuse and mostly straight at the tip, up to 160m long and 7–10 m thick; ascospores ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 36–43x16–26 m.

This is the only species on the host genus Ficus in the Western Ghats of Peninsular India (Hosagoudar, 1996).

 

Irenopsis hiptages Yamam. var. indica Hosag. & Sabeena, J. Threatened Taxa 5 (6): 4011, 2013; Hosag., J. Threatened Taxa 5(6): 4015, 2013 (Fig. 27).

Materials examined: TBGT 5747, 18.ix2008, on leaves of Hiptage sp. (Malphigiaceae), Thirunelli, coll. P.J. Robin et al.

Colonies amphigenous, subdense, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 17–25x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate, unilateral to 3–4% opposite, antrorse to subantrorse, 22–30 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–10 m long; head cells ovate, entire, mostly angular to rarely sublobate, 15–20x12–17 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 15–25x7–10 m.  Perithecia scattered, up to 190m in diameter; perithecial setae simple, straight, obtuse at the tip, up to 117m long; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 47–55x17–22 m. This is the only taxon known on this host genus from the Western Ghats region.

 

Irenopsis molleriana (Wint.) Stev., Ann. Mycol. 25: 437, 1927; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 184, 1961; Hosag., Sarbhoy, Agarwal & Khan, Mycotaxon 56: 354, 1995; Hosag., Abraham & Crane, Mycotaxon 71: 151, 1999; Hosag., C.K. Biju & Abraham, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 25: 299, 2001; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 168, 2008.

Meliola molleriana Wint., Hedwigia 25: 98, 1886.

Meliola (Irenina) procera Cif., Ann. Mycol. 36: 219, 1938 (Fig. 28).

Materials examined: HCIO 50742, TBGT 4659, 4.xi.2009, on leaves of Hibiscus furcatus Roxb. ex DC. (Malvaceae), Padinharathara, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju.

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, subvelvety, up to 4mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae substraight to undulate, branching mostly opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 21–41x6–7 m.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to spreading, straight to curved, 14–22 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–5 m long; head cells ovate, subglobose, entire, subangular to slightly sublobate, 9.6–16.8x9–17 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–24x4–7 m.  Perithecia scattered to loosely grouped, verrucose, up to 170m in diameter; perithecial setae, 10–16 in number, simple, straight to slightly flexuous, septate, smooth, obtuse to subacute at the tip, up to 106m long; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 33–38x12–17 m.

The present collections show a slight variation from the type species in having longer appressoria and shorter ascospores.  Kapoor (1967) assigned Irenopsis species parasitic on Triumfetta bartramia to this taxon (Hosagoudar 1996).

 

Irenopsis sidae (Rehm) Hughes var. indica Hosag. & Manoj., Zoos Print J. 18: 1000, 2002; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 168, 2008 (Fig. 29).

Materials examined: HCIO 50743, TBGT 4660; HCIO 50741, TBGT 4658, 6.xi.2009, on leaves of Sida sp. (Malvaceae), Padinharathara, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, subdense to dense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to flexuous, branching alternate, opposite to irregular at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 22–29x7–9 m.  Appressoria alternate, about 5% opposite, antrorse, subantrorse to rarely retrorse, 14–18 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–6 m long; head cells ovate to globose, entire, angular to truncate at the apex, straight to curved, 9–13x8–10 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–18x6–8 m.  Perithecia scattered, globose, up to 150m in diameter; perithecial cells slightly projected; perithecial setae 0–12 in numbers, simple, straight, acute at the apex, deep brown, septa not visible, up to 125m long; ascospores oblong, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 30–32x11–13 m.

Based on the digital formula, the present collection is close to Irenopsis aciculosa (Wint.) Stev. known on many members of the family Malvaceae from the tropical countries and I. sidae Hughes known on Sida javensis and S. mysorensis from Philippines.  However, the latter species differs from the former in having only straight but not incurved perithecial setae.  Hence, the present collection is closer to the latter species (Hansford 1961).  The variety differs from the type species in having dense colonies, 5% opposite appressoria and shorter perithecial setae.

 

Irenopsis trichiliae Hosag. & Riju, J. Threatened Taxa 2(4): 824, 2010; Hosag., J. Threatened Taxa 5(6): 4014, 2013 (Fig. 30).

Material examined: HCIO 48177, TBGT 2913, 10.xi.2007, on leaves of Trichilia sp. (Meliaceae), 16th mile, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies epiphyllous, subdense, scattered, up to 2mm in diam., confluent.  Hyphae straight to flexuous, branching opposite to alternate at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 11–33x6–11 μm.  Appressoria alternate, unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 13–26 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–11 μm long; head cells globose, angular, sublobate to deeply lobate, 8–18x11–18 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to unilateral, ampulliform, 17–24x6–9 μm.  Perithecia scattered, up to 209μm in diameter; perithecial setae 0–5 in number, straight, simple, obtuse at the apex, up to 198μm long; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 37–47x15–18 μm.

Irenopsis chukrasiae Hosag., I. inidica (Anahosur) Hosag., I. murrayae Hosag. & Rajkumar are known on the members of the family Meliaceae (Hosagoudar 1996; Hosagoudar et al. 2001).  Irenopsis trichiliae differs from I. chukrasiae in having only unicellular stalk cells of the appressoria and from I. indica in having straight hyphae and 0–5 perithecial setae. It also differs from I. murrayae in having angular to lobate head cells of the appressoria.

 

Irenopsis triumfettae (Stev.) Hansf. & Deight., Mycol. Pap. 23: 14, 1948; Hansf., Reinwardtia 3: 107, 1954; Sydowia Beih. 2: 368, 1961; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 36: 244, 1989; 42: 128, 1991; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 118, 1996.

Meliola triumfettae Stev., Illinois Biol. Monogr. 2: 30, 1916; Deight., Mycol. Pap. 9:17, 1944.

Irenopsis coronata (Speg.) Stev. var. triumfettae (Stev.) Stev., Ann. Mycol. 25: 435, 1927: Stev. & Rold., Philippine J. Sci. 56: 51, 1933.

Meliola coronata Speg. var. triumfettae (Stev.) Cif., Mycopathologia 8:117, 1954.

Irenopsis molleriana sensu Kapoor, Indian Phytopathol. 20: 151, 1967 (Fig. 31).

Materials examined: HCIO 43691, TBGT 348, 19.xi.1998, on leaves of Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. (Tiliaceae), Banasuran mala, coll.  C.K. Biju.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, subdense, scattered, up to 3mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae undulate to tortuous, branching opposite to alternate at wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 15–20x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate, mostly straight, antrorse, 18–22 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 6–8 m long; head cells globose, entire to sublobate, 12–16x12–14 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 18–20x6–8 m.  Perithecia scattered to aggregated, up to 207m in diam.; perithecial setae 6–8, straight, spreading, continuous, curved or uncinate at the apex, apex obtuse, 99–144x6–8 m; ascospores ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 36–44x12–16 m.

Common species on this host genus

 

Irenopsis triumfettae (Stev.) Hansf. & Deight. var. indica Hosag. & Abraham, J. Mycopathol. Res. 36: 98, 1998; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 174, 2008 (Fig. 32).

Materials examined: HCIO 50728, TBGT 4645; HCIO 50730, TBGT 4647; HCIO 50732, TBGT 4649, 6.xi.2009, on leaves of Triumfetta sp. (Tiliaceae), Puthucherry Kadavu, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju.

Colonies amphigenous, dense, up to 1mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to flexuous, branching irregular at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 24–29x7–9 m.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to subantrorse, 17–22 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–8 m long; head cells globose to slightly ovate, entire, 12–15x12–15 m.  Phialides numerous, mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–22x7–9 m.  Perithecia scattered, globose, verrucose, up to 160m in diameter; perithecial setae 6–8, simple, straight to slightly curved, tortuous to beaded and granulose towards the apex, obtuse at the apex, up to 140m long; ascospores oblong, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 36–46x12–17 m.

This taxon is similar to Irenopsis triumfettae (Stev.) Hansf. & Deight. var. glyphaeicola (Deight.) Hansf. & Deight. in the morphology of the perithecial setae but differs from it in having entire head cells of the appressoria.

 

The genus Meliola

 

Meliola Fries emend. Bornet, Ann. Sci. Nat. III: 16: 267, 1851.

Meliola Fries, Syst. Orb. Veg. P., 111, 1825.

Amphitrichum Fries, Syst. Mycol. 2: 513, 1829 (p.p.)

Myxothecium Kuntze ex Fries, Syst. Mycol. 3: 232, 1829.

Couturea Cast. In Fries, Summ. Veg. Sand. P., 407, 1846.

Asteridieum Sacc., Syll. Fung. 1: 49, 1882.

Mycelium superficial, brown, septate, branched, appressoriate, mycelial setae present. Perithecia globose, descrete, ostiolate; asci 2–4 spored, evanescent; ascospores brown, 3–4 septate.

Type: M. psidii Fries

Meliola psidii Fries is conseved over the earlier synonym M. trichostroma (Kuntze) Toro (Crane & Jones, 2001).

 

Meliola abdulkalamii Hosag. & Riju, Plant Pathology & Quarantine 1(2): 123, 2011; Hosag., J. Threatened Taxa 5(6): 4015, 2013 (Fig. 33).

Material examined: HCIO 51041, TBGT 4958; HCIO 51042, TBGT 4959, 14.vi.2009, on leaves of Aralia sp. (Araliaceae), 16th mile, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies epiphyllous, crustose, up to 5mm in diameter, scattered, confluent.  Hyphae straight to flexuous, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 20–33×5–8 μm.  Appressoria alternate, unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 17–20 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–8 μm long; head cells globose, subglobose, entire, 7–10×7–13 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, mostly opposite, rarely alternate, ampulliform, 12–18×7–8 μm.  Mycelial setae simple, straight, obtuse, clavate, inflated, notched to bifid at the apex, ends broadly rounded, up to 320μm long.  Perithecia up to 230μm in diameter; ascospores cylindrical to oblong, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 27–33×10–13 μm.

The present species is distinct from other Meliola species known on members of Araliaceae in having broadly obtuse, inflated to bifid tips of the mycelial setae (Hansford 1961, Hosagoudar 1996, 2008, Hu et al., 1996, 1999).

 

Meliola abri Hosag. & Riju, Plant Pathology & Quarantine 1(2): 124, 2011; Hosag., J. Threatened Taxa 5(6): 4015, 2013 (Fig. 34).

Material examined: HCIO 51190, TBGT 5070, 16.i.2011,  on leaves of Abrus pulchellus Wallich ex Thwaites (Fabaceae), Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, scattered, up to 3mm in diam.  Hyphae flexuous to crooked, branching opposite at wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 17–30×5–8 μm.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, up to 1% opposite, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, 17–20x10–13 μm; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–3 μm long; head cells globose, ovate, straight to curved, 12–15x10–13 μm. Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to unilateral, ampuliform, 20–25x5–8 μm.  Mycelial setae scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 360μm long. Perithecia scattered, up to 130μm in diameter; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 30–33x10–13 μm.

Meliola bicornis Wint. is known on Abrus canescens from Sierra Leone (Hansford, 1961), but this is a complex species and Hansford (1961) has segregated more than hundred species.  Based on the simple setae and smaller ascospores, we prefer to accommodate our collection in a new species.

 

Meliola actephilae Hosag., C.K. Biju & Abraham, Nova Hedwigia 80: 482, 2005; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 187, 2008 (Fig. 35).

Materials examined: HCIO 43614, TBGT 321, 15.iv. 1999, on leaves of Actephila excelsa (Dalz.) Muell.-Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), Tirunelly, coll. C.K. Biju.

Colonies amphigenous, caulicolous, mostly hypophyllous, dense, up to 5mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching mostly opposite at acute to wide angles, closely reticulate and often form solid mycelial mat, cells 22–26x6–10 m.  Appressoria opposite, solitary, about 15% alternate, antrorse to subantrorse, straight to curved, 19–23 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–7 m long; head cells oblong to cylindrical, angular to slightly sublobate, often entire, 12–16x9–11 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 19–23x8-10 m.  Mycelial setae many, scattered, simple, straight, stlightly curved and often flexuous, acute at the tip, up to 300m long.  Perithecia scattered to grouped, up to 140m in diameter; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 40–44x11–14 m.

This species differs from Meliola homalanthi Boed. and its variety in having predominantly opposite and oblong to cylindrical, angular to sublobate appressoria (Hansford 1961).

 

Meliola affinis Sydow var. indica Hosag., Nova Hedwigia 47: 538, 1988; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 124, 1996 (Fig. 36).

Materials examined: HCIO 47373, TBGT 2411, 19.ix.1999, on leaves of Memecylon sp. (Melastomataceae), Banasuranmala, coll. C.K. Biju.

Colonies hypophyllous, very thin, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to undulate, branching opposite to irregular at subacute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 16–34x4–8 m.  Appressoria alternate, distantly arranged, straight to curved, mostly antrorse, 14–22 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 9–14 m long; head cells ovate, pointed towards the apex with broadly rounded ends, entire, 9–14x6–10 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 19–24x6–10 m.  Mycelial setae grouped around perithecia, straight, simple, acute, up to 670m long. Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 130m in diameter; ascospores cylindrical to obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 36–41x14–17 m.

Very thin hypophyllous colonies and distantly placed appressoria are the characteristics of the species Meliola affinis Sydow. However, the variety differs from the var. affinis in having smaller ascospores (Hansford, 1961; Hosagoudar, 1988).

 

Meliola ailanthi Sharma, Mohanan & Florence, Kerala Forest Research Institute Report 36: 248, 1985 (ailanthii) emend. Hosag. in Hosag., Raghu & Pillai, Nova Hedwigia 58: 524, 1994; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 126, 1996 (Fig. 37).

Materials examined: HCIO 48171, TBGT 2907; June 30, 2007 HCIO 48173, TBGT 2909, 29.vi.2009, on leaves of Ailanthus malabarica DC. (Simaroubiaceae), 16th mile, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies epiphyllous, scattered, dense, velvety, up to 2mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight, rarely substraight, branching mostly opposite at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 20–28x5–7 m.  Appressoria alternate, straight, antrorse, 12–23 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–7 m long; head cells ovate to cylindrical, entire, 9–16x8–11 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 16–21x9–13 m.  Mycelial setae numerous, straight to slightly curved but not uncinate, simple, acute to 2–3 times dentate at the tip, up to 265m long.  Perithecia scattered to loosely grouped, verrucose, up to 179m in diam.; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 36–41x12–16 m.

This taxon was described by Sharma et al. (1985) from Kerala but it was inadequate for the identification. Later, Hosagoudar (1994) emended it by providing detailed description along with line drawings.

 

Meliola ailanthicola Hosag. & Riju, J. Threatened Taxa 2(4): 824, 2010; Hosag., J. Threatened Taxa 5(6):4017, 2013 (Fig. 38).

Material examined: HCIO 48170 (holotype), TBGT 2906 (isotype); HCIO 48173, TBGT 2909, 30.ix.2007, on leaves of Ailanthus triphysa malabarica (Dennst.) Alston (Simaroubaceae), 16th mile, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies hypophyllous, thin, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae crooked, branching alternate to opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 13–33x4–9 μm.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, straight to curved, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, 13–27 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–16 μm long; head cells ovate, globose, truncate to slightly lobate, 8–13x6–9 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, alternate to unilateral, ampulliform, 13–22x4–9 μm.  Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight, acute, obtuse to 2–5 dentate at the tip, up to 400μm long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 160μm in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 37–44x13–16 μm.

This species differs from Meliola ailanthi Sharma et al. emend. Hosag. in having strongly appressed colonies on the lower surface of the leaves and having distinctly crooked mycelium (Hosagoudar 1996).

 

Meliola allophyli-concanici Hosag. in Hosag., Raghu & Pillai, Nova Hedwigia 58: 535, 1994; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 126, 1996 (Fig. 39).

Materials examined: HCIO 49436, TBGT 3681, 15.ii.2009, on leaves of Allophylus sp. (Sapindaceae), Begoor, coll. Harish et al.

Colonies epiphyllous, scattered, dense, up to 2mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight, branching opposite at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 14-22x9-12 m.  Appressoria opposite, crowded after an interval, antrorse to subantrorse, recurved, 17–22 m long; stalk cells cuneate, 6–8 m long; head cells globose, cylindrical, entire, 12–16x12–14 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 17–22x9–12 m.  Mycelial setae grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, acute, obtuse to dentate at the tip, up to 576m long. Perithecia, scattered to loosely grouped, verrucose, up to 174m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 36–41x14–19 m.

The present taxon can be compared with Meliola capensis (K. & C.) Theiss. var. lacaniodisci Hansf. & Deight. and Meliola capensis (K. & C.) Theiss. var. baileyana Hansf.  However, the present taxon differs from them in having appressoria with globose head cells, in contrast to conoid (Hansford 1961).

 

Meliola allophyli-serrulati Hosag. & Abraham, J. Mycopathol. Res. 36: 99, 1998; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 187, 2008 (Fig. 40).

Materials examined: HCIO 45071, TBGT 1126, 21.iv.2003,  on leaves of Allophylus cobbe (L) Raeusch. (Sapindaceae), Periya, coll. M. Kamarudeen & P.A. Jose.

Colonies hypophyllous, subdense, crustose, up to 2mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae straight, rarely crooked, branching mostly opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 19–21x8–10 m.  Appressoria opposite, about 5% alternate, antrorse to subantrorse, mostly straight, rarely curved, 19–27 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–10 m long; head cells globose, ovate, rounded to rarely truncate at the apex, entire, 14–17x12–15 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 21–32x9–12 m.  Mycelial setae moderately numerous, scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, straight to curved, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 620m long. Perithecia scattered, up to 170m in diameter; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, straight to slightly curved, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 43–46x17–20 m.

 

Meliola anceps Sydow & Sydow, Ann. Mycol. 14: 76, 1916; Stev., Ann.Mycol. 28: 205, 1928; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 586, 1961; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 218, 1990; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 129, 1996.

Meliola makilingiana Sydow & Sydow, Ann. Mycol. 15: 188, 1917.

Meliola mussaendae Sydow & Sydow, Ann. Mycol. 15: 190, 1917(Fig. 41 & Image 5).

Materials examined: HCIO 50916, TBGT 4833, 1.xi.2007, on leaves of Mussaenda philippica A.Rich. (Rubiaceae), Banasuranmala, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, up to 2mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae substraight to undulate, branching opposite to irregular at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 22–54x4–8 m.  Appressoria closely arranged, alternate, unilateral, closely antrorse, 17–24 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 6–13 m long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, slightly angular, 10–15x8–10 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, irregular, ampulliform, 12–25x6–10 m.  Mycelial setae scattered to grouped around perithecia, straight to curved, simple, rounded to bifid at the tip, often show knobs in the middle, up to 292m long. Perithecia scattered, up to 175m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 27–33x10–12 m.

This host plant is extensively cultivated in India and it appears to be a threat to it.

 

Meliola aphanamixidis Hosag. in Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 404, 1990; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 133, 1996 (Fig. 42).

Materials examined: TBGT 5943, 10.xi.2007, on leaves of Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) Parker (Amoora rohituka Wight & Arn.) (Meliaceae), 16th Mile, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 2mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae substraight to slightly crooked, branching opposite to irregular at wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 12–28x9–12.5 m.  Appressoria opposite, crowded after intervals, rarely solitary, antrorse, subantrorse, recurved, 21–31 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 6–12.5 m long; head cells ovate, globose, angular, truncate, straight to curved, entire, 15–18.5x9–15.5 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 18–25x9–12.5 m.  Mycelial setae mostly grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 572m long.  Perithecia seated on exappressoriate mycelium, scattered, verrucose, up to 232m; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 52–56x18–22 m.

 

Meliola aporusae Hosag. & Robin, Bioscience Discovery 2 (2): 264, 2011; Hosag., J. Threatened Taxa 5(6):4017, 2013 (Fig. 43).

Materials examined: HCIO 50925, TBGT 4842, 23.xii.2008, on leaves of Aporusa sp. (Euphorbiaceae), Banasuranmala, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies  amphigenous,  mostly hypophyllous, crustose, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching mostly opposite to alternate at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 19–24x5–7 m.  Appressoria alternate, about 15% opposite, antrorse to subantrorse, spreading, 24–29 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 10–12 m long; head cellsovate, clavate, globose, entire to 2–5 times lobate, often slightly angular 12-19x14–19 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate, ampulliform, 17–24x7–10 m.  Mycelial setae few, simple, straight, obtuse at the tip, up to 410m long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 115m in diam.; ascospores ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 41–43x14–17 m.

Based on the digital formula, the present species is close to Meliola goleoria Hansf. and M. tetrorchidiicola Hansf. known on Galeario filiformis and Tetrorchidium rubivenium from Java and Brazil, respectively. However, differs from both in having stellately lobate head cells of the appressoria (Hansford 1961).  Based on the lobate head cells, it can be compared with M. octephilae Hosag. et al. but differs from it in having only 15% opposite appressoria with stellately lobate head cells (Biju et al. 2005; Hosagoudar 2008; Hosagoudar & Agarwal 2008).

 

Meliola ardisiicola Hosag., Rajkumar & Jose, Indian Phytopathol. 57: 455, 2004; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 190, 2008 (Fig. 44).

Materials examined: HCIO 45230, TBGT 1267, 21.iv.2003, on leaves of Ardisia missionis Wallich ex DC. (Myrsinaceae), Periya, coll. G. Rajkumar & P.A. Jose; TBGT 5568, 30.ix.2007, Ardisia sp., Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, crustose, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching mostly opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 11–16x7–9 m.   Appressoria alternate, closely placed, straight to curved, mostly antrorse, rarely retrorse, 24–31 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 6–10 m long; head cells oblong, cylindrical, rarely broadly ovate, entire, straight to slightly curved, 17–21x8–10 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate, scattered, ampulliform, 19–24x6–8 m.  Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 380 m  long.  Perithecia scattered, globose, up to 180m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, cylindrical, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 35–40x12–18 m.

 

Meliola ardisiigena Hosag., Sabeena & Robin, Bioscience Discovery 2:120, 2011; Hosag., J. Threatened Taxa 5(6):4018, 2013 (Fig. 45).

Material examined: HCIO 50639 (isotype), TBGT 4556 (holotype), 27.ix.2008, on leaves of Ardisia sp. (Myrsinaceae), Pulpally, coll. P.J. Robin et al.

Colonies hypophyllous, subdense to dense, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight, branching opposite to unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 15–30x5–7 μm.  Appressoria alternate, up to 30% opposite to unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 12–22 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–7 μm long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, 10–17x7–12 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 12–25x5–10 μm.  Mycelial setae simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 350μm long. Perithecia scattered, up to 200μm in diam.; ascospores elliptic, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 42–57x12–15 μm.

Meliola ardisiicola Hosag. et al. is known on Ardisia missionis from the high ranges of Western Ghats (Hosagoudar 2008).  However, the present new species differs from it in having longer and 30% opposite appressoria and longer ascospores.

 

Meliola aristolochigena Hosag. & Archana, J. Threatened Taxa 1: 348, 2009; Hosag., J. Threatened Taxa 5(6):4019, 2013 (Fig. 46).

Material examined: HCIO 50362, TBGT 4279, 5.xi.2009, on leaves of Aristolochia grandiflora Sw. (Aristolochiaceae), Gurukulam Botanic Garden, Periya, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju.

Colonies epiphyllous, thin to dense, up to 2mm in diam. Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching alternate, opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 12–16x8–10 μm. Appressoria alternate to about 3% opposite, antrorse to subantrorse, 14–20 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–7 μm long; head cells ovate to globose, entire, 11–13x9–13 μm. Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 16–20x8–10 μm. Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 540μm long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 120μm in diam.; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 35–40x12–14 μm.

Having opposite appressoria, Meliola aristolochigena can be compared with M. catharinensis Hansf. reported on Aristolochia triangularis from Brazil (Hansford, 1961).  However, differs from it in having distinctly longer appressoria (14–20 μm against 11–15 μm) and mycelial setae (540μm against 230μm).

 

Meliola artocarpi Yates, Philippine J. Sci. 12: 362, 1917; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 328, 1961; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 42: 130, 1991; Hosag., Kaveriappa, Raghu & Goos, Mycotaxon 51: 111, 1994; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 133, 1996 (Fig. 47 & Image 6).

Materials examined: HCIO 42181, TBGT 53, 28.iii.1996,  on leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae), Karadimala, coll. V.B. Hosagoudar.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 2mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching alternate at acute angles, closely reticulate, cells 24–36x7–9.6 m.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse, 26–41 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, margin may wavy or entire, 9–17 m long; head cells ovate, angular to sublobate, 16–24x17 m.  Phialides borne on separate mycelial branch, 1% mixed with appressoria, alternate to unilateral, ampulliform, 19–26x7–10 m.  Mycelial setae densely scattered, simple, curved, obtuse at the tip, up to 430m long. Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 170 m in diameter; ascospores obovate, 3–4 septate, constricted at the septa, 50–53x16–19 m.

Epiphyllous colonies, uncinate and obtuse mycelial setae are the characteristics of this species.

Common throughout southern Western Ghats.

 

Meliola atalantiae Hosag. in Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 220, 1990; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 135, 1996 (Fig. 48).

Materials examined: HCIO 50365, TBGT 4282; HCIO 49888, TBGT 4040, 18.ix.2008, on leaves of Atlantia sp. (Rutaceae), Thirunelly, coll. M. Harish et al.; HCIO 49437, TBGT 3682, 16.ii.2009, Thirunelly, coll. Harish et al.,

Colonies amphigenous, mostly hypophyllous, crustaceous, up to 8mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae straight, substraight to crooked, branching opposite to irregular at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 20–28x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate, about 20% opposite, straight to curved, subantrorse to spreading, 20–30 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–10 m long; head cells ovate, conoid, rounded at the apex, entire, 14–20x8–10 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 20–26x8–12 m.  Mycelial setae scattered, straight, often curved, simple, acute to 2–3 dentate to cristate at the tip, up to 765m long.  Perithecia scattered, immature; ascospores oblong, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 40–44x14–16 m.

 

Meliola beilschmiediae Yamam. var. cinnamomicola Hosag. in Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 87: 222, 1990; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 142, 1996 (Fig. 49).

Materials examined: HCIO 44335, TBGT 718, 10.i.2002, on leaves of Cinnamomum macrocarpum (Lauraceae), Periya, coll. M. Kamarudeen.

Colonies hypophyllous, dense, velvety, up to 3mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae flexuous, branching alternate to irregular at acute angles, closely reticulate, form almost solid mycelial mat, cells 20–30x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate, straight to variously curved, antrorse to reflexed, 20–24 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 6–10 m long; head cells globose, ovate, angular, entire, 14–16x12–14 m.  Phialides few, mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 18–22x8–10 m.  Mycelial setae numerous, evenly scattered, straight, simple, acute to variously dentate at the tip, up to 684m long.  Perithecia closely scattered, verrucose, up to 216m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 54–60x16–20 m.

 

Meliola buteae Hafiz, Azmatulla & Kafi, Biologia 1: 112, 1955; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 291, 1961; Thite & Patil, Kavaka 10: 29, 1982; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 223, 1990; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 148, 1996 (Fig. 50).

Materials examined: HCIO 49063, TBGT 3318, 19.xi.2008, on leaves of Butea parviflora Roxb. (Fabaceae), Pulpally, coll. M. Harish & P.J. Robin; HCIO 49628, TBGT 3870, 19.ix.2008, coll. M. Harish & P.J. Robin; HCIO 50845; TBGT 4762; HCIO 50854, TBGT 4771, 6.xi.2009, Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taubert, Padinharathara, coll.  M.C. Riju & A. Sabeena.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite at wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 21–31x5–7 m.  Appressoria opposite to alternate, about 5% unilateral, subantrorse to spreading, 12–17 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–5 m long; head cells cylindrical, clavate, subglobose, entire to angulose, 9–12x9–12 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–19x7–9 m.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, straight, simple, acute at the tip, up to 680m long. Perithecia scattered, verrucose, globose, up to 170m in diameter; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 36–38x14–17 m.

This species is very common on this host genus in the Western Ghats

 

Meliola butleri Sydow, Ann. Mycol. 9: 379, 1911; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 382, 1961; Srinivasulu, Nova Hedwigia Beih. 47: 423, 1974; Hosag., J. Econ. Tax. Bot. 9: 375, 1987; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 148, 1996;  J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 30: 947, 2006.

 

Amazonia butleri Stev., Ann. Mycol. 25: 415, 1927 (Fig. 51).

Materials examined: HCIO 50843, TBGT 4760, 6.xi.2009,  on leaves of Citrus sp. (Rutaceae), Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju & A. Sabeena.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, dense, up to 4mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight to undulate, branching opposite to irregular at wide angles, closely reticulate, cells 11–25x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate to opposite, antrorse, curved, 15–24 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–6 m long; head cells ovate, clavate, cylindrical, often curved, entire, 12–17x7–10 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 15–21x6–8 m.  Mycelial setae scattered, straight, acute to dentate, up to 685m long. Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 232m in diam.; ascospores oblong to subellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 32–45x14–19 m.

The present taxon can be compared with Meliola citricola Sydow.  The former has mostly epiphyllous, smaller, crustose colonies with straight hyphae, mostly antrorse appressoria and dentate mycelial setae.  However, the latter has mostly hypophyllous, larger, velvety colonies with crooked mycelium, irregularly curved appressoria and both acute and dentate mycelial setae.

 

Meliola cadigensis Yates var. toddaliae Hosag., C.K. Biju & Abraham, Nova Hedwigia 80: 484, 2005; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 199, 2008 (Fig. 52).

Materials examined: HCIO 43617, TBGT 299, 19.xi.1998, on leaves of Toddalia sp. (Rutaceae), Banasuranmala, coll. C.K. Biju.

Colonies amphigenous, dense, up to 2mm diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching alternate to opposite at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 12–28x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate, 5% opposite, antrorse to closely antrorse, 12–18 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–7 m long; head cells mostly ovate, entire, 9–12x8–10 m. Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 16–24x6–8 m.  Mycelial setae scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, predominantly straight, few curved, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 540m long; perithecia scattered to loosely grouped, up to 165m diam.; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 35–39x14–16 m.

 

Meliola cadigensis Yates var. glycosmidis (Kapoor) Hosag., Crypt. Bot. 213: 186, 1991; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 149, 1996.

Meliola glycosmidis Kapoor, Indian Phytopath. 20: 153, 1967; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 234, 1990 (Fig. 53).

Materials examined: HCIO 49067, TBGT 3322; HCIO  49072, TBGT 3327; HCIO 51151, TBGT 5031; HCIO 51294, TBGT 5174, 18.ix.2008, on leaves of Glycosmis mauritiana (Lam.) Tanaka {(G. pentaphylla Correa)} (Rutaceae), Thirunelly, coll. M. Harish & P.J. Robin; HCIO  42970, TBGT 246, 11.viii.1998, coll. C.K.Biju; HCIO  44628, TBGT 910, 23.ix.2002, coll. K. Vijayakumar; HCIO 49399, TBGT 3644, 12.ii.2009, coll. P.J. Robin et al.; HCIO 49649, TBGT 3891, 17.xi.2008, Periya, coll. M. Harish & P.J. Robin; HCIO 49438, TBGT 3683, 15.ii.2009, Begoor, coll. Harish et al.; HCIO 49966, TBGT 4118, 16.ix.2007, Puthuserrkadavu, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 50826, TBGT 4743; HCIO 50828, TBGT 4745, 4.xi.2009, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju & A. Sabeena.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, dense, velvety, scattered, cover all the upper surface of the leaves, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, closely reticulate to form a mycelial mat, cells 12–22x7–10 m.  Appressoria alternate and opposite, crowded, straight to curved, antrorse to spreading, 14–22 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–10 m long; head cells ovate, globose to subglobose, entire, rounded at the apex, 9–12x7–12 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 14–22x7–10 m.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, straight, simple, acute to dentate at the tip, up to 700m long.  Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 180m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal to slightly ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 33–38x12–16 m.

The variety differs from the species in having dentate mycelial setae.

 

Meliola cannonicola Hosag. & C.K. Biju, Indian Phytopath. 57: 456, 2004; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 202, 2008 (Fig. 54).

Materials examined: HCIO 45266, TBGT 1304, 16.iv.1999, on leaves of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (Rutaceae), Banasuran Mala, coll. C.K. Biju.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, scattered, velvety, up to 3mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching alternate to opposite at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 19–24x6–8 μm.  Appressoria alternate, 5% opposite, antrorse to subantrorse, 19–24 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–8 μm long; head cells oblong, clavate, cylindrical, entire to rarely slightly angular, 14–16x9–11 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 19–24x8–10 μm.  Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 980μm long.  Perithecia scattered to loosely grouped, up to 136μm in diam.; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 38–44x13–15 μm.

There are six taxa of the genus Meliola on the host genus Toddalia (Hansford 1961; Mibey & Hawksworth 1997).  The present taxon is close to Meliola toddalicola Hansf. and M. toddalicola Hansf. var. indica Hansf. & Thirum. in having alternate and opposite appressoria. This taxon differs from the former in having smaller and only 5% appressoria and having shorter mycelial setae. It also differs from the latter taxon in having only 5% opposite appressoria and longer mycelial setae.

 

Meliola cannonii Hosag., J. Mycopathol. Res. 43: 22, 2005; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 201, 2008 (Fig. 55).

Materials examined: HCIO 43818, TBGT 389, 20.ix.2008, on leaves of Strychnos nux-vomica L. (Strychnaceae), Pulpally, coll. M. Harish. & P.J Robin.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly hypophyllous, subdense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight, flexuous to crooked, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 16–20x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate, less than 1% opposite, antrorse, subantrorse to recurved, 17–26 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 6–10 m long; head cells ovate, oblong, entire to angular, attenuated to truncate at the apex, 11–16x8–12 m.  Phialides numerous, mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 12–20x6–8 m.  Mycelial setae scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, curved to uncinate, acute at the tip, up to 350m long. Perithecia scattered to loosely grouped, up to 130m in diameter; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 30–32x12–15 m.

Based on the morphology of appressoria, Meliola cannonii is similar to M. strychni-multiflorae Hansf. known on Strychnos multiflora from Philippines but differs from it in having comparatively closely arranged appressoria, shorter and straight to uncinate mycelial setae.

 

Meliola canavaliae Hosag. & Riju, Plant Pathology & Quarantine 1(2): 125, 2011; Hosag., J. Threatened Taxa 5(6):4022, 2013 (Fig. 56).

Material examined: HCIO 51043, TBGT 4960; HCIO 51044, TBGT 4961, 10.i.2011, on leaves of Canavalia sp. (Fabaceae), 16th mile, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies foliicolous, epiphyllous, thin, scattered, up to 4mm in diameter.  Hyphae flexuous to undulate, branching mostly opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 15–38x5–8 μm.  Appressoria alternate, unilateral, rarely opposite, straight to slightly curved, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, 10–18 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–8 μm long; head cells ovate, globose, 10–15x8–15 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, unilateral, ampulliform, 15–25x7–10 μm.  Mycelial setae scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, straight to slightly curved, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 340μm long. Perithecia scattered, up to 160μm in diameter; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 33–35x10–13 μm.

Hansford (1961) identified M. teramni Sydow infecting leaves of Canavalia ensiformis collected by F.C. Deighton from Sierra Leone.  The present fungus is similar but differs in having shorter (340 μm vs. 1000 μ), acute to obtuse setae (in contrast to 2–4 dentate or furcate) and smaller ascospores (33–35x10–13 μm vs. 35–42x13–16 μm).

 

Meliola canthiicola Hosag., C.K. Biju & Abraham, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 25: 69, 2001; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 204, 2008 (Fig. 57).

Materials examined: HCIO 43828, TBGT 360, 18.xi.1999, on leaves of Canthium rheedii DC. (Rubiaceae), Chembra hills, coll. C. K. Biju.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 3mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight to flexuous, branching alternate to opposite at acute angles, closely reticulate, cells 20–24x8–10 μm.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to closely antrorse, 28–35 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 8–13 μm long; head cells ovate, oblong, entire, angular to slightly lobate, attenuated and broadly rounded to truncate at the apex, 19–23x12–16 μm.  Phialides borne on a separate mycelial branch, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 15–18x7–9 μm.  Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight to rarely curved, acute at the tip, up to 500μm long. Perithecia scattered, up to 25μm in diameter; ascospores slightly ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 44–47x19–22 μm.

Morphologically, Meliola canthiicola is similar to M. canthii Hansf. but differs from it in having the phialides borne on a separate mycelial branch and smaller ascospores.

 

Meliola capensis (Kalch. & Cooke) Theiss. var. allophylicola Hansf. & Deight., Mycol.Pap. 23: 45, 1948; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 437, 1961; Kar & Bhattacharya, Indian Phytopath. 35: 39, 1982; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 154, 1996 (Fig. 58).

Materials examined: HCIO 46690, TBGT 2031, 27.xii.2002, on leaves of Allophylus sp. (Sapindaceae), Periya, coll. M. Kamarudeen & P.A. Jose.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 16–26x6–7 m.  Appressoria alternate and opposite, 10% unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, straight to curved, 16–24 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–7 m long; head cells ovate, globose to subglobose, entire to subangular, 12–17x9–12 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 21–26x7–10 m.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, acute, obtuse to dentate at the tip, up to 580m long.  Perithecia scattered, numerous, verrucose, up to 170m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septum, 36–43x14–17 m.

Subglobose to oblong head cells of the appressoria distinguishes this taxon.  Common species in the Western Ghats.

 

Meliola capensis (Kalch. & Cooke) Theiss. var. malayensis Hansf., Sydowia 10: 67, 1951; Sydowia Beih. 2: 439, 1961; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 224, 1990; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 156, 1996 (Fig. 59).

Materials examined: HCIO 49965, TBGT 4117 14.iii.2007, on leaves of Nephelium longan Lour. (Sapindaceae), Batherry, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 44495, TBGT 785, 21.v.2002, Nephelium sp., Wayanad, coll. M.Kamarudeen.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 4mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae straight, branching opposite at wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 12–7x6–8 m.  Appressoria opposite to alternate, straight to curved, antrorse to spreading, 11–18 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 1–3 m long; head cells ovate to cylindrical, attenuated at the apex, entire, 9–14x6–8 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 12–18x6–8 m.  Mycelial setae grouped around perithecia, straight, simple, acute, obtuse to variously dentate at the tip, up to 660m long.  Perithecia scattered, globose, up to 150m in diameter; ascospores subellipsoidal to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 28–36x12–16 m.

Ovate, conoid and slightly recurved head cells of appressoria are the distinguishing characters of this species.

Common species in the Western Ghats.

 

Meliola capensis (Kalch. & Cooke) Theiss. var. schleicherae Hosag. & Pillai in Hosag., Raghu & Pillai, Nova Hedwigia 58: 583, 1994; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 157, 1996(Fig. 60).

Materials examined: TBGT 3938, 15.ii.2009, on leaves of Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken (Sapindaceae), Wayanad, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight, branching opposite at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 14–26x4–7 m.  Appressoria opposite, crowded, 12–14 m long; stalk cells cuneate, 2–4 m long; head cells conoid, entire, 9–12x6–7 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–21x4–7 m.  Mycelial setae scattered, straight, simple, acute to dentate at the tip, up to 480m long.  Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 140m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 31–36x14–17 m.

Opposite, crowded to sparse appressoria with conoid head cells distinguishes this taxon.

Endemic to southern Western Ghats

 

Meliola careyae (Stev.) Hosag. var. indica Hosag., Persoonia 18:2, 2003 (Fig. 61).

Materials examined: HCIO 44368, TBGT 631, 6.ii.2002, on leaves of Careya arborea Roxb.(Lecythidaceae), Periya; HCIO 44798, TBGT 1035, 26.xii.2002, Chandanathode, coll. M. Kamarudeen & P.A. Jose; HCIO 44868, TBGT 1096, 09.iii.2001, Periya, coll. G. Rajkumar & P.A. Jose; HCIO 43672, TBGT 336, 19.ix.1998, Banasuranmala, C.K. Biju.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, up to 5mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching alternate to opposite at acute to wide angles, closely reticulate and form solid mycelial mat, cells 12–26x4–8 m.  Appressoria opposite, about 3% alternate, antrorse to subantrorse, 14–18 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–5 m long; head cells ovate, rarely globose, entire, 9–13x9–12 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 16–23x8–10 m.  Mycelial setae scattered to grouped around perithecia, straight, simple, acute at the tip, up to 350m long. Perithecia scattered, up to 175m in diameter; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 36–44x14–16 m.

 

Meliola celastrigena Hosag., Plant Pathology & Quarantine 3(1): 5, 2013 (Fig. 62).

Materials examined: TBGT 6232, 15.ii.2008, on  Celasteraceae member, Periya, coll. M.C Riju.

Colonies hypophyllous, dense, velvety, scattered, up to 6mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight to slightly undulate, branching alternate to unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 19–30x6–9 μm.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse, subantrorse, spreading, retrorse, 37–42 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 11–16 μm long; head cells ovate, clavate, lobate to stellately lobate, 24–27x24–26 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate, conoid to ampulliform, 16–35x5–9 μm.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, simple, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 430μm long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 120μm in diameter; ascospores curved, ellipsoidal, 3-septate, deeply constricted at the septa, 57–59x19–21 μm.

Meliola euonymi Stevens ex Hansf. known on Euonymus sp. from Philippines (Hansford 1961) but the present species differs from it in having shorter appressoria (36–42 vs. 40–55 μm) and ascospores (19–21 vs. 22–24 μm).

 

Meliola chandrasekharanii Hosag. in Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 225, 1990; 42: 133, 1991; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 164, 1996 (Fig. 63).

Materials examined: HCIO 44350, TBGT 587, 6.ii.2002, on leaves, stems and petioles of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Graham) Mabberly (Icacinaceae), Periya, coll. M.Kamarudeen; HCIO 48005, TBGT 2788, 6.xii.2006, coll. M. Harish et al.; HCIO 49069, TBGT 3324, 18.ix.2008, Thirunelly, coll. M. Harish et al.; HCIO 44793, TBGT 1030; HCIO 48008, TBGT 2791, 27.xii.2002, Nothopodites sp., Periya,  M. Kamarudeen & P.A. Jose; TBGT 5719, 22.iii.2008, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 50645, TBGT 4562, 26.xii.2007, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 51297, TBGT 5177, 27.xii.2007, coll. M.C. Riju; TBGT 3939, 13.ii.2007, Thirunelly, coll. M. Harish et al.; HCIO 51277, TBGT 5157, 22.iii.2008, Wayanad, coll. M.C. Riju et al.; HCIO 51232, TBGT 5112, 23.xii.2008; TBGT 5723, 23.iii.2008.

Colonies amphigenous, caulicolous, mostly epiphyllous, velvety, cover almost all the part of upper surface of the leaf, up to 3mm diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to undulate, branching alternate to opposite at acute angles, closely reticulate and form a mycelial mat, cells 15–29x6–9 m.  Appressoria alternate, about 1% opposite, straight to curved, spreading, mostly antrorse, 17–26 m long; stalk cells cuneate to cylindrical, 4–9 m long; head cells subglobose, ovate, angular to sublobate, 11–18x13–15 m.  Phialides borne on a separate mycelial branch, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 15–26x6–9 m.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered to grouped around perithecia, straight, simple, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 490m long. Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 160m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal to cylindrical, 4-septate, 33–40x11–15 m.

Because of the lobate head cells of appressoria and separately borne phialides the present collection merits its placement in the above mentioned.

 

Meliola citricola Sydow & Sydow, Ann.Mycol. 15: 183, 1917; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 246, 1961; Kar & Maity, Norw. J. Bot. 19: 246, 1972; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 326, 1990; 42: 133, 1991; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 167, 1996; J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 30: 949, 2006 (Fig. 64).

Materials examined: HCIO 49963, TBGT 4115, 15.iii.2007, on leaves of Citrus sp. (Rutaceae), Puthuserrykadavu, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 50843, TBGT 4760, 6.xi.2009, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju & A. Sabeena.

Colonies amphigenous, dense, velvety, up to 6mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, closely reticulate to form a mycelial mat, cells 9–26x6–7 m.  Appressoria alternate to opposite, about 10% unilateral, antrorse to retrorse, straight to curved, closely packed, 16–24 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–7 m long; head cells cylindrical, ovate, clavate, entire, curved to recurved, 12–16x7–10 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 16–26x6–7 m.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, straight, simple, acute to variously dentate at the tip, up to 810m long. Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 190m in diameter; ascospores cylindrical to subellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 36–41x14–19 m.

Two species of the genus Meliola, namely M. butleri Sydow and M. citricola Sydow have been recorded on the host genus Citrus.  However, the latter differs from the former in having opposite and alternate appressoria and obtuse to dentate mycelial setae.

 

Meliola clerodendricola Henn., Hedwigia 37: 288, 1895; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 694, 1961; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 226, 1990; Hosag., Kaveriappa, Raghu & Goos, Mycotaxon 51: 111, 1994; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 169, 1996.

Meliola sakawensis Henn. var. longispora Beeli, Bull. Jard. Bot. Etat. 7: 98, 1920.

Meliola sakawensis P. Henn., Hedwigia 43: 141, 1904; Stev., Ann. Mycol. 26: 248, 1928 (Fig. 65).

Materials examined: HCIO 49630, TBGT 3872, 16.ix.2008, on leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum Vent. (Verbenaceae), Periya, coll. M. Harish & Robin P.J.; HCIO 49970, TBGT 4122, 14.iii.2007, Puthuserrykadavu, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 50819, TBGT 4736, 4.xi.2009,  Clerodendrum sp., Padiharathara, coll. M.C. Riju & A. Sabeena.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, dense, scattered, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae undulate to tortuous, branching alternate to opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 16–24x4–6 m.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, straight to curved, antrorse to reflexed, 12–17 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–7 m long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, 7–10x6–7 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 14–17 m.  Mycelial setae few, grouped around perithecia, simple, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 220m long.  Perithecia grouped, verrucose, up to 130m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal to ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 28–34x12–14 m.

This is the only species of the genus Meliola on this host in the Western Ghats region.

Common in the Western Ghats of Peninsular India

 

Meliola crescentiae Stev., Ann. Mycol. 26: 240, 1928; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 673, 1961; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 174, 1996 (Fig. 66 & Image 7).

Materials examined: HCIO 48182, TBGT 2918, 29.vi.2007, on leaves of Oroxylum sp. (Bignoniaceae), 16th mile, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 48184, TBGT 2920, 10.xi.2007 coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 50754, TBGT 4671; HCIO 50756, TBGT 4673, 6.xi.2009, Pajenelia sp., Chennalodu, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju.

Colonies epiphyllous, thin to subdense, subvelvety, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 19–36x4–12 m.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to subantrorse, straight to curved, 14–24 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–10 m long; head cells globose to subglobose, subangular, entire, 9–14x9–12 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 12–28x4–7 m.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, straight, simple, subacute to obtuse at the tip, up to 220m long. Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 120m in diameter; ascospores oblong to subellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 31–34x12–14 m.

This collection matches well with assigned species.

 

Meliola cycleae Hosag. in Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 228, 1990; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 176, 1996 (Fig. 67).

Materials examined: HCIO 49206, TBGT 3445, 14.ii.2009, on leaves, stems and petioles of Cyclea peltata Cooke (Menispermaceae), Thirunelly, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.; HCIO 49976, TBGT 4128; HCIO 50004, TBGT 4156, 14.iii.2007, Puthuserrykadavu, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 50334, TBGT 4251, 5.xi.2009, Gurukulam Botanic Garden, Periya, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju; HCIO 50823, TBGT 4740, 4.xi.2009, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju & A. Sabeena; HCIO 50825, TBGT 4742, 6.xi.2009, Chennalode, coll. M.C. Riju & A. Sabeena; HCIO 49068, TBGT 3323, 17.ix.2008, Periya, coll. M. Harish & P.J. Robin; HCIO 49639, TBGT 3881, HCIO 49206, TBGT 3445, 14.ii.2009, Thirunelli, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.; HCIO 49976, TBGT 4128, 14.iii.2007, Puthuserrykadavu, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, subdense to dense, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to slightly undulate, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 14–36x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, straight, antrorse, 16–28 m long; stalk cells cuneate, 7–12 m long; head cells ovate, versiform, slightly and bluntly pointed at the apex, entire, 14–17x12-14 m.  Phialides born on a separate mycelial branch, alternate to opposite, conoid to ampulliform, 12–22x6–8 m.  Mycelial setae scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, acute at the tip, up to 420 m long. Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 160m in diameter; ascospores oblong, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 36–40x15–20 m.

 

Meliola cymbopogonis Kapoor, Indian Phytopathol. 20: 152, 1967; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 229, 1990; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 177, 1996 (Fig. 68).

Materials examined: HCIO 43632, TBGT 300, 18.xi.1998, on leaves of Cymbopogon sp. (Poaceae), Chembra, coll. C.K. Biju.

Colonies epiphyllous, rarely amphigenous, subdense to dense, velvety, up to 3mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight to tortuous, straight hyphae run along the veins and tortuous hyphae cross the straight hyphae, branching mostly opposite at wide to acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 14–22x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate, unilateral, antrorse, spreading, 10–24 m long; stalk cells cuneate to cylindrical, 4–12 m long; head cells ovate, globose, angular to sublobate, 10–14x12–14 m.  Phialides few, mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 12–18x10–12 m.  Mycelial setae straight, dichotomously branched at the tip, up to 176m long till branching, primary branches up to 20m long, while, tertiary up to 10m long, branchlets retrorse, acute to obtuse at the tip. Perithecia scattered, up to 120m in diameter; ascospores ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 38–44x12–14 m.

Dichotomously branched mycelial setae on this host genus is the distinguishing character of this species.

 

Meliola densa Cooke, Grevillea 12: 85, 1884; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 141, 1961; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 229, 1990; Hosag., Kaveriappa, Raghu & Goos, Mycotaxon 51: 111, 1994; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 178, 1996 (Fig. 69).

Materials examined: HCIO 45254, TBGT 1292, 7.iii.2001, on leaves of Syzygium sp. (Myrtaceae), Periya, coll. G. Rajkumar & P.A. Jose; HCIO 49971, TBGT 4123, 14.iii.2007, Puthuserrykadavu, coll.  M.C. Riju; HCIO 50030, TBGT 4182, 6.xii.2006, Periya, coll. Gireesh et al.

Colonies hypophyllous, dense, velvety, up to 5mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to tortuous, branching opposite to irregular at wide angles, closely reticulate, cells 18–40x8–10 m.  Appressoria alternate, straight to variously bent, antrorse, spreading, 18–24 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 6–14 m long; head cells curved, ovate, cylindrical, angulose, entire, 12–16x8–12 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, neck elongated and twisted, 22–30x8–10 m.  Mycelial setae fairly numerous, simple, broadly uncinate to arcuate above, very few are straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 540m long.  Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 180m in diam.; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 46–48x18–20 m.

Hypophyllous dense colonies with uncinate mycelial setae are the distinguishing characters of this species.  This species occurs on many genera of Myrtaceae.

 

Meliola dimidiatae Hosag. in Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 229, 1990; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 181, 1996. (Fig. 70).

Materials examined: HCIO 50643, TBGT 4560, 30.ix.2007, on leaves of Nothopodytes nimmoniana (Graham) Mabb. (Icacinaceae), Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies epiphyllous, subdense, subvelvety, scattered, up to 3mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae flexuous, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 16–28x4–7 m.  Appressoria alternate and unilateral, rarely opposite, straight to curved, antrorse to reflexed, spreading, 14–19 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–6 m long; head cells globose, ovate, curved, entire, 12–14x9–12 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 16–24x7–10 m.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, often grouped around perithecia, straight, simple, acute, up to 520m long.  Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 130m in diameter; ascospores cylindrical to subellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 40–43x16–19 m.

This species differs from other Meliola species reported on the members of the family Icacinaceae in having globose head cells of appressoria, straight mycelial setae and 4-septate ascospores.

Endemic to southern Western Ghats

 

Meliola dysoxyligena Hosag. & Riju, Plant Pathology & Quarantine 1(2): 126, 2011; Hosag., Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(6):4029, 2013 (Fig. 71).

Material examined: HCIO 51045, TBGT 4962; HCIO 51037, TBGT 4954; HCIO 51038, TBGT 4955; HCIO 51052, TBGT 4969, 26.xii.2009, on leaves of Dysoxylum sp. (Meliaceae), Chennalode, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 5mm in diameter.  Hyphae substraight to crooked, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 20–45x7–8 μm.  Appressoria alternate, unilateral, opposite, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, 15–17x7–10 μm; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–5 μm long; head cells globose, subglobose, entire to rarely truncate, 10–13x7–10 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 15–38x7–10 μm.  Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight, acute to 2–3-times dentate at the tip, up to 200 μm long. Perithecia scattered, up to 210μm in diameter; ascospores cylindrical to oblong, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 35–40x12–15 μm.

Meliola ptaeroxyli Doidge, M. Carapace Hansf. & Deight. and M. toonae Hosag. & Sabu are the species that have simple and dentate mycelial setae.  The present fungus differs from M. ptaeroxyli in not producing a pathogenic effect on the host, from M. carapace in having shorter appressoria (15–17 μm vs. 24– 40 μm) and smaller ascospores (35–40x12–15 vs. 51–58x19–23 μm).  It differs from M. toonae in having shorter appressoria (15–17 μm vs. 16–24 μm) and shorter ascospores (35– 40 μm vs. 40–44 μm) (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996, 2008; Hu et al. 1996, 1999).  The neck or apical portion of the phialides are unusually elongated, often variously bent and proliferate as hyphae by holding the phialoconidia in their neck.

 

Meliola erythropali Hosag. in Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 232, 1990 (erythropalii); Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 190, 1996 (Fig. 72).

Materials examined: HCIO 43629, TBGT 322, on leaves of Erythropalum populifolium (Arn.) Masrt. (Erythropalaceae), Chembra, coll. C.K.Biju; 4.iv.1999; TBGT 3754, 18.ii.2009, Periya, coll. P.J. Robin et al.

Colonies amphigenous, caulicolous, dense, velvety, up to 5mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to slightly undulate, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 14–41x4–7 m.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, straight, antrorse, spreading, 12–22 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–5 m long; head cells ovate, globose, slightly curved, entire, 9–17x7–9 m.  Phialides few, mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–26x6–8 m.  Mycelial setae scattered, grouped around perithecia, numerous, simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 310m long. Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 170m in diameter; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 33–40x9–14 m.

This is the only species of the genus Meliola on the members of the family Erythropalaceae.

Endemic to Southern Western Ghats

 

Meliola flemingiicola Hosag., Jose & H. Biju in Hosag., J. Mycopathol. Res. 43: 26, 2005; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 243, 2008. (Fig. 73).

Materials examined: HCIO 43616, TBGT 298, 19.xi.1998, on leaves of Flemingia sp. (Fabaceae), Banasuranmala, coll. C.K.Biju.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, crustose to velvety, scattered, up to 2mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 17–28x6–8 μm.  Appressoria alternate, about 20% opposite, antrorse, subantrorse to rarely recurved, 12–16 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3-7 μm long; head cells globose, entire, rarely truncate at the apex, 9–11x10–12 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–21x8–10 μm. Mycelial setae scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, obtuse, dentate to cristate at the apex, up to 441μm long.  Perithecia scattered to loosely grouped, globose, up to 140μm in diameter; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4 septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 33–36x11–13 μm.

 

Meliola gamblei Hosag. in Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 42: 134, 1991; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 201, 1996. (Fig. 74)

Materials examined: HCIO 49435, TBGT 3680, 16.ii.2009, on leaves of Smilax sp. (Smilacaceae), Periya, coll. Harish et al.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, crustose, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to crooked, branching opposite at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 18–31x6–9 m.  Appressoria alternate, straight to curved, antrorse to spreading, 18–22 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–5 m long; head cells ovoid to globose, straight to curved, often bluntly pointed at the apex, entire, 12–15.5x12–14 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 15–25x6–9.5 m.  Mycelial setae few, straight, simple, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 650m long. Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 280m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 37–43.5x15–18.5 m.

 

Meliola gemellipoda Doidge, Bothalia 1: 80, 1920; Stev., Ann. Mycol. 26: 229, 1928; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 530, 1961; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 232, 1990; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 204, 1996.

Meliola busogensis Hansf., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 51: 538, 1938. (Fig. 75)

Materials examined: HCIO 49462, TBGT 3704; HCIO 49771, 9.ix.2008, on leaves of Jasminum sp. (Oleaceae), Pulpally, coll. P.J. Robin et al., TBGT 3923, 14.ii.2009, Thirunelly, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.; HCIO 49967, TBGT 4119, 13.iii.2007, Puthuserrykadavu, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 50841, TBGT 4758, 5.xi.2009,  Jasminum malabaricum Wight, Gurukulam Botanical Garden, coll. M.C. Riju & A. Sabeena; HCIO 49627, TBGT 3869, 20.ix.2008, Jasminum sp., Pulpally, coll. M. Harish & P.J. Robin.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, dense, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to slightly undulate, branching opposite at acute to subacute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 12–19x4–7 m.  Appressoria opposite (very few unilateral), straight to slightly curved, closely antrorse, 14–19 m long; stalk cells cuneate, 4–7 m long; head cells subglobose to ovate, entire, 9–14x7–10 m.  Phialides few, mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 16–26x7–10 m.  Mycelial setae fairly numerous, scattered to mostly grouped around perithecia, straight, simple, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 570m long.  Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 120m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 43–50x14–20 m.

This is distinct from other species having opposite appressoria.

Not very common in the Western Ghats

 

Meliola glanduliferae Hosag., C.K. Biju & Abraham, Nova Hedwigia 80: 485, 2005; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 250, 2008 (Fig. 76).

Materials examined: HCIO 43630, TBGT 328, 16.iv.1999, on leaves of Olea glandulifera Wallich ex G. Don (Oleaceae), Banasuran mala, coll.  C.K.Biju.

Colonies amphigenous, subdense to dense, up to 2mm diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching mostly opposite, loosely to rather closely reticulate, cells 12–18x5–7 m.  Appressoria alternate, straight to curved, antrorse to subantrorse, 19–22 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 7–9 m long; head cells oblong to cylindrical, broadly rounded to rarely truncate at the apex, entire, 11–16x6–8 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 19–24x4–7 m.  Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight, acute to slightly obtuse at the tip, up to 200m long. Perithecia scattered, up to 160m diam.; ascospores obovoidal to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 35–40x14–16 m.

 

Meliola gliricidiicola Hosag. & Agarwal, Indian Phytopath. 56: 103, 2003; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 251, 2008; Hosag. & Agarwal, Taxonomic studies of Meliolales. Identification Manual, p. 178, 2008. (Fig. 77)

Materials examined: HCIO 49964, TBGT 4116, 16.iii.2007, on leaves of Gliricidia sp. (Fabaceae), Batherry, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, subdense to dense, up to 2mm in diameter, often confluent.  Hyphae straight to flexuous, branching mostly opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 14–21x4–8 m.  Appressoria alternate, opposite, subantrorse to spreading, 11–16 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–5 m long; head cells globose, rarely ovate, straight to slightly curved, entire, 9–10x7–11 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 8–16x6–8 m.  Mycelial setae scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 368m long. Perithecia scattered, up to 164m in diameter; ascospores mostly cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 32–37x9–13 m.

Meliola gliricidicola can be compared with Meliola nyanzae Hansf. having the same Beeli formula 3113. 3222.  However, it differs from it in not causing any pathogenic effect on the host.  It differs from Meliola bicornis Wint. in having only acute setae and smaller ascospores.  It also differs from Meliola cranatissima Sydow in having phialides mixed with appressoria, mycelial setae acute and having smaller ascospores (Hansford, 1961).

 

Meliola groteana Sydow var. maesae Hosag., C.K. Biju & Abraham, Nova Hedwigia 80: 486, 2005; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 257, 2008. (Fig. 78).

Materials examined: HCIO 43673, TBGT335, 18.xi.1998, on leaves of Maesa indica (Roxb.) DC. (Myrsinaceae), Chembra hills, coll. C.K. Biju; HCIO 50329, TBGT 4246, 31.x.2007, 10th Mile, Banasura sagar, coll. V.B. Hosagoudar et al.; HCIO 49059, TBGT 3314, 16.ix.2008, Periya, coll. M. Harish & P.J. Robin; HCIO 49210, TBGT 3449, 14.ii.2009, Thirunelly, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.; HCIO 47399, TBGT 2437, 21.iv.2003,  Maesa perrottetiana A.DC., Periya, coll. G. Rajkumar & P.A. Jose.

Colonies mostly hypophyllous, dense, velvety, up to 5mm diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to flexuous, branching mostly opposite at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 12–16x5–7 μm.  Appressoria alternate, about 30% opposite, antrorse to subantrorse, 12–16 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–5 μm long; head cells predominantly globose, rarely ovate, entire, 9–11x8–11 μm.  Phialides few, mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 16–20x8–11 μm.  Mycelial setae densely scattered, simple, straight, flexuous to arcuate, obtuse to acute at the tip, up to 300μm long. Perithecia scattered, up to 175μm diameter; ascospores obovoidal to cylindrical, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 33–40x–12–15 μm.

The present collection can readily be assigned to the type species.  However, the new variety differs from var. groteana in having straight to arcuate mycelial setae and smaller ascospores.

 

Meliola gymnemae Jana, Ghosh & Das, Indian Phytopath. 58: 444, 2005; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 259, 2008. (Fig. 79).

Materials examined: HCIO 49377, TBGT 3622, 16.ii.2009, on the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R. Br. ex Schultes (Asclepiadaceae), Periya, coll. P.J. Robin et al.;  HCIO 50002, TBGT 4154 13.iii.2007, Puthuserrykadavu, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 49422, TBGT 3667, 14.ii.2009, Gymnema sp., Thirunelly, Harish et al.; HCIO 49803, TBGT 3955, 8.iii.2008, Periya, coll. P.J. Robin et al.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, dense, velvety, scattered, up to 3mm in diameter.  Hyphae substraight to undulate, branching opposite at acute angles, closely reticulate, cells 12–26x4–7 m.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, antrorse, straight to curved, 14–22 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–7 m long; head cells ovate, globose to subangular, cylindrical, entire, 12–17x9–12 m.  Phialides borne on a separate mycelial branch, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–22x6–7 m.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, straight, simple, acute at the tip, up to 390m long.  Perithecia scattered to grouped, verrucose, up to 170m in diameter; ascospores cylindrical to subellipsoidal, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 31–36x12–14 m.

This fungus causes severe damage on this medicinally important plant.

 

Meliola hemidesmicola Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 212, 1996. (Fig. 80)

Materials examined: HCIO 49064, TBGT 3319, 20ix.2008, on leaves of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. (Periplocaceae), Pulpally, coll. M. Harish & P.J. Robin; HCIO 44796, TBGT 1033, 26.xii.2002, Chandanathode, coll. M. Kamarudeen & P.A. Jose.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, confluent and cover an entire upper surface of the leaves.  Hyphae straight to slightly undulate, branching mostly opposite at wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 21–29x4–7 m.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to subantrorse, 16–24 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–7 m long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, 12–14x9–12 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 19–24x4–7 m.  Mycelial setae fairly numerous, scattered, simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 680m long.  Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 120m in diameter; ascospores oblong to subellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 31–36x12–14 m.

This species differs from Meliola hemidesmi Kamal & Gupta in having longer mycelial setae, smaller perithecia and ascospores (Hosagoudar, 1996).

Endemic to Southern Western Ghats

 

Meliola holigarnae Stev., Mem. Dept. Agric. India, Bot. Ser. 15: 108, 1928; hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 468, 1961; Thite & Kulkarni, J. Shivaji Univ. (Sci.) 6: 162, 1973; Hosag., J. Econ. Tax. Bot. 7: 45, 1985; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 234, 1990; 42: 135, 1991; Hosag., Dayal & Goos, Mycotaxon 46: 204, 1993; Hosag., Raghu & Pillai, Nova Hedwigia 58: 529, 1994; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 217, 1996.  (Fig. 81 & Image 8).

Materials examined: HCIO 45105, TBGT 1160, 26.xii.2002, on leaves of Holigarna arnottiana Hook.f. (Anacardiaceae), Periya, coll. M. Kamarudeen & P.A. Jose; HCIO 45159, TBGT 1214, 27.xii.2002, Chandanathode, coll. M. Kamarudeen & P.A. Jose; HCIO 49382, TBGT 3627; HCIO 49384, TBGT 3629, 16.ii.2009, Holigarna sp., Periya, Wayanadu, coll. Gireesh Kumar et al.

Colonies hypophyllous, dense, velvety, up to 8mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae strongly appressed to the host surface, crooked, branching alternate to irregular at acute to wide angles, closely reticulate, cells 37–54x6–8 m.  Appressoria scattered, alternate to unilateral, antrorse to reflexed, variously curved, 25–50 m long; stalk cells cylindrical, flexuous, usually elongated, 8–20 m long; head cells ovate, versiform, angulose, entire to lobate, straight to curved, 17–22x14–18 m.  Phialides few, mixed with appressoria, conoid to ampulliform, 11–26x4–8 m.  Mycelial setae numerous, straight, flexuous, simple, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 826m long. Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 286m in diam.; ascospores ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, middle cell largest, 62–74x23–30 m.

The present taxon can be easily distinguished by its flexuous mycelial setae and fusiform, large ascospores with the larger central cell.

 

Meliola ichnocarpi-volubili Hansf., Sydowia 16: 320, 1963; Hosag., Abraham & Pushpangadan, The Meliolineae - A Supplement, 1987; Hosag., Zoos Print J. 18: 1002, 2002; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 268, 2008.Meliola ichnocarpi Stev. & Rold., Philippine J. Sci. 56: 66, 1935 (non Hansf. & Thirum., 1948); Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 561, 1961. (Fig. 82).

Materials examined: TBGT 5575, 10.xi.2007, on leaves of Quirivelia frutescens (L.) M.R. Almeida & S.M. Almieda {(Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) R. Br.)} (Apocynaceae), Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent and covering almost upper surface of the leaves.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, closely reticulate, cells 16–29x4–7 m. Appressoria alternate, about 5% unilateral, straight to curved, antrorse to spreading, 9–14 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, upto 2m long; head cells globose to subglobose, ovate, entire, 7–12x7–10 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–19x4–10 m.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, straight, simple, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 420m long. Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 130m in diameter; ascospores cylindrical to obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 26–38x12–14 m.

Meliola ichnocarpi Hansf. & Thirum. and Meliola ichnocarpi-volubili Hansf. are known on this host genus.  The former species differs from the latter in having longer appressoria (15–30 m) and larger ascospores (40–48x20–28 m).  Hence, the present species is accommodated in the latter species.

 

Meliola jasmini Hansf. & Stev., J. Linn. Soc. London 5: 273, 1937; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 235, 1961; Hosag., Indian J. Bot. 11: 185, 1988; Hosag. & Raghu, New Botanist 20: 70, 1993; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 226, 1996. (Fig. 83).

Materials examined: HCIO 49887, TBGT 4039, 17.ix.2008, on leaves of Jasminum rottlerianum Wallich ex A. DC. (Oleaceae), Periya, coll. Harish et al.; HCIO 50401, TBGT 4318, 6.xi.2009, Thariyode, coll. A. Sabeena & M. C. Riju; HCIO 44600, TBGT 887, 19.iii.1997, Jasminum sp., Tirunelly, coll. S. Shiburaj; HCIO 48055, TBGT 2838, 6.xii.2006, Kunkichira, Periya, coll. M. Harish, V. Gireesh Kumar & K. Anilkumar; TBGT 3701, 10.ix.2008, Thirunelly, coll. Robin et al.; TBGT 4061, 11.xi.2007, Jasminum sp., coll. A. Chandraprabha; Puthuserrykadavu, coll. M.C Riju; HCIO 49969, TBGT 4121, 13.iii.2007; HCIO 50846, TBGT 4763, 6.xi.2009, on Jasminum cordifolium Wallich ex G.Don, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju & A. Sabeena; HCIO 50848, TBGT 4765, 6.xi.2009, Chennalode, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju; HCIO 48055, TBGT 2838, 6.xii.2006, on Jasminum sp., Kunkichira, Periya, coll. M. Harish, V. Gireesh Kumar & K. Anilkumar; HCIO 49066, TBGT 3321, 18.ix.2008, Thirunelly, coll. M. Harish et al.; HCIO 49442, TBGT 3687, 20.ix,2008, Mananthavady, coll. P.J.Robin et al.; HCIO 43626, TBGT 304, 18.xi.1998, Chembra, coll. C.K. Biju.

Colonies hypophyllous, thin, velvety, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 21–36x4–7 m.  Appressoria alternate, straight to curved, subantrorse to spreading, 24–26 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 7–12 m long; head cells globose, ovate, slightly angular, entire, 14–19x12–14 m.  Phialides borne on a separate mycelial branch, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 14–24x7–10 m.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, straight, simple, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 380m long.  Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 130m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 33–38x14–17 m.

This species is distinct from other Meliola species known on Jasminum species in having phialides borne on separate mycelial branches.

This host appears to be the source of inoculation for the cultivated Jasminum species.

 

Meliola jasmini Hansf. & Stev. var. microspora Hosag., C.K. Biju & Abraham, Nova Hedwigia 80: 488, 2005; Hosag., Meliolales of India, 2: 273, 2008. (Fig. 84)

Materials examined: HCIO 43626; TBGT 304, 19.xi.1998, on leaves of Jasminum sp. (Oleaceae),   Banasuran mala, coll. C.K. Biju.

Colonies amphigenous, thin, confluent, up to 2mm diameter.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite to rarely unilateral at wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 20–29x4–6 m.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse, rarely 3-celled, straight, 14–25 (-33) m long; stalk cells cylindrical, 4–13 m long; head cells ovate to clavate, entire to sublobate, 6–14x6–10 m.  Phialides borne on a separate mycelial branch, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–19x4–7 m.  Mycelial setae few, grown from the subiculum of perithecia, acute to obtuse at the apex, simple, straight, up to 177m long. Perithecia scattered, up to 110m in diam; ascospores oblong, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 25–30x11–13 m.

The present collection is close to Meliola jasmini Hansf. & Stev. but the new variety differs from the var. jasmini in having smaller ascospores and shorter and less mycelial setae.

 

Meliola jasminigena Hosag., Plant Pathology & Quarantine 3(1): 7, 2013. (Fig. 85).

Materials examined: TBGT 6231 (holotype), 2.i.2010, on leaves of Jasminum bignoniaceum Wallich ex DC. (Oleaceae), Periya, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, scattered, up to 1mm in diameter.  Hyphae crooked, branching alternate to opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to very closely reticulate, cells 16–22x6–10 μm.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, straight to curved, 19–29 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–10 μm long; head cells ovate, clavate, oblong to cylindrical, entire, angular and crenately lobate to sublobate, 16–22x12–16 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate, ampulliform, 17–24x6–10 μm. Mycelial setae numerous, simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 410μm long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 110μm in diameter; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, slightly constricted at septa, 48–50x15–18 μm.

This species is similar to Meliola jasminicola var. africana Hansf. in having crooked mycelium and in the morphology of appressoria.  However, it differs in having phialides mixed with appressoria, longer ascospores (48–50 vs. 31–39 μm).

 

Meliola kamettiae Hosag. & Riju, J. Threatened Taxa 2(4): 824, 2010; Hosag., J. Threatened Taxa 5(6): 4038, 2013. (Fig. 86)

Material examined: HCIO 48175, TBGT 2911; HCIO 48183, TBGT 2919, 30.ix.2007, on leaves of Kamettia caryophyllata Roxb. (Apocynaceae), Puthusserikadavu, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 50751, TBGT 4668; HCIO 50753, TBGT 4670, 6.xi.2009, Kamettia sp., Padinharathara, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju.

Colonies hypophyllous, scattered, dense, velvety, up to 4mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching mostly opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 13–35x4–7 μm. Appressoria alternate, unilateral, straight, antrorse, 11–20 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–9 μm long; head cells ovate, globose, 7–13x6–11 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, alternate, unilateral, ampulliform, 11–22x4–7 μm.  Mycelial setae numerous, up to 260μm long, simple, straight, few slightly curved to uncinate, obtuse, bifid, trifid, often subdentate to furcated to branched at the tip, branches up to 30μm long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 150μm in diameter; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 26–33x8–11 μm.

Straight, slightly curved to uncinate, obtuse, bifid, trifid, often subdentate to furcated mycelial setae distinguishes this taxon from rest of the Meliola species reported on the members of the family Apocynaceae (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996, 2008; Hosagoudar et al. 1997).

 

Meliola lepianthedis Hosag. & Kamar. in Hosag., C.K. Biju & Abraham, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 25: 72, 2001; Hosag., Meliolales of India, 2: 278, 2008. (Fig. 87)

Materials examined: HCIO 43714, TBGT 364, 8.xii.2000, on leaves of Lepianthes umbellata (L.) Rafin (Piperaceae), Wayanad, coll. M. Kamarudeen.

Colonies amphigenous, predominantly epiphyllous, dense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to flexuous, branching opposite to alternate at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 14–18x6–8 μm.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to subantrorse, 16–23 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–8 μm long; head cells globose, minutely and irregularly lobate, 11–16x12–18 μm.  Phialides borne on a separate mycelial branch, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–21x8–10 μm.  Mycelial setae scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, straight to uncinate, acute to broadly rounded at the apex, up to 300μm long. Perithecia scattered, up to 120μm in diameter; ascospores cylindrical, straight to curved, 4- septate, not constricted at the septa, 40–42x9–12 μm.

Sublobate head cells of the appressoria, broadly obtuse tip and uncinate mycelial setae distinguishes this species.

 

Meliola ligustri Hosag. in Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 236, 1990; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 236, 1996, Meliolales of India 2: 293, 2008. (Fig. 88).

Materials examined: HCIO 44867, TBGT 1095, 7.iii.2001, on leaves of Ligustrum walkeri Roxb. ssp. walkeri (Decne) Green (L. walkeri Decne) (Oleaceae), Periya, coll. G. Rajkumar & P.A. Jose; HCIO 45197, TBGT 1233, 11.viii.1998, Thirunelli, coll. C.K.Biju; HCIO 50005, TBGT 4157, 14.iii.2007, on Ligustrum sp. Puthuserrykadavu, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 49058, TBGT 3313, 19.ix.2008, Kattikulam, coll. M. Harish et al.; HCIO 49061, TBGT 3316, 19.ix.2008, Pulpally, coll. M. Harish & P.J. Robin; HCIO 49071, TBGT 3326, 18.xi.2008, Thirunelly, coll. M. Harish & P.J. Robin; HCIO 49647, TBGT 3889, 16.xi.2008, Periya coll. M. Harish & P.J. Robin; HCIO 49209, TBGT 3448; HCIO 49252, TBGT 3491, 14.ii.2009, Thirunelly, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.

Colonies amphigenous, subdense, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae flexuous, branching opposite to irregular at wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 20–30x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate, spreading, antrorse, straight to curved, 20–24 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 6–8 m long; head cells globose, cylindrical, versiform, angulose, entire, 12–18x8–10 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, tip twisted and elongated, 16–20x6–8 m.  Mycelial setae fairly numerous, scattered, simple, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 270m long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 160m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 36–40x14–16 m.

Alternate and antrorse appressoria and simple mycelial setae are the characters of this species.

 

Meliola ligustricola Hosag., C.K. Biju & Abraham, Nova Hedwigia 80: 489, 2005; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 280, 2008. (Fig. 89)

Materials examined: HCIO 43625, TBGT 305; HCIO 43624, TBGT 306, 19.xi.1998, on leaves of Ligustrum perrottettii DC. (Oleaceae), Banasuran mala, coll. C.K. Biju.

Colonies amphigenous, moistly epiphyllous, thin, up to 4mm diameter.  Hyphae substraight to undulate, branching opposite to irregular at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 17–23x4–6 m.  Appressoria alternate, straight to slightly curved, antrorse to spreading, 16–27 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–15 m long; head cells ovate to obovate, attenuated and broadly rounded towards apex, entire, 9–16x7–8 m.  Phialides borne on a separate mycelial branches, alternate, opposite, ampulliform, 14–23x4–6 m.  Mycelial setae few, grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, flexuous to curved, acute at the tip, up to 185m long. Perithecia scattered, globose, verrucose, up to 115m diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 26–29x11–12 m.

 

Meliola litseae Sydow var. keralensis Hosag. in Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 238, 1990 (keralense); Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 240, 1996. (Fig. 90).

Materials examined: HCIO 43622, TBGT 323, 16.iv.1999, on leaves of Litsea sp. (Lauraceae), Banasuranmala, coll. C.K.Biju.

Colonies epiphyllous, subdense, up to 3mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae substraight, branching opposite at wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 14–20x8–10 m.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse, 26–28 m long; stalk cells cuneate, 6–8 m long; head cells ovate, versiform, entire, 18–20x12–14 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, 18–26x8–10 m.  Mycelial setae few, mostly grouped around perithecia, simple, acute, up to 578m long. Perithecia mostly scattered, seated on exappressoriate hyphae, up to 186m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 36–38x18–20 m.

This variety differs from the type variety in having the perithecia seated on exappressoriate mycelium.

 

Meliola litseae Sydow & Sydow var. rotundipoda Hansf., Reinwardtia 3: 88, 1954; Sydowia Bieh. 2: 57, 1961; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 239, 1990; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 241, 1996.

Meliola litseae Graff, Mem. Torry Bot. Club 17: 61, 1918 (non Sydow & Sydow, 1917). (Fig. 91).

Materials examined: HCIO 43621, TBGT 287, 16.iv.1999, on leaves of Actinodaphne sp. (Lauraceae), Banasuran hills, coll. C.K.Biju.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 4mm diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to undulate, branching opposite at wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 14–20x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate, straight to curved, antrorse, rarely spreading, 24–26 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–8 m long; head cells versiform, obovate, rarely truncate, entire, 16–20x8–10 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 20–24x10–12 m.  Mycelial setae few, straight, simple, acute at the tip, up to 612m long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 200m in diameter; ascospores obovate, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 44–48x18–20 m.

The present collection has slightly longer appressoria.

 

Meliola machili Yamam., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 31: 23, 1941; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 54, 1961; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 239, 1990; Hosag., Dayal & Goos, Mycotaxon 46: 206, 1993; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 244, 1996. (Fig. 92).

Materials examined: HCIO 50702, TBGT 4619; HCIO 50704, TBGT 4621; HCIO 51065, TBGT 4982, 5.xi.2009, on leaves of Persea macrantha (Nees) Kosterm. (Lauraceae), Gurukulam Botanic Garden, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju.

Colonies hypophyllous, dense, velvety, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae crooked, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, rarely form solid mycelial mat, cells 14–29x7–10 m.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, straight to curved, antrorse, spreading, 16–22 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–10 m long; head cells ovate, globose, slightly angular, truncate, entire, 12–14x9–14 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to unilateral, 9–14x7–10 m.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered to grouped around perithecia, straight, simple, acute at the tip, up to 470m long.  Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 250m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 53–55x19–22 m.

Crooked mycelia, spreading appressoria and mostly angular head cells of the appressoria are the distinct characters of this species.

Common on this host in the Southern Western Ghats

 

Meliola malabarensis Hansf., Proc. Linn. Soc. London 157: 182, 1946; Sydowia Beih. 2: 531, 1961; Thite & Kulkarni, J. Shivaji Univ. 5: 161, 1973; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 240, 1990; 42: 135, 1991; Hosag., Dayal & Goos, Mycotaxon 46: 206, 1993; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 246, 1996. (Fig. 93)

Materials examined: HCIO 50745, TBGT 4662; HCIO 50844, TBGT 4761, 5.xi.2009, on leaves of Olea dioica Roxb. (Oleaceae), Gurukulam Botanical Garden, Periya, coll. M.C. Riju & A. Sabeena; HCIO 50915, TBGT 4832, 1.xi.2007, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 43699, TBGT 339, 19.xi.2009, Banasuranmala, coll. C.K.Biju; HCIO 49222, TBGT 3461, 16.ii.2009, Periya, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, up to 5mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to slightly undulate, branching opposite at wide to acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 9–16x4–6 m.  Appressoria alternate, straight to curved, antrorse to spreading, 12–17 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–5 m long; head cells ovate, globose, cylindrical, slightly curved, entire, 9–14x7–10 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 14–26x6–7 m.  Mycelial setae grouped around perithecia, straight, simple, acute at the tip, up to 340m long.  Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 150m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 33–36x14–17 m.

Epiphyllous colonies with ovate head cells of the appressoria distinguishes this species.

Endemic to Southern Western Ghats

 

Meliola malacotricha Speg., Ann. Soc. Cienc. Argentina 22: 59, 1888; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 647, 1961; Gupta & Gupta, Indian Phytopath. 38: 390, 1985; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 247, 1996.

Meliola ipomoeae Earle, Muhlenbergia 1: 10, 1901.

Meliola merremiae Rehm, Philippine J. Sci. 8: 253, 1913.

Meliola hewittiae Rehm, Philippine J. Sci. 8: 253, 1913.

Meliola ipomoeae Rehm, Ann. Mycol. 12: 171, 1914.

Meliola lepistomonis Hansf., J. Linn. Soc. London 51: 277, 1937. (Fig. 94)

Materials examined: HCIO 50744, TBGT 4661; HCIO 51073, TBGT 4990, 6.xi.2009, on leaves of Argyereia speciosa (L. f.) Sweet (Convolvulaceae), Dam site, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju; HCIO 44627, TBGT 909, 25.ix.2002, Argeyreia sp., Thirunelly, coll. K. Vijayakumar.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 2mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae undulate to slightly crooked, branching opposite to alternate at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 12–29x4–6 m.  Appressoria opposite, 20% alternate, straight to curved, closely antrorse to spreading, 9–14 m long; stalk cells very small, cylindrical to cuneate, 2–4 m long; head cells globose to subglobose, ovate, entire, 7–10x7–9 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 12–19x4–10 m.  Mycelial setae grouped around perithecia, straight, simple, acute, to obtuse at the tip, up to 550m long; Perithecia grouped at the centre, verrucose, up to 170m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 36–41x14–17 m.

Common on this host in the this area

 

Meliola malacotricha Speg. var. major Beeli, Bull. Jard. Bot. Etat. 7: 89, 1920; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 649, 1961; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 240 1990; 42: 137, 1991; Hosag., Crypt. Bot. 2/3: 186, 1991; Hosag., Raghu & Pillai, Nova Hedwigia 58: 540, 1994; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 249, 1996. (Fig. 95)

Materials examined: HCIO 50003, TBGT 4155, 14.iii.2007, on leaves of Argyereia sp. (Convolvulaceae), Puthuserrykadavu, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 50349, TBGT 4266, 5.xi.2009, Merremmia umbellata, Gurukulam Botanic Garden, Periya, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent. Hyphae straight to slightly crooked, branching mostly opposite at acute angles, closely reticulate, cells 16–34x7–10 m.  Appressoria mostly opposite, about 5% unilateral, antrorse to spreading, straight to curved, 12-14 m long; stalk cells cuneate, 2-5 m long; head cells ovate to subglobose, entire, 7-12 x 7-10 m. Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite and alternate, ampulliform, 14-21 x 7-10 m. Mycelial setae fairly numerous, scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 580 m long. Perithecia scattered to grouped, verrucose, up to 180 m in diameter; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, strongly constricted at the septa, 36-43 x 12-17 m.

This species is very close to M. bonamiae Hansf. & Deight. but differs from it in having shorter appressoria and mycelial setae.

 

Meliola mangiferae Earle, Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 3: 307, 1905; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 464, 1961; Hansf. & Thirum., Farlowia 3: 296, 1948; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 464, 1961; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 240, 1990; Hosag., Crypt. Bot. 2/3: 186, 1991; Hosag. & Ansari, J. Andaman Sci. Assoc. 7: 89, 1991; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 250, 1996. (Fig. 96)

Materials examined: HCIO 50914, TBGT 4831, 1.xi.2007, on leaves of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Wayanad, coll. M.C. Riju; TBGT 5588, 29.x.2007, Thirunelly, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 51298, TBGT 5178, 14.ii.2009, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 49217, TBGT 3456, 14.ii.2009, Thirunelly, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.; HCIO 49217, TBGT 3457; HCIO 49806, TBGT 3958, 15.ii.2009, Begoor, coll. Gireesh et al.; HCIO 50731, TBGT 4648, 6.xi2009, Padinharathara, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly hypophyllous, dense, velvety, up to 5mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 19–36x7–10 m.  Appressoria alternate, 2% unilateral, straight to variously curved, 21–29 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–7 m long; head cells cylindrical, versiform, attenuated and rounded at the apex, entire to subangular, straight to curved, 16–24x9–12 m.  Phialides few, mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 16–24x4–10 m.  Mycelial setae fairly numerous, scattered, simple, straight, acute, obtuse to dentate at the tip, up to 720m long; perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 230m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal to ellipsoidal, middle cell slightly larger, 50–55x24–26 m.

This species was observed in all the seasons on the cultivated and wild mango trees.

This is the only Meliola species known on this host genus.  It infects both cultivated and wild Mango trees. Biochemical analysis of the host plant may reveal several interesting facts regarding the harmful or useful nature of the fungus.

 

Meliola mayapeae Stev., Illinois Biol. Monograph 2: 48, 1916; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 536, 1961; Hosag., Dayal & Goos, Mycotaxon 46: 206, 1993; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 252, 1996. (Fig. 97)

Materials examined: HCIO 49962, TBGT 4114, 30.ix.2007, on leaves of Ligustrum sp. (Oleaceae), Puthuserrykadavu, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, up to 2mm in diam., often confluent.  Hyphae straight to flexuous, branching opposite at wide angles, closely reticulate, cells 15–34x5–7 m.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse, reflexed to spreading, mostly straight, 15–18.5 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–6.5 m long. Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 15–18.5x7–9.5 m.  Mycelial setae grouped around perithecia, straight, simple, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 235m long.  Perithecia loosely grouped, up to 186m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 37–40.5x15–18.5 m.

 

Meliola mayapiicola Stev. var. indica Hosag., Nova Hedwigia 47: 541, 1988; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 253, 1996. (Fig. 98)

Materials examined: HCIO 43619, TBGT 308, 11.xi.1998, on leaves of Chionanthus mala-elengi (Dennst.) Green (Linociera malabarica Wallich ex G. Don) (Oleaceae), Banasuranmala, coll. C.K.Biju; HCIO 49631, TBGT 3873; HCIO 49638, TBGT 3880, 16.ix.2008, Linociera malabarica Wallich ex G. Don, Periya, coll. M. Harish & P.J Robin; HCIO 49632, TBGT 3874; HCIO 49640, TBGT 3882, 17.ix.2008, coll. Harish & P.J Robin; HCIO 49770, TBGT 3922, 13.ii.2009, Thirunelly, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.; HCIO 49772, TBGT 3924, 14.ii.2009, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.; HCIO 49643, TBGT 3885, 18.ix.2008, coll. Harish & P.J Robin; HCIO 49812, TBGT 3964,  16.ii.2009, Begoor, coll. Gireesh et al.

Colonies epiphyllous, rarely hypophyllous, dense, crustose to velvety, up to 2mm in diameter.  Hyphae substraight, branching mostly opposite at acute to wide angles, closely reticulate, cells 15–34x7–10 m.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to recurved, 18–25 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 6–10 m long; head cells ovate, cylindrical, entire, rarely angular to sublobate, 12–16x9–13 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 12–19x9–13 m.  Mycelial setae grouped around perithecia, straight to curved, simple, acute at the tip, up to 500m long. Perithecia scattered, up to 125m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 40–47x12–18 m.

This taxon mostly associated with M. linocierae-malabaricae and can be easily distinguished by their smaller epiphyllous colonies.

The present collection slightly varies in having smaller ascospores than to the assigned taxon.

 

Meliola millettiae-chrysophyllae Deight. var. indica Hosag., Siddappa & Udaiyan, Nova Hedwigia 56: 198, 1993; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 257, 1996. (Fig. 99)

Materials examined: HCIO 43645, TBGT 310, 19.xi.1998, on leaves of Derris benthamii (Thwaites) Thwaites (Fabaceae), Banasuranmala, coll. C.K.Biju.

Colonies amphigenous, thin to crustose, up to 5mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching mostly opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 19–40x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate and opposite, straight to curved, antrorse to spreading, 12–18 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–6 m long; head cells ovate, globose to subglobose, entire, 9–13x6–10 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 12–19x6–10 m.  Mycelial setae fairly numerous, scattered, straight to curved but not uncinate, acute, obtuse to minutely dentate at the tip, up to 560m long.  Perithecia scattered, globose, up to 210m in diameter; ascospores oblong to subellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 38–42x12–16 m.

This taxon was known on Millettia splendens from Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu.  Here very few setae are minutely dentate at the tip and there are every chances of missing this character.  Except slightly long appressoria, the present collection matches well with the assigned taxa.

This taxon was only known from the present locality in Kerala.  The collection reveals its distribution towards the Southern tips of Western Ghats.

 

Meliola nairii Hosag. in Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 409, 1990; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 262, 1996. (Fig. 100)

Materials examined: TBGT 5943, 10.xi.2007, on leaves of Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) Parker (Amoora rohituka Wight & Arn.) (Meliaceae), 16th Mile, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies epiphyllous, minute, subdense, up to 2mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight, substraight to flexuous, branching opposite to irregular at wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 18–31x6–9.5 m.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to subantrorse, 12–15.5 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–6 m long; head cells ovate, broadly rounded at the apex, straight to curved, entire, 9–12.5x6–9.5 m. Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 18–22x9–12.5 m.  Mycelial setae few, grouped around perithecia, straight, flexuous, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 310m long. Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 155m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 31–34x15–18.5 m.

 

Meliola neolitseae Yamam., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 31: 24, 1941; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 50, 1961; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 241, 1990; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 264, 1996. (Fig. 101)

Materials examined: HCIO 45151, TBGT 1206, 16.iv.1999, on leaves of Neolitsea sp. (Lauraceae), Banasuran mala, coll. C.K. Biju; HCIO 43697, TBGT 341, 17.ii.2000, on Cryptocarya sp., Chembra hills, coll. C.K.Biju.

Colonies hypophyllous, subdense, subvelvety, up to 8mm in diameter.  Hyphae substraight to tortuous, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 18–22x8–10 m.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, straight to curved, antrorse, spreading, 22–28 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 6–8 m long; head cells clavate, versiform, angulose, entire to slightly lobate, 14–22x12–16 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 18–26x8–10 m.  Mycelial setae scattered, straight, simple, acute to 2-3 dentate, up to 900m long.   Perithecia scattered, up to 210m in diameter; ascospores ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 46–52x20–24 m.

This is the only known species on this host genus in the Western Ghats.

 

Meliola nothopegiae Hansf., Sydowia 10: 80, 1957; Sydowia Beih. 2: 469, 1961; Thite & Kulkarni, J. Shivaji Univ. 6: 163, 1973; Hosag., Lakshmanan & Viswanathan, Indian J. Bot. 11: 187, 1988; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 242, 1990; Hosag., Kaveriappa, Raghu & Goos, Mycotaxon 51: 113, 1994; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 266, 1996. (Fig. 102)

Materials examined:           TBGT 6178, 15.iii.2007, on leaves of Nothopegia sp. (Anacardiaceae), Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, subdense, up to 5mm in diameter.  Hyphae of the epiphyllous colonies straight, branching regularly opposite at acute angles, loosely reticulate.  While the hyphae of the hypophyllous colonies crooked, branching opposite to irregular at wide angles, cells 18–26x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate, subantrorse to antrorse, 24–36 m long; stalk cells cuneate, 6–14 m long; head cells cylindrical, versiform, slightly angulose, entire, 16–22x12–14 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 10–20x8–10 m.  Mycelial setae scattered to grouped around perithecia, straight, simple, acute at the tip, up to 675m long. Perithecia scattered to aggregated, up to 164m in diam.; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 44–50x18–20 m.

This is the only species known on this host genus

 

Meliola oleacearum Hosag., Sydowia 54: 55, 2002; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 293, 2008; Hosag. & Agarwal, Taxonomic Studies of Meliolales. Identification Manual, p. 205, 2008. (Fig. 103)

Materials examined: HCIO 48041, TBGT 2824, 6.xii.2006, on leaves of Olea dioica Roxb. (Oleaceae), Kunkichira, Periya, coll. M. Harish, V. Gireesh Kumar & K. Anilkumar; TBGT 3933; HCIO 49626, TBGT 3868, 15.ii.2009, coll. Jacob Thomas et al., 19.ix.2008, Pulpally, coll. M.Harish & P.J. Robin; HCIO 49060, TBGT 3315, 17.ix.2008, Perya coll. M.Harish & P.J. Robin.

Colonies hypophyllous, dense, up to 5mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 19–29x4–7 m.  Appressoria alternate, straight to curved, antrorse, retrorse to spreading, 16–26 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–10 m long; head cells ovate, cylindrical, slightly truncate at the apex, entire, 9–17x7–10 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 16–26x6–8 m.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 320m long.  Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 160m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 33–38x14–19 m.

The present species is similar to Meliola petiolaris Doidge known on Olea laurifolia from South Africa (Hansford, 1961) in having curved to uncinate mycelial setae.  However, the present taxon differs from it in having shorter appressoria and straight, sigmoid, flexuous and uncinate setae.

 

Meliola oleicola Doidge, Bothalia 1: 73, 1922. (Fig. 104)

Material examined: HCIO 45294, TBGT 1332, 16.iv.1999, on leaves of Ligustrum sp. (Oleaceae), Banasuranmala, coll. C.K. Biju.

Colonies epiphyllous,thin to subdense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite to unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 20–27x5–7 m.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 17–35 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–17 m long; head cells ovate, clavate, entire, 12–17x7–12 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to unilateral, ampulliform, 17–27x5–7 m long.  Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 300m long. Perithecia scattered, up to 100m in diameter; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 32–35x12–15m.

 

Meliola oligomera Sydow, Ann. Mycol. 15: 190, 1917; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 345, 1961; Hosag., J. Mycopathol. Res. 43: 29, 2005; Hosag., Meliolales of India, 2: 293, 2008.

Meliola reinkingii Sydow, Ann. Mycol. 18: 98, 1920. (Fig. 105)

Materials examined: HCIO 44799, TBGT 1036, 22.xii.2002, on leaves of Hippocratea sp. (Hippocrateaceae), periya, coll. M. Kamarudeen.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 5mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching alternate to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 12–23x6–7 m.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to subantrorse, straight to rarely curved, 20–31 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 6–13 m long; head cells ovate, globose, angular, sublobate to irregularly lobate, 14–18x12–18 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 17–21x6–8 m.  Mycelial setae numerous, simple, mostly straight, often curved, acute at the tip, up to 300m long.  Perithecia scattered to loosely grouped, up to 200m in diameter; ascospores 3-septate, straight but slightly curved during germination, constricted at the septa, 44–47x14–16 m.

This species differs from Meliola hippocrateicola Hansf. & Dieght. in having all alternate appressoria.

 

Meliola panici Earle, Muchlenbergia 1: 12, 1901; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 745, 1961; Gupta & Gupta, Indian Phytopath. 58: 390, 1985; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 42: 136, 1991; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 276, 1996. (Fig. 106)

Materials examined: TBGT 3932, 18.ii.2009, on leaves of Poaceae (Grass), Muthanga, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, up to 2mm in diameter.  Mycelium straight to substraight, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, closely reticulate, cells 14–21x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate, straight to curved antrorse to recurved, 14–22 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–7 m long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, angular to sublobate, 11–16x12–15 m.  Phialides borne on a separate mycelial branch, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 12–16x6–9 m.  Mycelial setae few, straight, simple, acute to obtuse at the tip, upto 335m long. Perithecia mostly grouped, verrucose, up to 156m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 33–37x11–14 m.

This is the most common species on the members of the family Poaceae.  Common in southern Western Ghats.

 

Meliola phyllanthigena Hosag., Plant Pathology & Quarantine 3(1): 7, 2013. (Fig. 107)

Materials examined: TBGT 6233 (holotype), 2.ii.2008, on leaves of Phyllanthus sp. (Euphorbiaceae), Periya, coll. M.C. Riju et al.

Colonies epiphyllous, subdense, up to 2mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching alternate to opposite at acute to wide angles, closely and densely reticulate, cells 16–27x6–10 μm.  Appressoria densely arranged, alternate, antrorse, subantrorse to closely antrorse, 25–34 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 6–13 μm long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, 17–22x11–15 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 22–29x6–10 μm.  Mycelial setae numerous, closely scattered, simple, straight, about 10% uncinate, acute at the tip, up to 300μm long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 130μm in diameter; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, slightly constricted at septa, 48–51x18–20 μm.

This is a unique species of the genus known on the members of Euphorbiaceae in having uncinate mycelial setae (Hansford 1961).

 

Meliola plectroniae Hansf., Sydowia 9: 72, 1955; Beih. 2: 702, 1961; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 284, 1996; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 228, 1990 (Fig. 108).

Meliola coilicosa Nair & Kaul, Sydowia 36: 204, 1983.

Materials examined: TBGT 4073, 30.x.2007, on leaves of Canthium dicoccum (Gaertn.) Teys & Benn. (Plectronia umbellata Benth. & Hook.) (Rubiaceae), Wayanad, coll. A. Chandraprabha.

Colonies hypophyllous, thin, up to 5mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching mostly alternate, branches of the main hyphae tortuous, loosely reticulate, cells 18–30x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate, straight to variously curved, 24–34 m long; stalk cells aseptate to many septate, tortuous, aseptate stalk cells 8–16 m long, while, septate stalk cells up to 80m long; head cells semilunar, versiform, ovate, angular, straight to mostly curved, 16–22x10–14 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 20–24x8–10 m.  Mycelial setae thinly scattered, simple, straight, acute, up to 360m long. Perithecia scattered, up to 110m in diameter; ascospores cylindrical, ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 52–56x16–18 m.

Dense colonies and variously curved multiseptate appressoria distinguish this species.

 

Meliola premnigena Hosag. & Riju, Plant Pathology & Quarantine 1(2), 121, 2011; Hosag., J. Threatened Taxa 5(6): 4046, 2013. (Fig. 109).

Material examined: HCIO 51189, TBGT 5069, 10.i.2011, on leaves of Premna glaberrima Wight (Verbenaceae), Banasuran mala, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies epiphyllous, velvety, up to 5 mm in diam. Hyphae flexuous to crooked, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, cells 15–25x5–8 μm. Appressoria alternate, unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 15–23 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–8 μm long; head cells globose, subglobose, entire to sublobate, 10–18x7–13 μm. Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, alternate to unilateral, ampulliform, 14–23x4–6 μm. Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight, slightly curved to uncinate, up to 300 μm long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 150μm in diameter; ascospores cylindrical to oblong, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 32–38x12–15 μm.

Based on the alternate appressoria and simple setae, this species comes close to M. cookeana Speg. and M. premnae Hansf. However, it differs from the former in not having inflated, dentate or furcate apex of mycelial setae.  It differs from the latter in having straight hyphae and mycelial setae in contrast to flexuous, crooked, uncinate and twisted mycelial setae (Hansford 1961).  It also differs from M. premnicola in having only obtuse mycelial setae in contrast to variously dentate ones (Hosagoudar 1996).

 

Meliola psophocarpi Hosag. & Riju, J. Threatened Taxa 2(4): 824, 2010; Hosag., J. Threatened Taxa 5(6): 4046, 2013. (Fig. 110; Image 9).

Material examined: 30.xi.2007, HCIO 48174 (holotype), TBGT 2910 (isotype), on leaves of Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L. (Fabaceae), 16th mile, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 50351, TBGT 4268, 6.xi.2009, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju.

Colonies foliicolous, fructicolous, epiphyllous, thin, scattered, up to 3mm in diameter, often confluent. Hyphae undulate, branching mostly opposite at wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 11–33x4–7 μm.  Appressoria alternate, unilateral, up to 3% opposite, straight to slightly curved, subantrorse to retrorse, 11-20μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–11 μm long; head cells ovate, globose, 8–11 μm in diam.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate, opposite, unilateral, ampulliform, 13–20x6–9 μm.  Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight to slightly curved, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 360μm long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 130μm in diam.; ascospores cylindrical, 4- septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 33–38x8–11 μm.

Psophocarpus tetragonolobus is a climbing shrub, native of South East Asia, has been extensively cultivated in the backyards for its quadrangular pods used in the culinary purposes.  The leaves of this plant is being infected with the black mildew fungus and is similar to M. nyanzae in having the same digital formula but differs from it in not being a strong parasite in producing pathogenic symptoms (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996; Hu et al. 1996, 1999).

 

Meliola pushpangadanii Hosag. & Abraham in Hosag., Abraham & Goos, Mycotaxon 66: 106, 1998; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 311, 2008; Hosag. & Agarwal, Taxonomic Studies of Meliolales. Identification Manual, p. 217, 2008. (Fig. 111)

Materials examined: TBGT 4043, 16.ix.2008, on leaves of Persea sp. (Lauraceae), Periya, coll. Harish et al.

Colonies hypophyllous, thin, subvelvety, scattered, spreading, up to 4mm in diameter.  Hyphae crooked, branching irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to

closely reticulate, cells 31–50x4–7 m.  Appressoria scattered, alternate, antrorse, ubantrorse to retrorse, straight to curved, 16–22 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–9 m long; head cells globose, entire, 14–17x16–19 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 16–22x9–12 m.  Mycelial setae fairly numerous, mostly grouped around perithecia, simple, straight to flexuous, acute at the tip, up to 1580m long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 220m in diameter; ascospores slightly fusiform, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 40–43x16–19 m.

This species differs from Meliola cryptocariicola Hosag. & Raghu and M. patileana Hosag. in having only alternate appressoria, straight to flexuous and acute mycelial setae (Hosagoudar, 1996).

Endemic to Southern Western Ghats

 

Meliola quadrispina Racib., Parasit. Algen and Pilze Javas 3: 33, 1900; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 646, 1961; Thite & Patil, Kavaka 10: 30, 1982; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 244, 1990; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 293, 1996.

Meliola quadrifurcata Rehm, Philippine J. Sci. 8: 181, 1913; Leafl. Philippine Bot. 6: 2194, 1914. (Fig. 112)

Materials examined: HCIO 50349, TBGT 4266, 5.xi.2009, on leaves of Merremia unbellata (L.) Hallier f. (Convolvulaceae), Gurukulam Botanic Garden, Periya, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju.

Colonies amphigenous, caulicolous, mostly epiphyllous, dense, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae undulate to tortuous, branching irregular, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 20–40x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, antrorse, spreading, straight to curved, 16–24 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 6–14 m long; head cells ovate, versiform, angulose, rarely irregularly sublobate, 10–16x12–16 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 20–24x6–10 m.  Mycelial setae numerous, uniformly scattered, dichotomously branched, length till the first branching is up to 162m, from first to second branching up to 24m long and the final branchlets up to 136m long, obtuse to acute at the tip.  Perithecia mostly grouped, up to 261m in diameter; ascospores broadly obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 40–50x14–22 m.

Branched mycelial setae are the characters of this species.

 

Meliola scleropyri Hosag. in Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 247, 1990; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 307, 1996. (Fig. 113).

Materials examined: HCIO 49220, TBGT 3459, 15.ii.2009, on leaves of Scleropyrum pentandrum (Dennst.) Mabberley (Santalaceae), Begur, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.,

Colonies amphigenous, dense, velvety, up to 5mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to undulate, branching opposite to irregular at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 19–26x6–7 m.  Appressoria alternate, subantrorse to antrorse, 16–24 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–10 m long; head cells ovate to subglobose, rarely subangular, entire, 12–17x9–12 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 16–24x7–10 m.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, straight to slightly curved, flexuous, simple, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 360m long.  Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 110m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 33–41x12–17 m.

This species differs from Meliola hainanensis Hu reported on Scleropyrum wallichianum from China.  However, differs from it in having only alternate and longer appressoria, simple and not dentate mycelial setae and also ascospores are smaller (Hosagoudar et al. 1997; Hu et al. 1997, 1999).

Endemic to Southern Western Ghats.

 

Meliola stenospora Wint., Hedwigia 25: 97, 1886; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 75, 1961; Hosag. & Raghu, New Botanist 20: 72, 1993; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 314, 1996. (Fig. 114).

Materials examined: HCIO 49255, TBGT 3582, 17.ix.2008, on leaves of Piper sp. (Piperaceae), Periya, coll. Gireesh Kumar et al.; HCIO 44385, TBGT 610, 5.ii.2002, Wayanad, coll. M. Kamarudeen.

Colonies hypophyllous, thin, spreading, up to 5mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae substraight to slightly crooked, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 19–27x8–10m.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, straight to curved, antrorse to spreading, 19–24 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–8 m long; head cells truncate, angular to slightly lobate, 12–16x14–19 m.  Phialides borne on a separate mycelial branch, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 16–24x8–11 m.  Mycelial setae simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 450m long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 180m in diameter; ascospores cylindrical to slightly crescent shaped, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 35–43x12–16 m.

Infects the plants growing in shade and moisture

 

Meliola stenospora Wint. var. major Hansf., Sydowia 16: 303, 1963; Patil & Pawar, Indian Phytopathol. 39: 306, 1986; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 316, 1996.

Meliola stenospora Wint. var. major Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 75, 1961. (Fig. 115).

Materials examined: HCIO 49255, TBGT 3494, 17.ix.2008, on leaves of Piper sp. (Piperaceae), Periya, coll. Gireesh Kumar et al.

Colonies mostly epiphyllous, subdense, thinly velvety, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to slightly undulate, branching opposite to irregular at wide angles, closely reticulate, cells 20–25x8–10 m.  Appressoria alternate, about 1% opposite, spreading to antrorse, straight to curved, 17–23 m long; stalk cells cuneate to cylindrical, 3–9 m long; head cells subglobose with crenate to lobulate margin, 11–15x12–20 m. Phialides borne on a separate mycelial branch, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 17–20x7–9 m.  Mycelial setae mostly grouped around perithecia, straight, simple, acute, up to 1000m long.  Perithecia loosely grouped, verrucose, up to 170m in diam.; ascospores oblong, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 37–43x11–15 m.

 

Meliola sterculiacearum Hosag. & Kamar. in Hosag., J. Mycopathol. Res. 43:             31, 2005; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 325, 2008. (Fig. 116).

Materials examined: HCIO 44786, TBGT 1023, 22.xii.2002, on leaves of Sterculia sp. (Sterculiaceae), Periya, coll. M. Kamarudeen.

Colonies amphigenous, dense, spreading, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching mostly opposite at acute angles, loosely to very closely reticulate and form a solid mycelial mat, cells 14–16x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to closely antrorse, 12–16 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–5 m long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, 8–12x9–11 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–16x6–8 m.  Mycelial setae thinly scattered, simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 450m long.  Perithecia scattered, globose, up to 160m in diameter; ascospores oblong, ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 36–39x16–18 m.

Based on the Beeli formula, 3111.3222, this species can be compared with Meliola melochiae Hansf.  However, differs from it in having dense colonies, straight hyphae, antrorse appressoria and longer mycelial setae.  Meliola sterculiae Hansf. & Deight. known on Sterculia tragacantha from Uganda but M. sterculiacearum differs from it in absence of 15% opposite appressoria, having simple setae and smaller ascospores (Hansford, 1961).

 

Meliola subramanyaensis Hosag., J. Mycopathol. Res. 43: 207, 2005; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 331, 2008; Hosag. & Agarwal, Taxonomic studies of Meliolales. Identification Manual, p. 232, 2008. (Fig. 117)

Materials examined: HCIO 49809, TBGT 3961, 15.ix.2008, on leaves of Cyclea peltata Cooke (Menispermaceae), Nagarhole, coll. Robin et al.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight, flexuous to crooked, branching alternate to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 16–22x4–7 m.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse, 16–26 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–10 m long; head cells ovate, oblong, clavate, often attenuated at the apex, entire, 11–17x9–11 m.  Phialides borne on a separate mycelial branch, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 13–24x6–9 m.  Mycelial setae mostly grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, flexuous to curved, up to 2% uncinate, obtuse at the tip, up to 312m long. Perithecia scattered, globose, up to 171m in diameter; ascospores oblong, cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 31–36x11–15 m.

The present species has flexuous to uncinate mycelial setae which distinguishes it from Meliola cissampelicola Hansf. & Thirum. and M. cycleae Hosag. known on the members of the family Menispermaceae from the Western Ghats of Peninsular India (Hansford, 1961; Hosagoudar, 1996).

 

Meliola symplocicola Yamam., Trans., Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan 31: 57, 1941; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 519, 1961; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 249, 1990; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 318, 1996. (Fig. 118).

Materials examined: HCIO 49811,TBGT 3963, 15.ii.2009, on leaves of Symplocos cochinchinensis (Lour.) Moore ssp. laurina (Retz.) Nooteboom (Symplocaceae), Periya, coll. Gireesh et al.; HCIO 48088, TBGT 2871, 6.xii.2006, Symplocos sp., Kunkichira, Periya, coll. M. Harish, V. Gireesh Kumar & Anilkumar.

Colonies hypophyllous, subdense, velvety, up to 8 mm in diameter, confluent. Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching mostly opposite at wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 18-34 x 6-8 m. Appressoria alternate to unilateral, straight to variously curved, antrorse, spreading, 22-26 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 6-10 m long; head cells globose, angulose, truncate, variously curved, entire, 12-18 x 8-12 m. Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 20-30 x 8-10 m. Mycelial setae grouped around perithecia, straight, simple, acute, very few 2-3 dentate, up to 360 m long. Perithecia scattered, up to 200 m in diam.; ascospores 4-septate, obovoidal to cylindrical, constricted at the septa, 48-59 x 16-20 m.

This is the only species known on this host plant from India

 

Meliola syzygiigena Hosag. & Kamar., Zoos Print J. 18: 1061, 2002; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 334, 2008. (Fig. 119)

Materials examined: HCIO 44386, TBGT 594, 6.ii.2002, on leaves of Syzygium sp. (Myrtaceae), Wayanad, coll. M. Kamarudeen.

Colonies hypophyllous, dense, velvety, up to 5mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching alternate, opposite to irregular at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 25–28x6–7 m. Appressoria alternate, less than 1% opposite, antrorse, subantrorse, retrorse, straight, curved to uncinate, 16–23 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–8 m long; head cells ovate, oblong, cylindrical, straight to curved, entire, broadly rounded to truncate at the apex, 12–16x6–8 m.  Phialides few, mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 19–24x6–8 m.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 294m long.  Perithecia loosely grouped, verrucose, up to 144m in diameter, wall cells projected; ascospores oblong to subellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 43–48x15–18 m.

Based on the Beeli formula and the morphology of the head cells of the appressoria, the present species, Meliola syzygigena is similar to an endemic species, Meliola ranganathi Hansf. but differs from it in having hypophyllous velvet colonies, distantly placed and variously curved appressoria (Hansford, 1961; Hosagoudar, 1996).

 

Meliola tamarindi Sydow & Sydow, Ann. Mycol. 10: 79, 1912; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 250, 1961; Hosag & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 249, 1990; Hosag., Dayal & Goos, Mycotaxon 46: 208, 1988; Hosag., Kaveriappa, Raghu & Goos, Mycotaxon 51: 116, 1994; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 321, 1996. (Fig. 120).

Materials examined: M.C HCIO 51032, TBGT 4949, 11.x.2008, on leaves of Tamarindus indica L. (Caesalpiniaceae), 16th mile, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae undulate to tortuous, branching opposite at wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 16–28x6–10 m.  Appressoria alternate to 5% opposite, antrorse, spreading, straight to curved, 19–29 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–12 m long; head cells ovate, angular, entire to sublobate, straight to curved, 13–20x10–16 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, scattered, 15–28x6–10 m.  Mycelial setae scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, obtuse at the tip, up to 463m long. Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 155m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 45–50x17–20 m.

This is the only species known on this host plant.

 

Meliola tecleae Hansf. var. toddaliae-asiaticae Hansf., Proc. Linn. Soc. London 153: 11, 1941; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 392, 1962; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 323, 1996. (Fig. 121)

Materials examined: HCIO 42963, TBGT 249, 11.viii.1998, on leaves of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (Rutaceae), Tirunelly, coll. C.K. Biju; HCIO 50016, TBGT 4168, 14.ii.2009, coll. Girish Kumar et al. TBGT 5715, 30.ix.2007, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, scattered, up to 3mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae straight, branching mostly opposite at wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 28–32x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate, straight to curved, antrorse to subantrorse, 19–29 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–9 m long; head cells oblong to cylindrical, often clavate, entire, 16–19x8–11 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 16–21x6–8 m.  Mycelial setae scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 588m long.  Perithecia scattered to loosely grouped, up to 250m in diameter; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, strongly constricted at the septa, 48–50x18–20 m.

This species is recorded from different parts of southern Western Ghats

 

Meliola tenella Pat., Mycol. 10: 140, 1888; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 381, 1961; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 324, 1996. (Fig. 122 & Image 10).

Materials examined: TBGT 3930, 18.ii.2009, on leaves of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack. (M. exotica L.) (Rutaceae), Muthanga, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.; HCIO 49393, TBGT 3638, 14.ii.2009, Atlantia sp., Tirunely, coll. P.J. Robin et al.; HCIO 49972, TBGT 4124, 14.iii.2007, Murraya sp., Puthuserrykadavu, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies amphigenous, dense, velvety, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite at wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate to form mycelial mat, cells 14–34x7–10 m.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to spreading, straight to curved, 16–26 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–7 m long; head cells cylindrical, elongated, straight to curved, entire, 12–14x8–12 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, 16–24x7–10 m.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, straight, dichotomously branched, 240m long up to first branching, first ray up to 60m long, second ray up to 40m long and third ray up to 10m long, acute to obtuse at the tip, branches reflexed. Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 220m in diameter; ascospores subellipsoidal to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 40–50x16–24 m.

 Common in Western Ghats region of Kerala.

 

Meliola themedicola Hosag., C.K. Biju & Abraham, Nova Hedwigia 80: 498, 2005; Hosag., Meliolales of India 2: 341, 2008. (Fig. 123)

Materials examined: HCIO 43640, TBGT 315, 17.ii.2000, on leaves of Themeda triandra Forssk. (Poaceae), Chembra hills, coll. C.K. Biju.

Colonies mostly epiphyllous, dense, crustose, up to 2mm diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae substraight to crooked, branching irregular at acute angles, loosely to very closely reticulate and form solid mycelial mat, cells 20–26x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate, more scattered, antrorse to recurved, 19–56 m long; stalk cells cylindrical, often flexuous, wall rugose, mostly unicellular, often 1–2-septate, 8–39 m long; head cells ovate to globose, entire, angular, sublobate to irregularly and deeply lobate, 11–20x11–16 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–19x8–10 m.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, acute to broadly obtuse at the tip, up to 350m long. Perithecia loosely grouped, verrucose, up to 175m diameter; ascospores oblong to mostly cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 48–52x14–20 m.

Meliola themedae Stev. & Rold. ex Hansf. and M. themedae Stev. & Rold. ex Hansf. var. indica Hosag. are known on this host genus. M. themedicola differs from both in having aseptate to septate and long stalk cells of the appressoria.  It also differs from M. panici Earle var. major Hansf. (having the same Beeli formula 3111. 5222) in having septate basal cell, entire to deeply lobate head cells of appressoria and phialides mixed with appressoria.

 

Meliola unonicola Hosag. & Abraham, Kavaka 24: 16, 1996; Hosag., Meliolales of India, 2: 348, 2008; Hosag. & Agarwal, Taxonomic studies of Meliolales. Identification Manual, p. 301, 2008. (Fig. 124).

Materials examined: HCIO 43638, TBGT 317; HCIO 47450, TBGT 2488, 16.iv.1999, on leaves of Meiogyne pannosa (Dalz.) Sinclair (Unona pannosa Dalz.) (Annonaceae), Banasuranmala, coll. C.K. Biju.

Colonies amphigenous, dense, velvety, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight, branching mostly opposite at acute angles, very closely reticulate and form solid mycelial mat, cells 15–19x7–10 m.  Appressoria opposite, rarely alternate and unilateral, closely antrorse to antrorse, 20–25 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–6 m long; head cells ovate, cylindrical, broadly rounded to attenuated at the apex, entire 11–16x8–11 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 13–24x6–9 m.  Mycelial setae numerous, densely scattered, simple, uncinate, sickle-shaped, septate, obtuse at the tip, up to 384 m long. Perithecia scattered, up to 242m in diameter; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 43–47x16–19 m.

This present taxon can be compared with Meliola uvariicola Hansf. but differs from it in having  amphigenous, dense and velvety colonies, closely antrorse appressoria and uncinate mycelial setae (Hansford 1961).

 

Meliola vatsavayae Hosag . & M.C. Riju, Indian J. Sci. and Technol. 2: 6, 2009. (Fig. 125)

Materials examined: HCIO 48299, TBGT 3018, 22.iii.2008, on leaves of Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb) DC. (Rutaceae), 16th mile, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies amphigenous, dense, velvety, scattered to confluent, up to 4mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, closely reticulate, cells 13–18x6–11 μm.  Appressoria alternate, rarely unilateral, often crowded, antrorse, straight, 24–40 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 8–13 μm long; head cells ovate, angular, sinuately lobate to deeply lobate, 15–27x9–18 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, mostly opposite, rarely alternate to unilateral, ampulliform, 22–31x4–9 μm.  Mycelial setae straight to slightly curved, scattered to grouped around perithecia, obtuse at the tip, up to 270μm long. Perithecia scattered, up to 110μm in diameter; ascospores cylindrical to slightly ellipsoidal, 4- septate, constricted at the septa, 37–44x15–20 μm.

Based on the digital formula 3113.4221, this species can be compared with M. toddaliicola Hansf. and M. toddaliicola Hanf. indica Hansf. & Thirum. known on the host genus Toddalia from Uganda and India, respectively.  However, the present new species differs from both in having angular, sinuately to deeply lobate head cells of the appressoria (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996, 2008; Hosagoudar et al. 1997).

 

Meliola wendlandiae Hosag. in Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 251, 1990; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 340, 1996 (Fig. 126).

Materials examined: HCIO 43693, TBGT 346; 319, HCIO 43635, TBGT 319, 18.xi.1998, on leaves of Wendlandia thyrsoidea (Roemer & Schults) Steudel (Rubiaceae), Chembra hills, coll. C.K. Biju; HCIO 44390, TBGT 714, 6.xi.2001, Brahmagiri, coll. S. Shiburaj; HCIO 49905, TBGT 4057, 11.xi.2007, Wenlandia sp., Banasuramalai, coll. A. Chandraprabha; HCIO 50917, TBGT 4834, 23.xii.2008, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly hypophyllous, subdense, subvelvety, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae sinuous to crooked, branching opposite to irregular at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 18–32x6–10 m.  Appressoria alternate, spreading, antrorse, 20–30 m long; stalk cells cuneate to cylindrical, 6–12 m long; head cells ovate, narrow towards apex, slightly angular, entire, 15–18x12–14 m.  Phialides borne on a separate mycelial branch, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–20x8–10 m.  Mycelial setae few, grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, acute to subacute at apex, up to 344m long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 168m in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 36–46x12–18 m.

This is the only species known on this host genus from India.

 

Meliola zanthoxyli Hansf., Proc. Linn. Soc. London 158: 37, 1946; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 386, 1961; Hosag., Meliolales of India, p. 341, 1996. (Fig. 127)

Materials examined: HCIO 43634, TBGT 326, 2.vi.2000, on leaves of Zanthoxylum tetraspermum Wight & Arn. (Rutaceae), Mannavan shola, coll. C.K. Biju; TBGT 6215, 6.ix.2009, Zanthoxylum sp., Wayanad, coll. M.C. Riju & A. Sabeena.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, up to 2mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae straight to slightly flexuous, branching opposite to alternate at acute angles, closely reticulate and form solid mycelial mat, cells 19–27x8–10 m.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse, 30–37 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 11–18 m long; head cells globose, ovate, stellately sublobate to lobate, 19–21x19–26 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 17–27x8–11 m.  Mycelial setae densely scattered all over the colonies, simple, sickle-shaped, curved to very closely arcuate, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 335m long.  Perithecia loosely to closely scattered, up to 250m in diameter; ascospores oblong, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 50–53x17–23 m.

This species occurs throughout the Western Ghats of Peninsular India and was also associated with Asterina zanthoxyli Yamam.

 

Meliola ziziphi Hansf. & Thirum., Farlowia 3: 299, 1948; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 368, 1961; Thite & Kulkarni, J. Shivaji Univ. 6: 163, 1972; Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 37: 251, 1990; Hosag., Crypt. Bot. 2/3: 187, 1991; Meliolales of India, p. 342, 1996. (Fig. 128).

Materials examined: HCIO 50715, TBGT 4632, 6.xi.2009, on leaves of Ziziphus sp. (Rhamnaceae), Chennalode, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju; TBGT 6196, 26.iii.2009, Kandeykayal, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, thin, up to 5mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching alternate to opposite at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 20–38x6–8 m.  Appressoria alternate to opposite, straight, spreading, antrorse, 10–14 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–6 m long; head cells globose, entire, 8–10 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 16–18x6–8 m.  Mycelial setae scattered and grouped around perithecia, straight, simple, acute to variously dentate at the tip, up to 342m long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 116m in diameter; ascospores ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 30–32x10–12 m.

This is the only species known on this host genus

 

Materials to be identified

Meliola sp.

Materials examined: HCIO 45097, TBGT 1152, 21.iv.2003, on Litsea deccanensis, Periya, Wyanad, coll. G. Rajkumar & P.A. Jose; HCIO 45270, TBGT 1308, 18.iv.1999, on Allophyllus concanicus, Chembra, coll. C.K. Biju; HCIO 48179, TBGT 2915, 10.xi.2007, Allophyllus sp., 16th mile, Padinharathara.

 

MELIOLINACEAE

This family constitutes a single genus, Meliolina, comprising 36 species (Hughes, 1993).  However, the present study represents a single species.

 

Meliolina pulcherrima (H. Sydow & P. Sydow) H. Sydow & P. Sydow, Ann.Mycol. 12: 553, 1914 (Image 11).

Material examined: HCIO 44895, TBGT 1124,  21.iv.2003, on leaves of Syzygium cumini L. (Myrtaceae), Periya, coll. G. Rajkumar & P.A. Jose; HCIO 49996, TBGT 4148, 17.ix.2008, Syzigium sp., Periya, coll. P.J. Robin.

Colonies hypophyllous, black, thick, wooly, velvety, 3–5 mm in diameter, a pinkish or discoloration occurs on the opposite surface of the leaves, and some times it is also evident on the upper surface.  Superficial hyphae form a cushion of closly interwoven, irregularly branched, brown to dark brown hyphae, septate, cells 3243 m long and 710 m wide.  Phialophores arising as branches of the compact superficial hyphae, densely crowded, up to 128m long, flexuous, simple, or 1 or 2 dichotomously or irregularly branched and clearly differeniated into stalk and branches, 57 m wide, brown towards the base, narrowing slightly to 3m wide and brown to pale brown towards the ends of the branches which bear a single phialide. Philides straight to curved, funnel shaped, 3037x36 m.  Phialoconidia scanty and minute. Perthecia black. Perthecial phialophores absent.  Paraphysis persistant, more or less cylindrical, septate, often in pairs on a short basal cell, 35 m wide towards the base, tapering to 23 m at the rounded apex.  Asci obovoid, and eight spored, upto 45m long; ascospores ellipsoidal, brown, 3-septate, scarsely constricted at the septa, 2036x711 m.  Polar caps hyaline.

 

Order Asterinales

Leaf parasites.  Mycelium ectophytic, with or without appressoria, nutrient mycelium and leaf permeating stroma present.  Ascomata ectophytic, dimidiate, orbicular, elliptic, elongated, X or Y shaped, with radiating cells, astomatous, orbicular thyriothecia dehisce stellately at the center, elliptic, elongated, X or Y-shaped thyriothecia dehisce vertically with a central suture; asci globose, spherical, oval or rarely cylindrical, octosporous, bitunicate; ascospores two to many septate, conglobate, hyaline, brown at maturity.

 

Type Family: Asterinaceae.

 

Key to the families of the order Asterinales

 

1. Thyriothecia orbicular, dehisce stellately at the  center ..........................................................Asterinaceae

      1. Thyriothecia oval to elongated, X or Y shaped, dehisce longitudinally at the center.......... ........................................................................................Lembosiaceae

 

The family Asterinaceae

 

Asterinaceae Hansf., Mycol. Pap. 15: 189, 1946; Arx & Muller, Stud. Mycol. 9: 40, 1975; Hosag., Abraham & C.K. Biju, J. Mycopathol. Res. 39: 62, 2001; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 625, 2012.

Leaf parasites.  Mycelium ectophytic, with or without appressoria, nutrient mycelium and leaf permeating stroma present.  Ascomata ectophytic, dimidiate, orbicular with radiating cells, astomatous, dehisce stellately at the center; asci globose, spherical, octosporous, bitunicate; ascospores two to many septate, conglobate, hyaline to brown.

 

Type Genus: Asterina Lev.

 

KEY TO THE GENERA

 

Appressoria present.........................................2

Appressoria absent...........................Prillieuxina

Appressoria in clusters.................Ishwaramyces

2.         Appressoria not so...........................................4

3.         Ascospores two septate and one cell taper...........................................Meliolaster

3.         Ascospores not so............................................

4.         Appressoria intercalary.................Asterolibertia

4.         Appressoria lateral................................Asterina

 

 

The genus Asterina

 

Asterina Lev., Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. Ser., 3(3):57, 1845; Hansf., Mycol. Pap. 15: 189, 1946b; Arx & Muller, Stud. Mycol. 9: 42, 1975; Hosag., Abraham & C.K. Biju, J. Mycopathol. Res. 39: 62, 2001; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p. 32, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 632, 2012.

Dimerosporium Fuckel, Symb. Mycol. p. 86, 1870.

Asterella (Sacc.) Speg. ex Sacc., Syll. Fung. 9: 393, 1891 non P. de Beauvois 1805.

Myxasterina Hohnel, Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien 118: 870, 1909.

Englerulaster Hohnel, Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien 119: 454, 1910.

Parasterina Theiss., Sydow & Sydow, Ann. Mycol. 15: 246, 1917.

Calothyriolum Speg., Boln Acad. nac. Cien. Cordoba 23: 498, 1919.

Opeasterina Speg., Boln Acad. nac. Cien. Cordoba 23: 498, 1919.

Englera F. Stev. in Stev. & Ryan, Illinois. Biol. Monogr. 17: 45, 1939.

Leaf parasites. Mycelium ectophytic, appressoria lateral, setae absent. Thyriothecia orbicular with radiating cells, astomatous, dehisce stellately at the center; asci globose, octosporous, bitunicate; ascospores conglobate, uniseptate, brown.

Type sp.: A. melastomatis Lv.

Anamorphs: Asterostomella

 Speg., Clasterosporium Schwein, Mahanteshamyces Hosag.

 

KEY TO THE SPECIES

 (Based on host families)

 

Acanthaceae

Asterina

1.         Appressoria entire...............Asterina betonicae

1.         Appressoria lobed......................Asterina tertia

Alangiaceae

Asterina

 Single species.....................................Asterina perpusilla

Aristolochiaceae

Asterina

 Single species.......................................Asterina thotteae

 

Asclepiacaceae

Asterina

1.         On Wattakakka.............Asterina travancorensis

On Gymnema......................Asterina gymnemae

Caprifoliaceae

Asterina

Single species....................................Asterina viburnicola

Celastraceae

Asterina

Single species...........................Asterina microtropidicola

Chloranthaceae

Asterina

Single species....................................Asterina sarcandrae

Dipterocarpaceae

Asterolibertia

On Vateria.....................................Asterolibertia vateriae

Elaeocarpaceae

 

Asterina

Appressoria ovate, oblong,  ascospores less

than 30μm long................Asterina elaeocarpi var. ovalis

Appressoria ovate, conoid, rounded at the apex, ascospores more than 30 μm long...........................Asterina gamsii

 

Erythropalaceae

Asterina

Single species..............................Asterina erythropalicola

           

Euphorbiaceae

Asterina

On Aporusa..........................................Asterina aporusae

On Glochidion............................................................

................................Asterina lobulifera Sydow var. indica

Meliolaster

Single species..................................Meliolaster aporusae

Flacourtiaceae

Single species....................................Asterina arkemibeyi

Ishwaramyces

Single species...........................Ishwaramyces flacourtiae

 

Gentianaceae

Asterina

Single species................................Asterina enicostematis

Lauraceae

Asterina

1.         On Cryptocarya.............Asterina cryptocariicola

1.         On Litsea.................Asterina litseae-ligustrinae

Loranthaceae

Asterina

Single species......................................Asterina deightonii

Prillieuxina

Single species.................................Prillieuxina anamirtae

 

Magnoliaceae

Asterina

1. Ascospores 22–25x10–13 μm .........................................Asterina micheliifolia

1. Ascospores 25–33x15–18 μm.........................................Asterina micheliigena

Malvaceae

Asterina

Single species...........................................Asterina hibisci

Melastomataceae

Asterina

Single species.................................Asterina memecylonis

 

Meliaceae

Asterina

1.         On cipadessa.......................Asterina cipadessae

On Trichilia..............................Asterina trichiliae

Myrtaceae

Asterina

1.         Appressoria unicellular...........Asterina claviflori

1.         Appressoria bicellular..........Asterina jambolana

Oleaceae

Asterina

On Ligustrum......................Asterina ligustricola

On Jasminum sp. .............................................2

Appressoria opposite and alternate........................................Asterina erysiphoides

Appressoria alternate.........................................................Asterina pongalaparensis

Passifloraceae

Asterina

Single species.....................................Asterina adeniicola

Piperaceae

Asterina

On Lepianthes.......................Asterina lepianthis

1.         On Piper...................................Asterina piperina

Ranunculaceae

Asterina

Single species.....................................Asterina naraveliae

Rubiaceae

Prillieuxina

Single species..................................Prillieuxina ixorigena

 

Rutaceae

Asterina

1.         On Acronychia...................Asterina acronychiae

1.         On other hosts.................................................2.

2.         Appressoria alternate and about 10–12% opposite, on clausena.....................Asterina clausenicola

2.         Appressoria not so...........................................3

3.         Appressoria alternate to unilateral...........................................................................Asterina toddaliae

3.         Appressoria not so.......................................4           

4.         Ascospores conglobate, 25-28x14-18 μm....................................................................Asterina glycosmidis

4.         Ascospores oblong, conglobate 14–19x7–10 μm ............................................Asterina glycosmidigena

 

Sabiaceae

Asterina

Single species.................................Asterina sabiacearum

Santalaceae

Asterina

Single species.......................................Asterina congesta

Symplocaceae

Asterina

Single species............................................Asterina indica

Tiliaceae

Asterina

Single species...............................Asterina triumfetticola

Ulmaceae

Asterina

Single species........................................Asterina dallasica

Verbenaceae

Asterina

Single species...........................................Asterina pusilla

 

Description to species

Asterina acronychiae Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 59: 150, 1996; Hosag., H. Biju & Appaiah, J. Mycopathol. Res. 44: 5, 2006; Hosag., Chandra. & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p. 32, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 632, 2012. (Fig. 129).

Materials examined: HCIO 45148, TBGT 1203, 19.xi.1999, on leaves of Acronychia pedunculata (L.) Miq. (Rutaceae), Banasuranmala, coll. C.K. Biju; HCIO 48324, TBGT 2972, 10.xi.2007, Acronychia sp. Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 45202, TBGT 1238, 16.iv.1999, Acronychia laurifolia Blume, Banasuran mala, coll. C.K. Biju.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, crustose, up to 3 mm in diameter, confluent. Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 13–21×3–7 μm.  Appressoria mostly opposite, rarely solitary, unicellular, ovate, oblong, entire, angular to slightly lobate, 6–9x5–8 μm.  Thyriothecia scattered, orbicular, up to 132μm in diameter; margin fringed, stellately dehisced at the centre; asci numerous, globose, octosporous, 35–42 μm in diameter; ascospores brown, conglobate, uniseptate, deeply constricted at the septum, 20–24x9–12 μm, wall minutely echinulate.

 

Asterina adeniicola Hosag. & Kamar., Zoos print J. 21: 2303, 2006; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p.35, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 633, 2012 (Fig. 130)

Materials examined: HCIO 44792 (holotype), TBGT 1029 (isotype), 17.xii.2002, on leaves of Adenia hondala (Gaertn.) Wilde (Passifloraceae), Periya, coll. M. Kamarudeen.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, crustose, up to 1mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae strongly flexuous to rarely crooked, branching alternate to irregular at acute to wide angles,loosely to closely reticulate, cells 11–15x4–7 μm.  Appressoria alternate, about 3% opposite, unicellular, globose, ovate, sessile to slightly stipitate, mostly 2–3-lobate, often angular to rarely entire, 6–9x6–8 μm.  Thyriothecia loosely scattered to connate at the centre of the colony, orbicular, stellately dehisced at the centre, up to 75μm in diameter, margin crenate; asci few, globose, octosporous, up to 30μm in diameter; ascospores oblong, conglobate, uniseptate, slightly constricted at the septum, lower cell slightly larger, 14–16x6–8 μm, wall smooth.

The released ascospores readily germinated and formed colonies.  Asterina adeniae Hansf. is known on Adenia lobata from Uganda (Hansford, 1945).  However, Asterina adeniicola differs from it in having dense and crustose colonies, 3% opposite and smaller appressoria, smaller thyriothecia and shorter ascospores.

 

Asterina aporusae Hansf., Reinwardtia 3: 129, 1954; Hosag. & Agarwal, Indian Phytopath. 56: 98, 2003; Hosag. & Appaiah, J. Mycopathol. Res. 43:168, 2005; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p. 37, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 636, 2012 (Fig. 131).

Materials examined: HCIO 49219, TBGT 3458, 15.ii.2009, on leaves of Aporusa lindleyana (Wight) Baill. (Euphorbiaceae), Begur, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.; HCIO 49633, TBGT 3875, 17.ix.2008, Periya, coll. M.Harish & P.J. Robin; HCIO 50377, TBGT 4294, 4.xi.2009, Padinharathara, coll. A. Sabeena & M. C. Riju.

Colonies amphigenous, minute, thin, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight, flexuous to crooked, branching alternate, opposite to irregular at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 10–12x3–5 μm.  Appressoria opposite, subopposite, unilateral to rarely alternate, cylindrical, ovate, oblong, entire, rounded at the apex, 8–10x3–5 μm.  Thyriothecia scattered to grouped, orbicular, up to 160μm in diameter, crenate to slightly fimbriate at the margin, fringed hyphae flexuous and devoid of appressoria, thyriothecia initially longitudinally dehisced but later and frequently stellately dehisced at the centre; asci globose to ovate, octosporous, up to 30μm in diameter; ascospores brown, oblong, conglobate, 1-septate, constricted at the septum, 11–13x4–5 μm, wall smooth.

This species is often associated with Meliolaster aporusae Hosag. et al. but can be distinguished based on the morphology of appressoria and ascospores.

 

Asterina arkemibeyi Hosag., Sabeena & S.P. Mathew, Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(2): 3670, 2013 (Fig. 132).

Materials examined: TBGT 6648,6.iii.2008, on leaves of Flacourtia montana Graham (Flacourtiaceae), Palcherry, coll. P.J. Robin et al.

Colonies hypophyllous, thin to subdense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae flexuous, branching opposite to alternate at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 16–27x3–4 μm.  Appressoria unicellular, mostly alternate, often sub-opposite to opposite, narrowly ovate, elongated, tubular, entire to sublobate, straight to variously curved, 6–13x3–5 μm.  Thyriothecia scattered to connate, orbicular, up to 130μm in diameter, margin crenate to fimbriate, stellately dehisced at the centre; asci, octosporous, globose, up to 30μm in diameter; ascospores, conglobate, 1-septate, constricted at the septum, 17–20x7–10 μm, wall smooth.

Hofmann & Piepenbring (2008) showed the connection between Mahanteshamyces (Hosag.) and Asterina Lv. The former genus is an anamorph of the latter.  The present collection reveals both anamorph and teleomorph in the same colonies, which supports and confirms the observations of Hofmann & Piepenbring (2008).  The teleomorph belongs to the genus Asterina and differs from the all known Asterina species on the members of the family Flacourtiaceae in having ovate, elongated, tubular, entire to sublobate and straight to variously curved appressoria (Hosagoudar & Abraham 2000; Hosagoudar 2012).

 

Asterina betonicae Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 59: 153, 1996; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p.46, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 644, 2012 (Fig. 133).

Materials examined: HCIO 48237, TBGT 2975, 1.xi.2007, on leaves of Justicia betonica L. (Acanthaceae), Pakshipathalam, coll. A. Chandraprabha.

Colonies epiphyllous, thin to subdense, up to 2mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 12–25x5–7 μm.  Appressoria alternate, about 30% opposite, unicellular, ovate, mammiform, seated on broad base, sessile, entire, 6–10x4–6 μm.  Thyriothecia loosely scattered, orbicular, up to 220μm in diameter, margin crenate to fimbriate, fringed hyphae flexuous, dehisced stellately at the centre; asci many, octosporous, globose, 31–35 μm in diameter; ascospores brown, conglobate, 1-septate, 15–19x9–10 μm, wall smooth.

Alternate, opposite and entire head cells of the appressoria distinguishes this species from the other Asterina species reported on the members of the family Acanthaceae.

 

Asterina cipadessae Yates, Philippine J. Sci. 12: 371, 1917; Hosag., Balakr. & Goos, Mycotaxon 60: 172, 1996; Hosag. & Abraham, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 4: 574, 2000; Hosag., Zoos Print J. 18: 1283, 2003; 21: 2326, 2006; Hosag., H. Biju & Appaiah, J. Mycopathol. Res. 44: 6, 2006; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p.51, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 654, 2012.

Parasterina cipadessae (Yates) Mendoza, Philippine J. Sci. 49: 446, 1932 (Fig. 134).

Materials examined: HCIO 49207, TBGT 3446; HCIO 49208, TBGT 3447, 15.ii.2009, on leaves of Cipadessa baccifera (Roth.) Miq. (Meliaceae), Begur, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.; HCIO 49221, TBGT 3460, 14.ii.2009, Thirunelly, coll. Jacob Thomas et al HCIO 50356, TBGT 4273, 6.xi.2009, Padinharathara, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju; TBGT 5724, 23.iii.2008, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight, flexuous to crooked, branching mostly opposite at acute angles loosely to closely reticulate, cells 12–34x4–6 μm.  Appressoria alternate and opposite, sessile, entire to mostly lobate, 9–13×7–10 μm.  Thyriothecia scattered to grouped, often connate, orbicular, up to 202μm in diameter, dehisce stellately at the center, margin crenate, rarely slightly fimbriate; asci many, ovate to globose, eight spored, 30–44x30–35 μm; ascospores conglobate, deep brown, 1-septate, slightly constricted at the septum, 24–28x12–15 μm, upper cell ovate and lower cell globose, wall smooth.  Pycnothyria many, similar to the thyriothecia, smaller; pycnothyriospores brown, ovoid to pyriform, 12–16x4–7 μm.

This is the only species known on this host and is common in the Southern Western Ghats.

 

Asterina clausenicola Doidge, Trans. Royal Soc. South Africa 8: 263, 1920; Hosag., Indian J. Forestry 18: 274, 1995; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p. 52, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 656, 2012 (Fig. 135).

Materials examined: HCIO 44550, TBGT 836, 8.i.2001, on leaves of Melicope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn.) T. Hartley (Euodia lunu-ankenda (Gaertn.) Merr. (Rutaceae), Periya, coll. M. Kamarudeen.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense to subdense, crustose, up to 3mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching mostly opposite at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 18–31x3–5 μm.  Appressoria alternate and about 12% opposite, straight to curved, oblong to globose, unicellular, entire and bluntly conoid towards the apex, uni-to multilobate, 6–13x4–8 μm.  Thyriothecia scattered, rarely 2–3 connate, roughly circular in outline, up to 125μm in diameter, margin crenate to fimbriate, fringed hyphae flexuous, stellately dehisced at the center; asci globose, rarely ovate or oblong, hexasporous, 30–38 μm in diameter; ascospores brown, conglobate, oblong, 1-septate, strongly constricted at the septum, rounded at both ends, 18–22x10–12.5 μm, wall smooth.

This species was recorded on Clausena anisata from South Africa (Doidge, 1942).

 

Asterina claviflori Kar & Maity, Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 54: 441, 1970; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p.54, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 657, 2012 (Fig. 136).

Materials examined: HCIO 50725, TBGT 4642, 8.xii.2009, on leaves of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae), Chunkathara, coll. Sam P. Mathew; HCIO 50747, TBGT 4664, 5.xi.2009; HCIO 51066, TBGT 4983, 6.xii.2006, HCIO 49759, TBGT 3911, Syzygium sp., Gurukulam Botanical Garden, Periya, coll. M.C. Riju & A. Sabeena et al.; TBGT 3934, 13.ii.2009, Thirunelly, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.; HCIO 49808, TBGT 3960, 15.ix.2008, Periya, coll. Robin et al.; HCIO 49971, TBGT 4123, 14.iii.2007, Puthuserrykadavu, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 50030, TBGT 4182, 6.ix.2006, Periya, coll. Gireesh et al.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae flexuous, branching alternate to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 25–32x4–8 μm.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, unicellular, ovate, oblong, cylindrical, antrorse to retrorse, straight to curved, entire, 9–18x6–8 μm.  Thyriothecia scattered, rarely connate, orbicular, up to 250μm in diameter, margin fimbriate, fringed hyphae flexuous, stellately dehisced at the centre; asci few to many, ovate to globose, octosporous, 30–45 μm in diameter; ascospores oblong, brown, conglobate, uniseptate, constricted at the septum, 14–18x11–13 μm, wall smooth to slightly verrucose.

About 30 species of the genus Asterina are known on the members of the family Myrtaceae.  The unicellular appressoria matches with the assigned species.  However, revision of this on Myrtaceae is needed.

 

Asterina congesta Cooke, Grevillea 8: 95, 1879; Hansf. & Thirum., Farlowia 3: 305, 1948; Hosag., Balakr. & Goos, Mycotaxon 59: 172, 1996; Hosag. Krishnan & Abraham, New Botanist 24: 28, 1997; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p.57, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 661, 2012 (Fig. 137).

Materials examined: HCIO 49805, TBGT 3957, 15.ix.2008. on leaves of Santalum sp. (Santalaceae), Thirunelly, coll. Robin et al.; HCIO 50013, TBGT 4165, 20.ix.2008, Pulpally, coll. Gireesh et al.; HCIO 48302, TBGT 3023, 30.x.2007, Thirunelly, coll. A. Chandraprabha.

Colonies initially epiphyllous, later on both surfaces of the leaves, caulicolous, often on tender stems, form a coating of black mat and are confluent.  Hyphae straight to crooked, cells 10–15x4–6 μm.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, unicellular, ovate to cylindrical, straight to curved, entire to sinuately lobate, 5–10x4–5 μm.  Thyriothecia scattered, loosely aggregated, often coalesced, up to 130μm in diameter; asci many, aparaphysate, globose, octosporous, bitunicate, 35–45x28–40 μm; ascospores oblong, conglobate, uniseptate, slightly constricted at the septum, 13–26x9–11 μm, wall smooth. Pycnothyria scattered to connate, orbicular, up to 100μm in diameter, crenate to fimbriate at the margin, stellately dehisced at the centre; Pycnothyriospores pyriform to obpyriform, cinnamon brown, 17–20x8–10 μm, wall smooth, often with a single hyaline band at the middle.

This fungus is very common throughout the Western Ghats of Peninsular India.  Hansford & Thirumalachar (1948) reported this species from Karnataka.  Further, this is the first species of the genus Asterina known from India (Cooke, 1884).

 

Asterina cryptocariicola Hosag., C.K. Biju & Abraham, Indian Phytopath. 54: 137, 2001; J. Mycopathol. Res. 40:195, 2002; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p.59, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 663, 2012(Fig. 138).

Materials examined: HCIO 49224, TBGT 3463, 16.ii.2009, on leaves of Litsea floribunda (Blume) Gamble (Lauraceae), Periya, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.

Colonies amphigenous, dense, up to 4mm in diameter.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching mostly opposite at wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 19–26x3–4 μm. Appressoria scattered, alternate, unicellular, globose to ovoid, entire, 4–7x4–6 μm. Thyriothecia scattered, orbicular, up to 100μm in diameter, stellately dehisced at the center, margin crenate; asci not seen; ascospores oblong, conglobate, brown, uniseptate, constricted at the septum, 12–16x6–8 μm.  Wall smooth.

Asterina cryptocaryae Cooke is known on this host genus.  After examining the holotype, Stevens & Ryan (1939) transferred it to the genus Prillieuxina because of the lack of appressoria.  Asterina woodiana Doidge is known on this host genus from South Africa.  The present species differs from it in having only unicellular appressoria, smaller thyriothecia and ascospores.

 

Asterina dallasica Petrak, Sydowia 8:14, 1954; Hosag., Riju & Uma Maheswari, Indian J. Sci. & Techn. 1:1, 2008; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p. 60, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 665, 2012 (Image 12).

Material examined: HCIO 48324, TBGT 3045, 9.xi.2007, on leaves of Trema orientalis (L.) Blume (Ulmaceae), Mananthavady, M.C. Riju.

Colonies epiphyllous, scattered, up to 3mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight, flexuous to crooked, branching irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 11–26x6–11μm.  Appressoria scattered, unicellular, alternate, unilateral, about 2% opposite, antrorse to subantrorse, globose, mammiform, mostly entire, rarely angular to crenately lobate, 6–11x6–11 μm.  Thyriothecia closely scattered, orbicular, up to 115μm in diameter, stellately dehisced at the centre, margin fimbriate; asci globose, octosporous, up to 26μm in diameter; ascospores brown, conglobate, uniseptate, constricted at the septum, 17–22x6–11 μm, wall smooth.

Asterina celtidicola Henn., A. dallasica Petrak and A. sponiae Racib. are known on Celtis, Trema and Sponia species, respectively.  A. dallasica matches well with that of assigned species.  This species was known on Trema species from Borneo Islands (Petrak 1954; Hosagoudar & Abraham 2000) and it reveals an affinity between the fungal flora of Wyanad and Borneo Islands.

 

Asterina deightonii Sydow, Ann. Mycol. 36: 172, 1938; Hosag., C.K. Biju, Abraham & Agarwal, Indian Phytopath. 55: 497, 2002; Hosag., Zoos Print J. 21: 2326, 2006; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p. 62, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 665, 2012 (Fig. 139).

Materials examined: HCIO 49244, TBGT 3483, 12.ii.2009, on leaves of Loranthus sp. (Loranthaceae), Thirunelly, coll. Gireesh Kumar et al.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, thin to subdense, up to 2mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching irregular at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 17–21x4–5 μm.  Appressoria unicellular, many, alternate, about 1% opposite, globose to ovate, entire, rarely slightly angular, 6–10x5–7 μm.  Thyriothecia scattered, often loosely grouped, orbicular, up to 145μm in diameter, margin crenate to fimbriate, fringed hyphae flexuous, stellately dehisced at the centre; asci few to many, globose, octosporous, up to 40μm in diameter; ascospores brown, oblong, conglobate, uniseptate, constricted at the septum, 21–23x11–13 μm; wall glabrous to minutely echinulate.  Pycnothyria similar to thyriothecia, smaller; pycnothyriospores few, globose to pyriform, brown, 16–18x12–18 μm, wall smooth.

This species was known on Loranthus leonensis from Sierra Leone, collected by F. C. Deighton no. 1378 (Sydow 1938).  Hughes (1952) proposed Asterina aburiensis and stated that the same fungus is also represented in two of Mr. F. C. Deightons collections from Sierra Leone.

 

Asterina elaeocarpi Sydow var. ovalis Kar & Maity, Indian Phytopath. 39: 218, 1986; Hosag., Balakr. & Goos, Mycotaxon 60: 175, 1996; Hosag., J. Appl. & Nat. Sci. 1(1): 29, 2009; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p. 68, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 674, 2012 (Fig. 140).

Materials examined: HCIO 44297, TBGT 622, 6.ii.2002, on leaves of Elaeocarpus tuberculatus Roxb. (Elaeocarpaceae), Periya, coll. M. Kamarudeen; HCIO 44638, TBGT 920, 20.v.2002, Thirunelly, coll. S. Shiburaj; HCIO 44787, TBGT 1024, 27.xii.2002, Periya, coll. M. Kamarudeen & P.A. Jose; HCIO 48035, TBGT 2818, 6.xii.2006, Mylattumala, coll. M. Harish et al.; HCIO 49245, TBGT 3484, 16.ix.2008, Periya, coll. Harish et al.; HCIO 49815, TBGT 3967, 16.ii.2009, Periya, coll. Gireesh et al.

Colonies epiphyllous, thin to subdense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent and cover the entire upper surface of the leaves.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching alternate to opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 8–13x3–4 μm.  Appressoria alternate, opposite to subopposite, ovate to oblong, elongated, unicellular, entire, 4–24x4–5 μm.  Thyriothecia scattered to connate, orbicular, up to 160μm in diameter, stellately dehisced at the centre, crenate to fimbriate at the margin, fringed hyphae flexuous; asci few to many, globose to ovate, octosporous, 35–45 μm in diameter; ascospores oblong, conglobate, deep brown, uniseptate, constricted at the septum, 22–24x9–13 μm, wall coarsely echinulate.

 This species is very specific and infects this host plant throughout Western Ghats region.

 

Asterina enicostematis Hosag. & Chandraprabha., Indian J. Sci. & Techn. 2(6):15, 2009 (enicostematis); Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p. 70, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 677, 2012 (Image.13).

Materials examined: HCIO 48242 (holotype), TBGT 2980 (isotype), 30.x.2007, on the leaves of Enicostema axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal. (Gentianaceae), upper peak of Pakshipathalam, coll. A. Chandraprabha.

Colonies amphigenous, dense, up to 3mm in diameter.  Hyphae crooked, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 18–33x4–7 μm.  Appressoria unicellular, alternate, ovate, mammiform, sessile, 7–13x4–9 μm.  Thyriothecia scattered, orbicular, up to 132μm in diameter, dehisce stellately at the center, margin crenate to fimbriate; asci globose, octosporous, up to 40μm in diameter; ascospores conglobate, uniseptate, constricted at the septum, 11–20×7–9 μm, wall smooth.  Pycnothyria similar to thyriothecia, orbicular, up to 110μm in diameter, margin crenate to fimbriate; pycnothyriospores ovate, pyriform, brown, 9–18x4–13 μm, wall smooth.

Lembosia microtheca Theiss. is known on Goeppertia sp. of the family Gentianaceae (Stevens & Ryan 1939) and is the first report of genus Asterina on the members of the family Gentianaceae (Hosagoudar & Abraham 2000).

 

Asterina erysiphoides Kalch. & Cooke, Grevillea 9: 32, 1880 emend. Doidge, Trans. Roy. Soc. South Africa 8: 256, 1920; Hansf. & Thirum., Farlowia 3: 306, 1948; Hosag., Balakr. & Goos, Mycotaxon 59: 175, 1996; Hosag., H. Biju & Appaiah, J. Mycopathol. Res. 44: 7, 2006; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p. 72, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 677, 2012 (Fig. 141).

Materials examined: HCIO 45111, TBGT 1166, 16.iv.1999, on leaves of Jasminum cordifolium Wallich ex G. Don (Oleaceae), Banasuranmala, coll. C.K. Biju; HCIO, 45082, TBGT 1137, 15.v.1999, Jasminum sp., Thirunelli, coll. C.K. Biju; HCIO 48055, TBGT 2838, 6.xii.2006, Periya, Kunkichira, coll. M. Harish et al.; HCIO 49439, TBGT 3684, 15.ii.2009, Jasminum sp., Begoor, Harish et al.; TBGT 3701, 10.ix.2008, Thirunelly, coll. P.J. Robin et al.; HCIO 49462, TBGT 3704, 20.ix.2008, Pulpally, coll. P.J. Robin et al.; HCIO 49771, TBGT 3923, 14.ii.2009, Thirunelly, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.; HCIO 49773, TBGT 3925, 12.ii.2009, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.; HCIO 49775, TBGT 3927, TBGT 3936, 15.ii.2009, Jacob Thomas et al.; HCIO 49969, TBGT 4121, 13.iii.2007, Puthuserrykadavu, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 50392, TBGT 4309, 8.xii.2009, on Jasminum malabaricum Wight, MS Swaminathan Foundation, coll. Sam P. Mathew; HCIO 50711, TBGT 4628, 6.xi.2009, Jasminum sambac (L) Aiton, Padinharathara, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju; HCIO 50841, TBGT 4758, 5.xi.2009, Jasminum malabaricum Wight, Gurukulam Botanical Garden, coll. M.C. Riju & A. Sabeena; HCIO 50846, TBGT 4763, 6.ix.2009, Jasminum cordifolium Wallich ex G.Don, Padinharathara, M.C. Riju & A. Sabeena; HCIO 50848, TBGT 4765, 6.xi.2009, Chennalode, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju; HCIO 48055, TBGT 2838, 6.xii.2006, Jasminum sp., Kunkichira, Periya, coll. M. Harish et al.; HCIO 49442, TBGT 3687, 20.ix.2008, Mananthavady, coll. P.J. Robin et al.; HCIO 49627, TBGT 3869, Pulpally, coll. M. Harish & P.J. Robin; HCIO 49637, TBGT 3879, 17.ix.2008, Periya, coll. M.Harish & P.J. Robin; HCIO 43831, TBGT 373, 19.xi.2000, Banasuranmala, coll. C.K. Biju.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, up to 2mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae flexuous to crooked, branching mostly opposite at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 18–25x2–5 μm.  Appressoria opposite and alternate, antrorse to reflexed, straight to variously curved, 15–20 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–13 μm long; head cells straight to curved, entire to lobate, 6–11x7–10 μm.  Thyriothecia numerous, scattered, often confluent, initially closed, stellately dehisced at center at maturity, margin crenate to fimbriate; asci numerous, ovoid to globose, octosporous, 30–33x27–30 μm; ascospores initially hyaline, brown at maturity, conglobate, oblong, rounded at both ends, 1-septate, constricted at septum, 18–22x9–13μm.

In most of the collections, the colonies were associated with the colonies of Meliola gemellipoda Doidge and Meliola jasminii Hansf. & Stev.

This species is common in the southern Western Ghats.

 

Asterina erythropalicola Hosag. & Goos, Mycotaxon 59: 156, 1996; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p. 73, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 679, 2012 (Fig. 142).

Materials examined: HCIO 48037, TBGT 2820, 6.xii.2006, on leaves of Erythropalum populifolium (Arn.)Masters (Erythropalaceae) Periya, Kunkichira, coll. M. Harish et al.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, crustose, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching mostly opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 21–28x6–8 μm.  Appressoria alternate, unilateral, about 30% opposite, subantrorse to perpendicular to the hyphae, mostly straight, 2-celled, 12–22 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical, 3–10 μm long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, rarely truncate, 9–13x6–8 μm.  Thyriothecia closely scattered, orbicular, up to 217μm in diameter, margin fringed, rarely crenate, fringed hyphae flexuous, with appressoria, thyriothecia dehisce stellately at the center and widely opened at maturity; asci many, globose, octosporous, 40–46 μm in diameter; ascospores conglobate, 1-septate, constricted at the septum, both cells unequal, 24–28x12–16 μm, wall smooth.  Pycnothyria attached or mixed with thyriothecia, slightly smaller; pycnothyriospores oval to pyriform, 18–20x12–14 μm.

This species differs from Asterina erythropali Hansf. in having epiphyllous colonies and appressoria with entire head cells (Hansford 1954).

 

Asterina gamsii Hosag. & C.K. Biju in Hosag., Indian Phytopath. 58: 195, 2005; Hosag., J. Appl. & Nat. Sci. 1(1): 27, 2009; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p. 77, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 683, 2012 (Fig. 143).

Materials examined: HCIO 45166, TBGT 1221, 19.xi.2000, on leaves of Elaeocarpus variabilis Zmarzty (Elaeocarpus tectorius (Lour.) Poir.) (Elaeocarpaceae), Banasuran mala, coll. C.K. Biju.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 3mm in diameter and cover an entire upper portion of the leaves.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching irregular at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 16–23x4–7 μm.  Appressoria alternate, unilateral and about 20% opposite to subopposite, mostly straight, subantrorse to rarely retrorse, ovate to cylindrical, entire, rounded at the apex, 8–13x6–8 μm.  Thyriothecia closely scattered, orbicular, up to 300μm in diameter, stellately dehisced at the centre, crenate to fimbriate at the margin, fringed hyphae flexuous; asci few to many, globose, octosporous, up to 38μm in diameter; ascospores oblong, brown, uniseptate, constricted at the septum, 32–36x11–18 μm, wall smooth.  Pycnothyria similar to thyriothecia, smaller; pycnothyriospores pyriform, apiculate, brown, 22–26x16–18 μm.

There are five species, namely Asterina borneensis Hansf., A. elaeocarpi Sydow, A. elaeocarpi Sydow var. ovalis Kar & Ghosh, A. elaeocarpicola Hansf. and A. elaeocarpi kobenmochi Yamam., known on the members of the family Elaeocarpaceae (Hosagoudar & Abraham 2000).  Asterina gamsii differs from A. elaeocarpicola and A. borneensis in having octosporous asci and straight appressoria (Hansford 1954).  It differs from A. elaeocarpi in having opposite appressoria and larger ascospores.  It also differs from A. elaeocarpi var. ovalis in having ovate appressoria in contrast to longer and cylindrical ones (Kar & Ghosh, 1986; Hosagoudar, 2009).  In A. elaeocarpi-kobanmochi appressoria are predominantly opposite and oblong and ascospores are smaller (Yamamoto 1957).

 

Asterina glycosmidigena Hosag. & JacobThomas, J. Appl. Nat. Sci. 2: 102, 2010; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 686, 2012 (Fig. 144).

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae pale brown, straight to slightly crooked, branching irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate and form a loose mycelial net, cells 12–19x2–5 μm Appressoria sessile, mostly alternate, about 2% opposite, unicellular, ovate, subglobose, irregularly sublobate, entire, 4–10x4–7 μm.  Thyriothecia scattered, orbicular, often connate, up to 110μm in diameter, stellately dehisced at the centre, margin crenate; asci globose, octosporous, 50–60 μm in diameter; ascospores oblong, conglobate, brown, uniseptate, strongly constricted at the septum, 14–19x7–10 μm, wall smooth.

Materials examined: TBGT 3669, HCIO 49424, 14.ii.2009, on leaves of Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) DC. (Rutaceae), coll. Jacob Thomas et al.

The present species differs from Asterina glycosimidis Hosag. & Rajkumar and A.banguiensis Yates known on the host genus in having hemispherical, broad based, irregularly sublobate to lobate appressoria (Yates 1918a,b; Hosagoudar 2005).

These colonies were mixed with the colonies of Meliola sp.

 

Asterina glycosmidis Hosag. & Rajkumar in Hosag., Indian Phytopath. 58: 194, 2005; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p. 80, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 687, 2012 (Fig. 145).

Materials examined: HCIO 45174 (holotype), TBGT 1335 (isotype), 6.iii.2001, on leaves of Glycosmis sp. (Rutaceae), Wayanad, coll. G. Rajkumar.

Colonies mostly epiphyllous, subdense to dense, thinly velvety, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight, substraight to flexuous, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 20–26x4–6 μm.  Appressoria unicellular, alternate, unilateral, about 40% opposite, ovate, conoid, oblong, often cylindrical, entire to rarely angular to sublobate, 6–13x4–6 μm.  Thyriothecia scattered to closely grouped, orbicular, up to 150μm in diameter,margin crenate to fimbriate, fringed hyphae small, stellately dehisced at the centre; asci few, globose, octosporous, up to 30μm in diameter; ascospores conglobate, brown, uniseptate, deeply constricted at the septum, 25–28x14–18 μm, wall smooth.

Asterina banguiensis Yates is known on this host genus from Philippines (Yates, 1918a,b; Hosagoudar & Abraham, 2000).  Asterina glycosmidis differs from it in having opposite, alternate and unilateral appressoria, differ in the shape of the appressoria, and possessing larger ascospores.

 

Asterina gymnemae Hosag. & Jacob-Thomas, J. Appl. Nat. Sci. 2: 102, 2010; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 690, 2012 (Fig. 146).

Materials examined: TBGT 3667a (holotype), HCIO 49422a (isotype), 14.ii.2009, on leaves of Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae), Thirunelly, February 14, 2009, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.; HCIO 49803, TBGT 3955, 8.iii.2008, on leaves of Asclepiadaceae member, Periya, coll. P.J. Robin et al.

Colonies epiphyllous, subdense, up to 1mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to undulate, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 19–34x2–5 μm.  Appressoria alternate, two celled, straight to curved, antrorse, 12–14 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, straight to crooked, 2–5 μm long; head cells ovate, globose, oblong, angular, sublobate to variously lobate, 4–7x4–10 μm.  Thyriothecia scattered, orbicular, up to 150μm in diameter, stellately dehisced at the centre, margin crenate; asci few to many, globose, octosporous, 40–60 μm in diameter; ascospores conglobate, uniseptate, hyaline, constricted at the septum, 16–19x7–10 μm, wall smooth.

There are six species of the genus Asterina known on the members of the family Asclepiadaceae, namely, Asterina asclepiadis Hosag. & Goos (1996), A.coccina Sydow (1930),   A. cynanchi Hosag. & Shiburaj (Hosagoudar 2002), A. leonensis Sydow (1938) and A. paraffinis Speg. (Theissen 1913).  Based on the character of angular to sublobate head cells and evenly placed appressoria, the present species is closer to A. cynanchi, A. leonensis and A. paraffinis.  However, the present species differs from A. paraffinis in having narrow ascospores and from A. cynanchi in having longer ascospores.  It also differs from A. leonensis in having only alternate appressoria.

 

Asterina hibisci (Doidge) Hosag. in Hosag., C.K. Biju & Abraham, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 28: 175, 2004; Hosag., Zoos Print J. 21: 2327, 2006; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p. 88, 201; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 693, 2012.

Asterina diplocarpa Cooke var. hibisci Doidge, Botahalia 4: 331, 1942 (Fig. 147).

Material examined: HCIO 45150, TBGT 1205, 2.vi.1999, on leaves of Symplocos rosea Bedd. (Symplocaceae), Banasuranmala, coll. C.K. Biju; HCIO 50924, TBGT 4841, 23.xii.2008, Symplocos sp., coll. M.C. Riju.

Colonies mostly epiphyllous, thin to subdense, up to 5mm in diameter, confluent and thinly cover an entire upper surface of the leaves.  Hyphae substraight to undulate, branching alternate to opposite at acute angles, loosely reticulate, 20–32x2–4 μm.  Appressoria unicellular, alternate, scattered, straight to rarely curved, ovate, globose, entire to sublobate, 9–12x4–9 μm.  Thyriothecia scattered, orbicular, up to 110μm in diameter, stellately dehisced at the center, margin crenate; asci few to many, mostly globose, octosporous, 25–35 μm in diameter; ascospores brown, conglobate, uniseptate, constricted at the septum, 20–23x9–12 μm., wall verrucose.  Pycnothyria few to many, similar but smaller than thyriothecia; pycnothyriospores unicellular, globose to pyriform, brown, 16–18x13–15, wall smooth.

Materials examined: TBGT 4496, 4498, 25.xi.2008, on leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae), 16th mile, Padinharathara, coll. M.C. Riju; TBGT 4644, 4.xi.2009, Padinharathara, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju.

Doidge (1942) distinguished and placed this fungus by giving the status of variety.  However, loosely reticulate mycelia, morphologically different and less number of appressoria and distinctly larger ascospores justifies its species status.

 

Asterina indica Sydow in Sydow, Sydow & Butler, Ann. Mycol. 9: 390, 1911; Patil & Thite, J. Shivaji Univ. 17: 152, 1977; Hosag., Zoos Print J. 18: 1285, 2003; 21: 2327, 2006; Hosag., H. Biju & Appaiah, J. Mycopathol. Res. 44: 8, 2006; Hosag., Jacob Thomas & Robin, Indian J. Sci. Techn. 2: 2, 2009; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p. 94, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 693, 2012 (Fig. 148).

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, up to 2mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite to alternate at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 31–38x8–12 μm.  Appressoria 95% alternate and 5% opposite, unicellular, slightly antrorse, 14-22x7-10 μm. Thyriothecia scattered, orbicular, up to 72 μm in diameter, stellately dehisced at the centre; ascospores dark brown, 1-septate, constricted at the septum, 38-43x14-19 μm.

Asterina grammocarpa Sydow is known on the host genus Symplocos.  Asterina indica differs from it in having unicellular appressoria.

 

Asterina jambolana Kar & Maity, Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 54: 438, 1970; Hosag., Balakr. & Goos, Mycotaxon 59: 180, 1996; Hosag. & Abraham, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 4: 576, 2000; Hosag., C.K. Biju & Abraham, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 25: 306, 2001; J. Mycopathol. Res. 40:195, 2002; Hosag., Zoos Print J. 18:1283, 2003; 21: 2327, 2006; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p. 96, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 701, 2012 (Image 14, Fig. 149).

Materials examined: HCIO 42958, TBGT 239, 13.vii.1998, on leaves of Syzygium sp. (Myrtaceae), Tirunelly, coll. C.K.Biju.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, dense, crustose to velvety, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching irregular at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 25–32x4–7 μm.  Appressoria scattered, alternate, unilateral, mostly closely antrorse and appressed to the hyphae, often, curved, subantrorse to spreading, 16–20 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 6–7 μm long; head cells ovate to globose, straight to slightly curved, entire, 9–13x8–10 μm.  Thyriothecia scattered to connate and often fused, orbicular, up to 300μm indiameter, stellately dehisced at the centre, margin crenate to fimbriate, fringed hyphae short; asci globose, octosporous, up to 50μm in diameter; ascospores oblong, conglobate, brown, uniseptate, slightly constricted at the septum, 32–34x13–16 μm.

Kar & Maity (1970) described this species from West Bengal.  This is one of the most common species throughout the SouthernWestern Ghats.

 

Asterina lepianthis (Hosag., Balakr. & Goos) Hosag. in Hosag.,C.K. Biju, Abraham & Agarwal, Indian Phytopath. 55: 498, 2002 (lepianthedis); Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p. 103, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 708, 2012.

Anamorph: Asterostomella lepianthedis Hosag., Balakr. & Goos, Mycotaxon 58: 492, 1996 (Fig. 150).

Materials examined: HCIO 43714, TBGT 364, 8.xii.2000, on leaves of Lepianthes umbellata (L.) Rafin. [Hackeria subpeltata (Willd.) Kunth] (Piperaceae), coll. M. Kamarudeen.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, thin to dense, up to 1mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight, flexuous to crooked, branching irregular at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 12–33x3–5 μm.  Appressoria scattered, alternate to unilateral, straight to curved, two celled, 9–13 μm long; basal cells cuneate to cylindrical, 3–7 μm long, head cells ovate to globose, straight to slightly curved, entire, 9-13 x 8-10 μm. Thyriothecia scattered to connate and often fused, orbicular, up to 300μm in diameter, stellately dehisced at the centre, margin crenate to fimbriate, fringed hyphae short; asci globose, octosporous, up to 50μm in diameter; ascospores oblong, conglobate, brown, uniseptate, slightly constricted at the septum, 32–34 x13–16 μm.  Pycnothyria scattered, orbicular, up to 60μm  in diam., stellately dehisced at the centre, center, margin crenate; pycnothyriospores unicellular, globose to ellipsoidal, brown, 9–15x6–10 μm.

 

Asterina ligustricola Hosag. & Kamar. in Hosag., J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 28: 187, 2004; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p. 106, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 709, 2012.

Asterostomella ligustri Hosag., Balakr. & Goos, Mycotaxon 58: 493, 1996 (Fig. 151).

Materials examined: HCIO 44129, TBGT 528, 24.v.2001, on leaves of Ligustrum travencoricum Gamble (Oleaceae), M. Kamarudeen; HCIO 44867, TBGT 1095, 7.iii.2001, on leaves of Ligustrum walkeri auct. non Decne, Periya, coll. G. Rajkumar & P.A. Jose.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, subdense to dense, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching irregular at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 11–15x3–4 μm.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, scattered, unicellular, sessile to stipitate, irregularly and stellately sublobate to lobate, globose, 4–8x6–10 μm.  Pycnothyria numerous, scattered, orbicular, up to 50μm in diameter, margin fimbriate to crenate, stellately dehisced at the center; pycnothyriospores ellipsoidal, taper towards both ends, brown, 19–21x9–10 μm.  Thyriothecia scattered, orbicular, up to 130μm in diameter, margin crenate to fimbriate, fringed hyphae tortuous, thyriothecia stellately dehisced at the center; asci globose, octosporous, 30–35 μm in diameter; ascospores conglobate, brown, uniseptate, constricted at the septum, 16–19x9–10 μm, wall minutely echinulate.

This species differs from Asterina ligustri P. Henn in having unicellular appressoria and is the teleomorph of Asterostomella ligustri Hosag. et al. (Katumoto 1975; Hosagoudar et al. 1996).

It was parasitised by Zygosporium sp.

 

Asterina litseae-ligustrinae Hosag., Balakr. & Goos, Mycotaxon 59: 180, 1996; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 711, 2012 (Fig. 152).

Materials examined: HCIO 49871, TBGT 4023, 18.ix.2008, on leaves of Litsea sp. (Lauraceae), Thirunelly, coll. Harish et al.

Colonies hypophyllous, dense, crustose, up to 5mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight and in few places crooked, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 15–22x3–5 μm.  Appressoria alternate, about 15% opposite, straight to curved, unicellular, conoid, entire to variously sublobate, 9–13x6–10 μm.  Thyriothecia scattered to loosely grouped, round to ovate, up to 110μm in diameter, stellately fissured at the center, inner content deep yellow, margin crenate to fimbriate, fringed hyphae long and tortuous; asci many, globose, eight spored, 24–26 μm in diameter; ascospores conglobate, 1-septate, constricted at the septum, 18–19x6–10 μm, upper cell slightly ovate, lower cell globose, wall echinulate.

This species is similar to Asterina litseae Yates in having yellow contents in the thyriothecia (Hansford, 1949) but differs from it in having hypophyllous colonies, substraight to crooked hyphae, 15% opposite, and entire to variously sublobate appressoria and echinulate ascospores.

 

Asterina lobulifera Sydow var. indica Hosag. & Chandraprabha, Indian J. Sci. Techn. 2: 15, 2009; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p. 109, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 711, 2013 (Fig. 153).

Materials examined: HCIO 48236, TBGT 2974, 29.x.2007, on leaves of Glochidion sp. (Euphorbiaceae), Periya, coll. A. Chandraprabha.

Colonies amphigenous, dense, up to 2mm in diameter.  Hyphae flexuous to crooked, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 15–26x4–7 μm.  Appressoria 2-celled, alternate to opposite (5–10%), subantrorse, straight to curved, 11–15 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–7 μm long; head cells ovate, globose, sublobate to lobate, 7–11x4–7 μm.  Thyriothecia scattered to grouped at the centre of the colonies, orbicular, up to 121μm in diameter, margin crenate to fimbriate, stellately dehisced at the center; ascospores oblong, conglobate, uniseptate, constricted at the septum, 13–22x7–9 μm, wall smooth.  Pycnothyria smaller, similar to thyriothecia; pycnothyriospores ovate, pyriform, brown, 11–22x7–11 μm, wall smooth.

This species was known from Philippines, Taiwan and Japan (Sydow & Sydow 1914; Yamamoto 1956; Katumoto 1991).

 

Asterina melicopecola Hosag. & Abraham, Indian Phytopath. 50: 216, 1997; Hosag., C.K. Biju & Abraham, J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 25: 305, 2001; Hosag., Zoos Print J. 18: 1284, 2003; 21: 2328, 2006; Hosag., H. Biju & Appaiah, J. Mycopathol. Res. 44: 9, 2006; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p. 115, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 718, 2012 (Fig. 154).

Materials examined: HCIO 44301, TBGT 588,  10.i.2002, on leaves of Euodia luna-ankenda (Gaertner) Merr. (Rutaceae), Periya, coll. M. Kamarudeen; 16.iv.1999, HCIO 45147, TBGT 1202, Banasuran mala, coll. C.K. Biju; HCIO 45149, TBGT 1204, 19.xi.1999, coll. C.K. Biju; HCIO 49223, TBGT 3462, Periya, coll. Jacob Thomas et al.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, dense, up to 1mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight, branching opposite at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 19–24x3.5–5 μm.  Appressoria opposite, about 20% alternate, unicellular, ovate, globose, clavate, pyriform, irregularly sublobate to lobate, 9–12.5x6–7.5 μm.  Thyriothecia orbicular, loosely grouped in the center of the colony, scattered to connate, up to 150μm in diameter, stellately dehisced at the center, splitting up to margin, crenate to fimbriate at the margin, fringed hyphae small, profusely branched; asci globose, rounded, octosporous, up to 42μm in diameter; ascospores conglobate, brown, 1-septate, deeply constricted at the septum, upper cell globose, lower cell slightly ovate, 31–34x12–13.5 μm.

 

Asterina memecylonis Ryan, Mem. Dept. Agric. India 15: 105, 1921; Hosag., Zoos Print J. 19: 1386, 2004; Hosag., H. Biju & Appaiah, J. Mycopathol. Res. 43:204, 2005; Hosag., Zoos Print J. 21: 2328, 2006; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p. 116, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 720, 2012 (Fig. 155).

Materials examined: HCIO 49629, TBGT 3871, 20.ix.2008, on leaves of Memecylon sp. (Melastomataceae), Pulpally, coll. M. Harish & P.J. Robin; HCIO 45684, TBGT 1431,15.xi.2008, Memecylon sp., coll. V.B. Hosagoudar; TBGT 5726, 4.viii.2008; HCIO 44585, TBGT 872, 24.iv.2002, M. sylvaticum Thwaites, coll. H. Biju.

Colonies amphigenous, subdense to dense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight, branching alternate, opposite to irregular at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 28–32x4–7 μm.  Appressoria scattered, alternate, unicellular, broad based, mammiform, globose, entire, angular, crenately lobate to slightly lobate, 11–13x11–15 μm.  Thyriothecia scattered, orbicular, up to 441μm in diameter; crenate at margin, irregularly dehisce at the centre; asci few, globose to ovate, octosporous, 56–62 μm in diameter; ascospores brown, conglobate, uniseptate, constricted at the septum, taper at both ends, 38–42x14–16 μm.

 

Asterina micheliifolia Hosag. & Riju, J. Threatened Taxa 3: 1942, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 721, 2012. (Fig. 156).

Materials examined: HCIO 49111, TBGT 3366; HCIO 49112, TBGT 3367; HCIO 49113, TBGT 3368; HCIO 49114, TBGT 3369; HCIO 49115, TBGT 3370, 20.ix.2008, on leaves of Michelia chempaka L. (Magnoliaceae), Chennalode, Padinharathara, coll. M. C. Riju.

Colonies hypophyllous, thin, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae flexuous to crooked, branching irregular at acute to wide angles, forming closely reticulated rings, cells 12–40x3–5 μm.  Appressoria scattered, unicellular, opposite, alternate, unilateral, antrorse to retrorse, globose to cylindrical, entire, 5–18x5–8 μm.  Pycnothyria scattered, orbicular, up to 58μm in diameter, stellately dehisced and widely opened at the centre; pycnothyriospores globose, clavate, 15–20 μm in diameter, wall smooth.  Thyriothecia scattered, orbicular, up to 85μm in diameter, stellately dehisced and widely opened at the centre by exposing asci; asci globose to ovate, 37–45 μm in diameter; ascospores brown, uniseptate, constricted at the septum, 22–25x10–13 μm, wall smooth.

This species differs from Asterina micheliae Hansf. in having typically thyriothecium like fruiting bodies and differs from A. micheligena in having straight mycelium and larger ascospores.

 

Asterina micheliigena Hosag. & Riju, J. Threatened Taxa 3: 1944, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 722, 2012 (Fig. 157).

Materials examined: HCIO 49111, TBGT 3366; HCIO 49112, TBGT 3367; HCIO 49113, TBGT 3368; HCIO 49114, TBGT 3369; HCIO 49115, TBGT 3370, 20.ix.2008, on leaves of Michelia chempaka L. (Magnoliaceae), Chennalode, Padinharathara, coll. M. C. Riju.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent and often trait along the major veins of the upper surface of the leaves.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching opposite, alternate to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 9–24x4–6 μm.  Appressoria scattered, unicellular, opposite, alternate, unilateral, globose, entire, mammiform, 4–7x4–9 μm.  Pycnothyria scattered, orbicular, up to 75μm in diameter, stellately dehisced and widely opened at the centre; pycnothyriospores globose to slightly ovate, 17–25 μm in diameter, wall smooth.  Thyriothecia scattered, orbicular, up to 188μm in diameter, stellately dehisced and widely opened at the centre by exposing asci; asci globose to ovate, up to 63μm in diameter; ascospores brown, uniseptate, constricted at the septum, 25–33x15–18 μm, wall smooth.

 

Asterina microtropidicola Hosag. & C.K. Biju in Hosag., C.K. Biju, Abraham & Agarwal, Indian Phytopath. 55: 499, 2002; Hosag., Zoos Print J. 21: 2328, 2006; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p. 118, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 722, 2012 (Fig. 158).

Materials examined: HCIO 43712, TBGT 370, 12.viii.1999, on leaves of Microtropis latifolia Wight & Lawson (Celastraceae), Thirunelly shola forest, coll. C.K. Biju.

Colonies amphigenous, dense, velvety, up to 5mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae straight, rarely substraight to slightly flexuous, branching irregular at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 12–20x3–5 μm.  Appressoria unicellular, alternate, about 30% opposite, straight to slightly curved, conoid, attenuated and broadly rounded at the apex, entire, 11–20x6-8 μm.  Thyriothecia closely scattered, often connate, orbicular, up to 125μm in diameter, mostly crenate at the margin, stellately dehisced and widely opened at the centre; asci many, octosporous, globose, up to 40μm in diameter; ascospores oblong, conglobate, uniseptate, deeply constricted at the septum, 30–34x14–16 μm, wall smooth.

Asterina microtropidis Hosag. et al. is known on Microtropis ovalifolia from the Western Ghats of peninsular India (Hosagoudar et al. 1996).  However, Asterina microtropidicola differs from it in having alternate and opposite, conoid and straight appressoria.

 

Asterina naraveliae Hosag., C.K. Biju & Agarwal, Indian Phytopath. 55: 499, 2002; Hosag., Chandraprabha & Agarwal, Asterinales of Kerala, p. 126, 2011; Hosag., Mycosphere 2(5): 730, 2012 (Fig. 159).

Materials examined: HCIO 43711, TBGT 369, 19.xi.2009, on leaves of Naravelia zeylanica (L.) DC. (Ranunculaceae), Banasuranmala, coll. C.K. Biju; HCIO 49968, TBGT 4120, 14.iii.2007,  Puthuserry Kadavu, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 50006, TBGT 4158, 27.xii.2007, coll. M.C. Riju; HCIO 50740, TBGT 4657; HCIO 51128, TBGT 5008, 5.xi.2009, Gurukulam Botanical Garden, Periya, coll. M.C. Riju & A. Sabeena; HCIO 51175, TBGT 5055, 6.xi.2009, Thariode, coll. A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju.

Colonies amphigenous, thin to subdense, up to 2mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae flexuous to crooked, branching irregular at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 16–20x3–4 μm.  Appressoria two celled, very much scattered, antrorse, 9–15 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 1.5–5 μm long; head cells ovate, globose, mostly bilobate, rarely 3–4-time