Vertebrate fauna of the Chambal River Basin, with emphasis on the National Chambal Sanctuary, India


Tarun Nair 1 & Y. Chaitanya Krishna 2


1 Gharial Conservation Alliance, Centre for Herpetology - Madras Crocodile Bank Trust, P.O. Box 4, Mamallapuram, Tamil Nadu 603104, India

1,2 Post-graduate Program in Wildlife Biology and Conservation, Wildlife Conservation Society - India Program, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560065, India; and Centre for Wildlife Studies, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560070, India

2 Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Malleshwaram, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560012, India

2 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA

1 (corresponding author), 2



doi: | ZooBank:


Editor: Meena Venkataraman, Mumbai, India       Date of publication: 26 February 2013 (online & print)


Manuscript details: Ms # o3238 | Received 18 June 2012 | Final received 01 January 2013 | Finally accepted 05 February 2013


Citation: Nair, T. & Y.C. Krishna (2013). Vertebrate fauna of the Chambal River Basin, with emphasis on the National Chambal Sanctuary, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(2): 3620–3641; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o3238.3620-41


Copyright: © Nair & Krishna 2013. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.


Funding: The Centre for Herpetology - Madras Crocodile Bank Trust - Herpetological Conservation Research Fund for financial support during the compilation of this checklist. Tarun Nair was supported by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, National Centre for Biological Sciences, and Wildlife Conservation Society - India Program for field work in 2010. Chaitanya Krishna is currently supported by a Fulbright-Nehru Doctoral and Professional Research Fellowship.


Competing Interest: None.


Author Contribution: TN conducted fieldwork and secured funding. CK and TN jointly contributed towards reviewing literature and writing.


Acknowledgements: We thank the Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh Forest Departments for research permissions. We are grateful to Rakesh Vyas, R.S. Tomar, Banwari and Jyoti for providing logistical support for field work between 2006 and 2008; Rajeev Tomar for logistical support in 2010; Robin Kurian Abraham and Vidyadhar Atkore for reviewing the final version of the fish checklist and Nachiket Kelkar for comments on an early draft of the fish checklist; Rakesh Vyas, R.S. Tomar and Sunil Singhal for generously sharing their work-in-preparation; Archana Bali and Neelesh Dahanukar for providing reference material; and Divya Karnad for reviewing the manuscript. We thank two anonymous reviewers for their comments which improved the manuscript.  We thank Saniya Chaplod for help with the Hindi abstract.


Author Details: Tarun Nair is a conservation biologist with an interest in crocodilians, freshwater systems and human-wildlife conflict. Y. Chaitanya Krishna is a grassland ecologist, having worked on four horned antelopes, pallid harriers, blackbuck and human-wildlife conflict.


Abstract: This research provides an updated checklist of vertebrate fauna of the Chambal River Basin in north-central India with an emphasis on the National Chambal Sanctuary.  The checklist consolidates information from field surveys and a review of literature pertaining to this region.  A total of 147 fish (32 families), 56 reptile (19 families), 308 bird (64 families) and 60 mammal (27 families) species are reported, including six Critically Endangered, 12 Endangered and 18 Vulnerable species, as categorised by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.  This represents the first such extensive checklist for this region and provides an initial baseline of species for future research in this area.


Keywords: Checklist, Gharial, Important Bird Area, Red-crowned Roofed Turtle.


Abbreviation: IUCN - International Union for Conservation of Nature




For figures, images, tables -- click here





Biodiversity inventories or checklists serve as repositories of baseline information on species occurrences, biogeography and their conservation status (Chandra & Gajbe 2005).  They are essential tools for developing our knowledge and understanding of biodiversity, and often the first step to undertake effective conservation action.  This information is also fundamental to assess changes in species composition and distribution (Abraham et al. 2011) in the face of perturbations that may be anthropogenic (dams, mining, etc.) or natural (earthquakes, volcanoes, etc.).

Lying between 24055′–26”50′N & 75034′–79018′E (Fig. 1), the National Chambal Sanctuary (hereafter, NCS), was established between 1978 and 1983 by the states of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh to conserve the Gharial and the unique Chambal ecosystem. It covers nearly 1800km2 across the three states, to form the first and only tri-state protected area in India. Despite being one of the last remnant rivers in the greater Gangetic Drainage Basin to have retained significant conservation values (Hussain & Badola 2001), the Chambal River faces severe extractive and intrusive pressures for resources.  The NCS is an Important Bird Area - Site Code IN-UP-11 and IN-RJ-11 (Islam & Rahmani 2004).  A comprehensive database of species occurring in this landscape does not exist.  Currently, this information is scattered throughout literature (Dubey & Mehra 1959; Sale 1982; Sharma et al. 1995; Chandra & Gajbe 2005; Saksena 2007; Sharma & Choudhary 2007; Srivastava 2007; Tigerwatch 2008, 2009; Vyas et al. in prep.), difficult to procure and inaccessible to the general public or administration.

The aim of this paper is to compile information from several sources including peer-reviewed publications, reports and our field observations, in order to highlight the vertebrate faunal diversity (fishes, reptiles, birds and mammals), and provide a baseline, reference checklist for the region.  We also discuss threats to the regionÕs biodiversity, particularly in NCS.



Materials and Methods


Study area

The Chambal Basin (22027ÕN–73020ÕE & 27020ÕN–79015ÕE) is a rain-fed catchment and drains a total area of 143, 219km2 and is characterised by an undulating floodplain, gullies, forests, ravines, and a mosaic of land-use types (Hussain & Badola 2001; Gopal & Srivastava 2008).  It is bound on the south, east and west by the Vindhyan mountain range and on the north-west by the Aravallis.  The 960km long Chambal River originates in the northern slopes of the Vindhyan escarpment and joins the Yamuna River near Bareh in Uttar Pradesh.  The tributaries of the Chambal include Shipra, Choti Kalisindh, Sivanna, Retam, Ansar, Kali Sindh, Banas, Parbati, Seep, Kuwari, Kuno, Alnia, Mej, Chakan, Parwati, Chamla, Gambhir, Lakhunder, Khan, Bangeri, Kedel and Teelar (Jain et al. 2007; Gopal & Srivastava 2008).  The NCS consists of a ~600km long arc of the Chambal River.  Over this arc, two stretches of the Chambal are protected as the National Chambal Sanctuary - the upper sector, extending from Jawahar Sagar Dam to Kota Barrage, and the lower sector, extending from Keshoraipatan in Rajasthan to the Chambal-Yamuna confluence in Uttar Pradesh.

The NCS lies within the semi-arid zone of north-western India at the border of Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh States (Hussain 1999). Ambient air temperatures range from 2–49 0C (Tarun Nair 2009–2010 pers. obs.) with a mean annual precipitation of 590mm, the bulk of which is received during the south-west monsoon (Hussain 1999, 2009).  From the source down to its confluence with the Yamuna, the Chambal has a fall of about 732m.  The Chambal averages 400m in width while depth ranges from 1–26 m (Hussain 1991).

The vegetation is classified as ravine and thorn forest (Champion & Seth 1968).  Evergreen riparian vegetation is completely absent, with only sparse ground-cover along the severely eroded river banks and adjacent ravine lands (Hussain 1999, 2009).  The region was also subject to intentional aerial seeding of Prosopis juliflora in the 1980s, as a ravine reclamation measure (Prasad 1988), and as a consequence P. juliflora is widespread in the region.

Much of the basin has been influenced by a long history of human occupation (Kaul 1962).  Anthropogenic influences are chiefly in the form of sand-mining; bank-side cultivation; domestic activities like bathing, washing and water collection; fishing; poaching; livestock herding; grass-soaking; river crossing and temple fairs.  The Chambal River also suffers severe hydrological modifications from water impoundment and extraction.


Data compilation and collection

Keywords such as Chambal, checklist, inventory, biodiversity, mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, fauna and occurrence were used in several variations and combinations in Google, Google Scholar, PubMed and Science Direct.  The references within the resulting documents were also sourced and reviewed. Similarly, five of the most widely recognised databases of published literature on Indian biodiversity, namely, Indian Forester, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, ZoosÕ Print Journal, Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (C.A.M.P.) reports and Journal of Threatened Taxa, were also reviewed for relevant information.  Preliminary checklists of fishes, reptiles, birds and mammals were prepared based on a review of published literature (Dubey & Mehra 1959; Sharma et al. 1995; Chauhan & Narain 2001; Sivakumar 2002; Sharma 2003; Khudsar 2004; Sundar 2004; Vyas 2004; Vyas & Singh 2004; Chandra & Gajbe 2005; Nair 2009), survey reports (Tigerwatch 2008, 2009; Vyas et al. in prep.), status reports and taxonomic assessments (Sale 1982; Molur & Walker 1998a,b; Rao 1988; Islam & Rahmani 2002; Molur et al. 2002; Islam & Rahmani 2004; Molur et al. 2005; SchŠtti & Schmitz 2006; Saksena 2007; Sharma & Choudhary 2007; Srivastava 2007; Choudhury et al. 2008; Sanderson et al. 2008; Driscoll & Nowell 2009; Bšhm & Richman 2010; Das et al. 2010; Murphy & Lobo 2010; Tenzin 2010; Vishwanath 2010a,b; Vidthayanon et al. 2011; BirdLife International 2012a,b).

Opportunistic field observations were made during field surveys in March–April 2006, February 2008, October 2009 and from December 2009 to May 2010, while collecting information on human-crocodile conflict, gharial habitat-use and population estimation.

We validated species checklists based on available ecological knowledge and distributional records for each species.  For instance, Sale (1982) reports the presence of Varanus salvator (Common Water Monitor) in the NCS. However, in India, V. salvator is reported to be restricted to the eastern and northeastern states of mainland India (Whitaker & Whitaker 1980; Molur & Walker 1998b; Bennett et al. 2010), and is hence omitted from our checklist.

The taxonomic classification, nomenclature and sequence followed Eschmeyer (2012) and Eschmeyer & Fong (2012) for fishes; Turtle Taxonomy Working Group [van Dijk, P.P., J.B. Iverson, H.B. Shaffer, R. Bour & A.G.J. Rhodin] (2011) for turtles and tortoises; ITIS (2012) for other reptiles; BirdLife International (2012) for birds; and Wilson & Reeder (2005) for mammals.



Results and Discussion


Faunal diversity: We recorded 147 fish species comprising 32 families (Table 2), 56 reptile species comprising 19 families (Table 3), 308 bird species comprising 64 families (Table 4) and 60 mammal species comprising 27 families (Table 5) from this region, based on available literature and our field observations. This includes six Critically Endangered, 12 Endangered and 18 Vulnerable species (see Table 1), as categorised by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN 2011).

The NCS is among the most important and significant habitats where several globally threatened fauna still survive. Apart from being a strong candidate for World Heritage and Ramsar Convention listings, the NCS is also subject to international treaties like the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (Bonn Convention), which lists both flagship species of the NCS - the Gharial Gavialis gangeticus and Gangetic River Dolphins Platanista gangetica.  It contains the most viable breeding populations of the Critically Endangered Gharial and Red-crowned Roofed Turtle Batagur kachuga.  It is also among the most important strongholds of the Deccan Mahaseer Tor khudree, Putitor Mahaseer Tor putitora, Narrow-headed Softshell Turtle Chitra indica, Three-striped Roofed Turtle Batagur dhongoka, Indian Skimmer Rynchops albicollis, Black-bellied Tern Sterna acuticauda, Sarus Crane Grus antigone and Gangetic River Dolphin Platanista gangetica.  The NCS functions as a vital source and nursery for fish fry and fingerlings, contributing significantly to downstream fisheries in the Gangetic river system (Sivakumar & Choudhury 2008).  It is an Important Bird Area particularly for the Oriental White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis, Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus, PallasÕs Fish-Eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus and Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga among others (Islam & Rahmani 2004).  The NCS also serves as among the best over-wintering sites for migratory birds.  In addition, this river sanctuary also forms a vital corridor and link for the movement and dispersal of Tigers Panthera tigris from the source population of Ranthambore Tiger Reserve to the protected areas of Kuno-Palpur, Madhav National Park and Darrah-Mukundra (Reddy et al. 2012; Rakesh Vyas February 2008 pers. comm.).

Threats: The Chambal faces severe extractive and intrusive pressures in the form of water impoundment and abstraction, sand- and stone-mining, fishing, poaching, riparian agriculture, livestock grazing, firewood collection, miscellaneous domestic activities, and infrastructural development (Hussain 2009; Nair 2010; Katdare et al. 2011; MoEF 2011; Tarun Nair 2006, 2008, 2009–2013 pers. obs.).

Seven major, 12 medium and 134 minor irrigation projects operating in the Chambal River Basin, have greatly reduced river flow (Hussain & Badola 2001).  Misleading environment impact assessments have permitted recently commissioned water abstraction projects to operate in the NCS by suppressing information on speciesÕ occurrences and falsely stating ŅAs there is no significant flora and fauna in or around Chambal River, there should also not be any ecological impacts from the increase in abstractionÓ (RUSDIP 2008, page 44).  Up- and downstream effects of dams are well-known, stemming from inundation, flow manipulation, and fragmentation.  Dams obstruct the dispersal and migration of organisms, and these and other effects have been directly linked to loss of populations and entire species of freshwater fish (Nilsson et al. 2005).  Low-flows in the Chambal River result in discontinuity between deep pools in the river, due to which species become more vulnerable to netting and dynamiting (Dubey & Mehra 1959; Katdare et al. 2011).  Additionally, reduction in the number of inaccessible islands results in increased destruction of nests of Gharials, turtles and ground-nesting birds like skimmers and Black-bellied Terns (Sundar 2004; Nair 2010).  Altered flow regimes, and insufficient flooding disrupts siltation rates and sand deposition in the river channel.  As Moll (1997) notes, upriver dams exacerbate the problem by preventing replacement sand from coming downriver while increasing erosion by periodic and unseasonable elevation of water levels.

Sand-mining destroys crucial breeding areas and is one of the most serious threats to the survival of species that lay their eggs on sand deposits.  Stone-mining, common in the upper sections of the river, causes considerable disturbances to wildlife, destroys key breeding habitats like otter-holts and provides easy access to ammunition for dynamite fishing (Katdare et al. 2011).

Poaching is another issue that continues unchecked (Murthy 2004; Tarun Nair 2009–2013 pers. obs.) due to inadequate allocation of field personnel to patrol the sanctuary.   Illegal fishing and turtle poaching are rampant, using a variety of methods (gill net, baited hook-line, dynamite) and these also claim other species like Gharials, Mugger, river dolphins, otters and several birds (Dubey & Mehra 1959; Vyas 2004; Nair 2010; Taigor & Rao 2010; Katdare et al. 2011).  Gill nets are particularly responsible for entangling and drowning juvenile Gharials, thereby impacting survival and recruitment of smaller size-classes.

Riparian agriculture and associated activities like constant human disturbance from irrigational pump operation and crop protection, and risks of water pollution from agro-chemical use and oil leaks also contribute substantially to habitat loss, degradation and pollution (Katdare et al. 2011).

In the future, river flows would be further impacted by the 52 irrigation projects that are under construction and 376 projects that have been planned in the basin (Department of Water Resources, Rajasthan).  Additionally, there are proposals to divert the two most important tributaries of the Chambal - the Parbati and Kalisindh rivers (NWDA).  Inspite of water being the most critical resource in the NCS, the environmental impact assessment for this project does not account for changes in the hydrological regime due to the diversion of water (NWDA).  There have also been calls to denotify the sanctuary itself in order to facilitate sand-mining (The Hindu 2006a, b).





Our effort is intended at providing a peer-reviewed and open-access compilation of vertebrate fauna of the Chambal River Basin, which highlights the regionÕs ecological significance.  We believe that this checklist will serve as a baseline for assessing changes in species status, distributions and occurrences in the face of threats; inform protected area managers, conservationists and environment impact assessors; and serve as a platform to initiate participatory biodiversity monitoring initiatives.





Abraham, R. (2011). Puntius fasciatus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. <>. Downloaded on 20 August 2012.

Abraham, R.K., N. Kelkar & A.B. Kumar (2011). Freshwater fish fauna of the Ashambu Hills landscape, southern Western Ghats, India, with notes on some range extensions. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(3): 1585–1593.

Bennett, D., M. Gaulke, E.R. Pianka, R. Somaweera & S.S. Sweet (2010). Varanus salvator. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <>. Downloaded on 05 June 2012.

BirdLife International (2012a). Important Bird Areas factsheet: National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary (Agra/Etawah) (part of National Chambal River Gharial Sanctuary AZE). Downloaded from on 06/05/2012.

BirdLife International (2012b). Important Bird Areas factsheet: National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary (Bundi/Kota) (part of National Chambal River Gharial Sanctuary AZE). Downloaded from on 06/05/2012.

BirdLife International (2012c). Species factsheet: Amandava formosa. Downloaded from on 05/05/2012.

BirdLife International (2012). IUCN Red List for Birds. Downloaded from on 06/05/2012.

Bšhm, M. & N. Richman (2010). Ophisops microlepis. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <>. Downloaded on 27 April 2012.

Champion, H.G. & S.K. Seth (1968). A Revised Survey of the Forest Types of India. Manager of Publication, New Delhi, 404pp.

Chandra, K. & P.U. Gajbe (2005). An inventory of Herpetofauna of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. ZoosÕ Print Journal 20(3): 1812–1819.

Chauhan, R. & S. Narain (2001). The Indian Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) in the Chambal ravines of Etawah. ZoosÕ Print Journal 16(5): 501.

Choudhury, A., C. Wozencraft, D. Muddapa & P. Yonzon (2008). Herpestes smithii. In: IUCN 2010. 2010 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <>. Downloaded on 06 September 2010.

Das, I., D. Basu & S. Singh (2010). Nilssonia hurum (Gray 1830) – Indian peacock softshell turtle. In: Rhodin, A.G.J., P.C.H. Pritchard, P.P. van Dijk, R.A. Saumure, K.A. Buhlmann, J.B. Iverson & R.A. Mittermeier (eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5. 6pp.

Department of Water Resources (Government of Rajasthan). Chambal Basin. Accessed on 02.11.12. (

Driscoll, C. & K. Nowell (2009). Felis silvestris. In: IUCN 2010. 2010 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <>. Downloaded on 06 September 2010.

Dubey, G.P. & R.K. Mehra (1959). Fish and fisheries of Chambal River. Proceedings of the All India Congress of Zoology 1: 647–665.

Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.) (2012). Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. Electronic version accessed on 23.04.2012 <>

Eschmeyer, W.N. & J.D. Fong (2012). Species of Fishes by family/subfamily. On-line version dated 23.04.2012.

Gopal, L. & V.C. Srivastava (2008). History of Agriculture in India (up to c. 1200 A.D.). History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization. Project of History of Indian Science, Philosophy and Culture. Centre for Studies in Civilizations, New Delhi, xxxiv+912pp.

Hussain, S.A. (1991). Ecology of Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) in National Chambal Sanctuary. MPhil Dissertation. Centre for Wildlife and Ornithology. Aligarh Muslim University, 57pp.

Hussain, S.A. (1999). Reproductive success, hatchling survival and rate of increase of gharial Gavialis gangeticus in National Chambal Sanctuary, India. Biological Conservation 87(2): 261–268.

Hussain, S.A. (2009). Basking site and water depth selection by gharial Gavialis gangeticus Gmelin, 1789 (Crocodylia, Reptilia) in National Chambal Sanctuary, India and its implication for river conservation. Aquatic Conservation-Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 19(2): 127–133.

Hussain, S.A. & R. Badola (2001). Integrated conservation planning for Chambal River Basin. Paper presented in the National Workshop on Regional Planning for Wildlife Protected Areas. August 6–8, 2001. India Habitat Centre, New Delhi, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehra Dun, 20pp.

Islam, M.Z. & A.R. Rahmani (2002). Threatened birds of India. Buceros 7(1&2). Compiled from Threatened Birds of Asia - BirdLife International Red Data Book (2001). BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Islam, M.Z. & A.R. Rahmani (2004). Important Bird Areas in India: Priority Sites for Conservation. Indian Bird Conservation Network: Bombay Natural History Society and BirdLife International (UK), xviii+1133pp.

ITIS (2012). Integrated Taxonomic Information System, online database available at Viewed on 05 May 2012.

IUCN (2011). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <>. Downloaded on 23 April 2012.

Jain, S.K., P.K. Agarwal & V.P. Singh (2007). Hydrology and Water Resources of India - Volume 57 of Water Science and Technology Library - Tributaries of Yamuna River. Springer, 350pp.

Knight, J.D.M., K.R. Devi & V. Atkore (2011). Systematic status of Systomus rubrotinctus Jerdon (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) with notes on the Puntius arulius group of fishes. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(4): 1686–1693.

Katdare, S., A. Srivathsa, A. Joshi, P. Panke, R. Pande, D. Khandal & M. Everard (2011). Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) populations and human influences on habitat on the River Chambal, India. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 21(4): 364–371.

Kaul, O.N. (1962). Management of Chambal ravines in Rajasthan. Indian Forester 88(10): 725–730.

Khudsar, F.A. (2004). Sighting of caracal in the Chambal ravines of Bhind District, Madhya Pradesh. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 101(1): 149.

MoEF (2011). Ministry of Environment and Forests - Wildlife Division. Summary records of the 22nd Meeting of the Standing Committee of National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) held on 25th April 2011 in Paryavaran Bhavan, CGO Complex, Lodi Road, New Delhi-110003. Available at

Moll, E.O. (1997). Effects of habitat alteration on river turtles of tropical Asia with emphasis on sand mining and dams, pp. 37–41. In Abbema, J.V. (ed.). Proceedings: Conservation, Restoration, and Management of Tortoises and Turtles - An International Conference, New York. New York Turtle and Tortoise Society.

Molur, S. & S. Walker (1998a). Report of the Workshop ÓConservation Assessment and Management Plan for Freshwater Fishes of IndiaÓ. Zoo Outreach Organisation & CBSG South Asia, Coimbatore, India, 156pp.

Molur S. & S. Walker (eds.) (1998b). Reptiles of India. Report on Biodiversity Conservation Prioritization Project (BCPP) India Endangered Species Project, Conservation Assessment and Management Plan Workshop. Zoo Outreach Organisation & CBSG South Asia, Coimbatore, India, 175pp.

Molur, S., C. Srinivasulu, B. Srinivasulu, S. Walker, P.O. Nameer & L. Ravikumar (2005). Status of South Asian Non-volant Small Mammals: Conservation Assessment and Management Plan Workshop Report. Zoo Outreach Organisation & CBSG-South Asia, Coimbatore, India, 618pp.

Molur, S., G. Marimuthu, C. Srinivasulu, S. Mistry, A.M. Hutson, P.J.J. Bates, S. Walker, K. Padma Priya & A.R. Binu Priya (eds.) (2002). Status of South Asian Chiroptera: Conservation Assessment and Management Plan Workshop Report. Zoo Outreach Organisation, CBSG South Asia & WILD, Coimbatore, India, viii+320pp.

Murphy, J. & A. Lobo (2010). Enhydris sieboldii. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <>. Downloaded on 27 April 2012.

Murthy, R.S. (2004). Management Plan of National Chambal Sanctuary, Morena (M.P.) 2003–2004 to 2013–2014. Forest Department, Government of Madhya Pradesh, Bhopal, India.

Nair, A.K. (2009). The status and distribution of major aquatic fauna in the National Chambal Gharial Sanctuary in Rajasthan with special reference to the Gangetic Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica (Cetartiodactyla: Platanistidae). Journal of Threatened Taxa 1(3): 141–146.

Nair, T. (2010). Ecological and anthropogenic covariates influencing gharial Gavialis gangeticus distribution and habitat use in Chambal River, India. Unpublished MasterÕs Thesis. National Centre for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, iv+74pp.

Ng, H.H. & M. Kottelat (2008). The identity of Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758), with the designation of a neotype (Teleostei: Clariidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 153: 725–732.

Nilsson, C., C.A. Reidy, M. Dynesius & C. Revenga (2005). Fragmentation and flow regulation of the worldÕs large river systems. Science 308: 405–408.

NWDA. Parbati Kalisindh Chambal Link. National Water Development Agency. Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India. Available at Accessed on 10 May 2012.

Pethiyagoda, R., M. Meegaskumbura & K. Maduwage (2012). A synopsis of the South Asian fishes referred to Puntius (Pisces: Cyprinidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 23(1): 69–95.

Prasad, R. (1988). Effectiveness of aerial seeding in reclamation of Chambal ravines in Madhya Pradesh. Indian Forester 114(1): 1–18.

Rao, R.J. (1988). Nesting Ecology of Gharial in the National Chambal Sanctuary. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, India, 105pp.

Reddy, P.A., D.S. Gour, M. Bhavanishankar, K. Jaggi, S.M. Hussain, K. Harika & S. Shivaji (2012). Genetic evidence of tiger population structure and migration within an isolated and fragmented landscape in northwest India. PLoS ONE 7(1): e29827. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029827.

RUSDIP (2008). Environmental Assessment Document. Initial Environmental Examination: Dholpur Water Supply Subproject. Project Number: 40031. September 2008. India: Rajasthan Urban Sector Development Investment Program. Prepared by Local Self Government Department For the Government of Rajasthan, Rajasthan Urban Infrastructure Development Project. Available at <>

Saksena, D.N. (2007). Fish diversity of Northern Madhya Pradesh (Gwalior and Chambal Divisions), pp. 50–57. In: Lakra, W.S. & U.K Sarkar (eds.). Fresh Water Fish Diversity of Central India. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, xiv+183pp.

Sale, J.B. (1982). 2nd Draft. Management Plan For The National Chambal Sanctuary. First Five Year Period 1982/83 – 1986/87. Central Crocodile Breeding and Management Institute, Hyderabad, iii+82pp.

Sanderson, J., S. Sunarto, A. Wilting, C. Driscoll, R. Lorica, J. Ross, A. Hearn, S. Mukherjee, J.A. Khan, B. Habib & L. Grassman (2008). Prionailurus bengalensis. In: IUCN 2010. 2010 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <>.

SchŠtti, B. & A. Schmitz (2006). Re-assessing Platyceps ventromaculatus (Gray, 1834) (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubrinae). Revue suisse de Zoologie 113(4): 747–768.

Sharma, L.L. & C.S. Choudhary (2007). Conservation and management of fish diversity in Rajasthan, pp. 110–117. In: Lakra, W.S. & U.K. Sarkar (eds.). Fresh Water Fish Diversity of Central India. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, xiv+183pp.

Sharma, R.K., R. Mathur & S. Sharma (1995). Status and distribution of fauna in National Chambal Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh. Indian Forester 121(10): 912–916.

Sharma, S.K. (2003). Presence of DumerilÕs Black-headed Snake (Sibynophis subpunctatus) in Kumbhalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India. Cobra 53: 17–18.

Sivakumar, K. (2002). The rare freshwater giant stingray in the National Chambal Sanctuary: Needs more attention for conservation. WII Newsletter 8(4) & 9(1): 5.

Sivakumar, K. & B.C. Choudhury (2008). Chambal River, Rajasthan: Importance of water flow and minimum water level in conservation of all tropic levels in different habitats and biodiversity. Journal of Landscape Architecture 19: 52–57.

Srivastava, N. (2007). Freshwater fish diversity in Rajasthan, pp 142–155. In: Lakra, W.S. & U.K. Sarkar (eds.). Fresh Water Fish Diversity of Central India. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, xiv+183pp.

Sundar, G. (2004). Observations on breeding Indian Skimmers Rynchops albicollis in the National Chambal Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, India. Forktail 20: 89–90.

Taigor, S.R. & R.J. Rao (2010). Anthropogenic threats in the National Chambal Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh, India. Tigerpaper 37(1): 23–27.

Tenzin, K. (2010). Gibelion catla. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. <>. Downloaded on 14 August 2012.

The Hindu (2006a). Illegal sand mining a threat to the Chambal river: M.P. Minister. 22 July 2006, The Hindu. Online edition available at

The Hindu (2006b). Illegal sand mining threatens Gharial sanctuary. 15 October 2006, The Hindu. Online edition available at

Tigerwatch (2008). Chambal expedition - January Õ08 report. Tigerwatch, Ranthambore, India, 64pp.

Tigerwatch (2009). The Gharial expedition - December 2009 - A survey of Gharial populations in one segment of the National Chambal Sanctuary, Rajasthan. Tigerwatch, Ranthambore, India, 37pp.

Turtle Taxonomy Working Group [van Dijk, P.P., J.B. Iverson, H.B. Shaffer, R. Bour & A.G.J. Rhodin] (2011). Turtles of the world, 2011 update: annotated checklist of taxonomy, synonymy, distribution, and conservation status, pp. 165–242. In: Rhodin, A.G.J., P.C.H. Pritchard, P.P. van Dijk, R.A. Saumure, K.A. Buhlmann, J.B. Iverson & R.A. Mittermeier (eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5., 237pp.

Vidthayanon, C., I. Baird & Z. Hogan (2011). Himantura polylepis. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <>. Downloaded on 23 April 2012.

Vishwanath, W. (2010a). Clarias magur. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. <>. Downloaded on 14 August 2012.

Vishwanath, W. (2010b). Megarasbora elanga. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. <>. Downloaded on 14 August 2012.

Vyas, R. (2004). Fishing in protected areas-a bane for aquatic wildlife. ZoosÕ Print XIX(7): 1–2.

Vyas, R. & H. Singh. (2004). Biodiversity survey of Gandhi Sagar Reservoir, Madhya Pradesh. ZoosÕ Print Journal 19(7): 1525–1529.

Vyas, R., R.S. Tomar & S. Singhal (in prep.) Macrofauna of National Chambal Sanctuary in Rajasthan and its conservation issues.

Whitaker, R. & Z. Whitaker (1980). Distribution and status of Varanus salvator in India and Sri Lanka. Herpetological Review 11(3): 81–82.

Wilson, D.E. & D.M. Reeder (eds.) (2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd edition, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, xvii+2142pp.