New black mildews (Ascomycetes) from Kerala State, India

 

V.B. Hosagoudar 1 & A. Sabeena 2

 

1,2 Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden And Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695562, India

1 vbhosagoudar@rediffmail.com (corresponding author),

2 asabeenarasheed@gmail.com

 

 

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3476.3977-80

 

Editor: R.K. Verma, Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur, India.    Date of publication: 26 March 2013 (online & print)

 

Manuscript details: Ms # o3312 | Received 07 January 2013 | Finally accepted 15 March 2013

 

Citation: Hosagoudar, V.B. & A. Sabeena (2013). New black mildews (Ascomycetes) from Kerala State, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(5): 3977–3980; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o3476.3977-80.

 

Copyright: Hosagoudar & Sabeena 2013. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.

 

Funding: Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden And Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695562, India.

 

Competing Interest: None.

 

Acknowledgements: We are grateful to Forest Department, Government of Kerala for permission and to Dr. P.G. Latha, Director, JNTBGRI, Palode for facilities.

 

 

 

For figures -- click here

 

 

We have been engaged in the collection, identification and documentation of foliicolous fungi of India, with reference to Western Ghats and in particular to Kerala.  The collections made from the different forests from the Western Ghats region of Kerala State is in our active study and of which these five species are found to be new to science and are dealt herewith.

           

Descriptions of the species

 

Asterina artocarpi sp. nov.

(Fig. 1) (Mycobank no. MB 803841)

Materials examined: Holotype: TBGT 6245, 16.ii.2006, on leaves of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. (Moraceae), Cheguthan mukku, Adimali, Idukki, Kerala, coll. Gireesh Kumar.

Colonies epiphyllous, thin to subdense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight, branching opposite to unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 17–37x4–7 m.  Appressoria mostly opposite, subopposite, alternate to unilateral, ovate, conoid with tapering and broadly rounded at the apex, often oblong, entire, straight to curved, 7–12x4–10 m.  Thyriothecia scattered, orbicular, up to 150m in diameter, stellately dehisced at the centre, margin crenate to fimbriate; asci octosporous, globose, up to 32m in diameter; ascospores, conglobate, oblong to cylindrical, 1-septate, constricted at the septum, 22–30x12–15 m, wall smooth.

This species shows similarity with Asterina mysorensis Hansf. & Thirum. but differs from it in having straight to substraight mycelium in contrast to crooked (Hansford & Thirumalachar 1948).

Etymology: Named after the host genus.

 

Asterina desmosicola sp. nov.

(Fig. 2) (Mycobank no. MB 803842)

Materials examined: Holotype: TBGT 6246, 12.ii.2007, on leaves of Desmos lawii (Hook. f. & Thoms.) Saff. {(Unona lawii Hook. f. & Thoms.} (Annonaceae), Nilakal, Sabarimala forest division, Pathanamthitta, Kerala, coll. P.J. Robin et al.

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 25–37x5–7 m.  Appressoria alternate, about 2% opposite, unicellular, ovate, oblong, entire, angular to sublobate, 10–17x7–15 m.  Thyriothecia scattered to loosely grouped, orbicular, up to 100m in diameter, stellately dehisced at the centre; asci octosporous, globose, up to 37m in diameter; ascospores conglobate, oblong to cylindrical, constricted at the septum, 12–22x10–12 m, wall echinulate.

There are 12 species of the genus Asterina known on the members of Annonaceae (Hosagoudar & Abraham 2000).  However, based on the measurements and the presence of unicellular appressoria, it can be compared  to Asterina uvariae Hansf. but differs from it in having uniformly arranged appressoria (Hansford 1946).  It also differs from Asterina disseminata Syd. known on Uvaria afzelii from Sierra Leone (Sydow 1939) but differs from it in having 50% opposite and larger appressoria (10–17x7–15 m vs 5–7x3–3.5 m) and having smaller appressoria (18–22 m vs. 20–25x9–12 m).

Etymology: Named after the host genus.

 

Asterina shastavunadaensis sp. nov.

(Fig. 3) (Mycobank no. MB 803843)

Materials examined: Holotype: TBGT 6247, 10.iii.2010, on leaves of Myristica sp. (Myristicaceae), Sasthavunada, Myristica swamp, Sankhili forest, Shendhurney Wildlife Sanctuary, Kollam, Kerala, coll. V.B. Hosagoudar et al.

Colonies mostly hypophyllous, subdense, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent. Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 17–37x5–7 m.  Appressoria alternate, unicellular, ovate, globose, oblong, entire, angular to sublobate, 7–12x5–12 m.  Thyriothecia scattered to loosely grouped, orbicular, up to 170m in diameter, stellately dehisced at the centre; asci, octosporous, globose, up to 62m in diameter; ascospores, conglobate, oblong to cylindrical, 1-septate, constricted at the septum, 30–40x15–17 m, wall smooth.

Based on the unicellular, angular appressoria, the present species is similar to Asterina knemae attenuate Hosag. et al. but differs from it in the absence of opposite appressoria and having larger ascospores (30–40x15–17 vs 25–27x11–13 m (Hosagoudar 2012).

Etymology: Named after the collection locality.

 

Meliola desmodii-heterocarpi sp.nov.

(Fig. 4) (Mycobank no. MB 803844)

Materials examined: Holotype: TBGT 6248, 15.v.2007, on leaves of Desmodium heterocarpon (L.). DC. (Fabaceae), JNTBGRI Campus, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, coll. A. Sabeena et al.

Colonies epiphyllous, thin to subdense, up to 2mm in diameter.  Hyphae substraight, flexuous to crooked, branching opposite to unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 20–31x4–6 m.  Appressoria alternate, 5% opposite, unilateral, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, 9–17 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–6 m long; head cells ovate, globose, straight to curved, entire, 6–13x6–11 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 9–17x4–11 m.  Mycelial setae simple, straight, often about 3% uncinate at the apical penultimate end, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 650m long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 200m in diameter; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 33–44x9–15 m.

This species posses the digital formula (3113.4223) of Meliola bicornis Wint. known in numerous hosts and several species have been segregated from it.  However, the present species differs from it in having only acute to obtuse mycelial setae having 2% uncinate at the penultimate apical end.

Etymology: Named after the host genus.

 

Meliola garcinigena sp. nov.

(Fig. 5) (Mycobank no. MB 803845)

Materials examined: Holotype: TBGT 6249, 07.vii.2008, on leaves of Garcinia morella (Gaertner) Desr. (Clusiacee), Sairandhri, Silent Valley National park, Palghat, Kerala, coll. Jacob Thomas & M.C. Riju.

Colonies hypophyllous, thin, subdense to dense, up to 3mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae substraight, branching opposite to unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 20–30x5–10 m.  Appressoria alternate, opposite (50%) to unilateral, often solitary, antrorse to subantrorse, 12–22 m long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–10 m long; head cells ovate, oblong, cylindrical, few attenuated and broadly rounded at the apex, mostly entire, rarely angular,  10–15x7–12 m.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate but mostly opposite, ampulliform, 7–20x5–10 m.  Mycelial setae simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 900m long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 180 m in diam.; ascospores oblong, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 37–47x15–22 m.

Meliola garciniae Yates, M. garciniae Yates var. mangostana (Sacc.) Hansf. and M. garciniicola Jiag. are known on this host genus (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996, 2008; Hosagoudar et al. 1997) but the present species differs from all in having 50% opposite appressoria.

Etymology: Named after the host genus.

 

 

References

 

Hansford, C.G. (1961). The Meliolaceae. A Monograph. Sydowia. Beih 2: 1–806.

Hansford, C.G. (1946). Contributions towards the fungus flora of Uganda. New records. Proceedings of the Linnean Society London 157: 138–212.

Hansford, C.G. & M.J. Tirumalachar (1948). Fungi of South India. Farlowia 3: 285–314.

Hosagoudar, V.B. (1996). Meliolales of India. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, 363pp.

Hosagoudar, V.B. (2008). Meliolales of IndiaVol. II. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, 390pp.

Hosagoudar, V.B., T.K. Abraham & P. Pushpangadan (1997). The Meliolineae - A Supplement. Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, 201pp.

Hosagoudar, V.B. (2012). Asterinales of India. Mycosphere 2(5): 617–852.

Hosagoudar, V.B. & T.K. Abraham (2000). A list of Asterina Lev. species based on the literature. Journal of  Economic and Taxonomic Botany 24: 557–587.

Sydow, H. (1939). Novae fungorum species. Annales Mycologici 37: 230.