Meliolales of  India – Volume  III

 

V.B. Hosagoudar

 

Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

vbhosagoudar@rediffmail.com

 

 

Contents

 

Introduction    ......................................................................................................................................... 3996

Key to the genera ................................................................................................................................. 3996

Digital formula ..................................................................................................................................... 3996

Description of species ......................................................................................................................... 3997

The genus Amazonia ............................................................................................................................... 3997

The genus Appendiculella .................................................................................................................. 3998

The genus Asteridiella ........................................................................................................................ 3999

The genus Ectendomeliola ................................................................................................................ 4010

The genus  Irenopsis ............................................................................................................................... 4011

The genus Meliola ................................................................................................................................... 4015

Key to the species meliolales ........................................................................................................ 4058

Host-Parasite-Index ............................................................................................................................... 4067

 

 

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3307.3993-4068

                                   

Editor: H.C. Nagaveni, Indian Wood Science and Technology, Bengaluru, India      Date of publication: 08 April 2013 (online & print)

                                   

Manuscript details: Ms # o3307 | Received 16 August 2012 | Final received 08 December 2012 | Finally accepted 21 January 2013

                                   

Citation: Hosagoudar, V.B. (2013). Meliolales of  India – Volume  III. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(6): 3993–4068; doi:10.11609/JoTT.o3307.3993-4068

                                   

Copyright: ę Hosagoudar 2013. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.

                                   

Funding: Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

           

Competing Interest: None.

                                   

Acknowledgements: Thanks are due to Dr. P.G. Latha, Director, Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India (JNTBGRI), Palode for providing the facility.

 

Author Details: Dr. V.B. Hoagoudar is a Senior Scientist in JNTBGRI, has been working on foliicolous fungi since 1974, published 16 books and more than 400 research papers mostly on foliicolous fungi; and has proposed three new families, 17 genera and more than 800 species and infra specific taxa.

 

 

 

Abstract: This work,  is the continuation of my preceding two works on Meliolales of India, gives an account of 123 fungal species belonging to five genera, Amazonia (3), Appendiculella (1), Asteridiella (22), Ectendomeliola (1), Irenopsis (8) and Meliola (88),  infecting 120 host plants belonging to 49 families.  Generic key, digital formula, synoptic key to the species is provided.  In the key, all the species are arranged under their alphabetically arranged host families.  Description of the individual species is provided with the citation, detailed description, materials examined and their details including their herbarium details.  Each species is supplemented with line drawings.  Host and the species index is provided at the end.  This work includes five new species: Meliola arippaensis, M. calycopteridis, M. cariappae, M. harpullicola and M. mutabilidis; a new variety: Irenopsis hiptages Yamam. var. indica  and two new names: Asteridiella micheliifolia (based on A. micheliae) and Meliola strombosiicola (based on Meliola strombosiae)

 

Keywords: Amazonia, Appendiculella , Asteridiella, Ectendomeliola, India, Irenopsis, Meliola, Meliolales.

 

 

For figures, images, tables -- click here

 

 

Introduction

 

The study of the meliolaceous fungi in the Western Ghats of peninsular India has taken a momentum in taxonomic account but the thorough knowledge and their systematic study of all the forest areas in the biodiversity rich areas like Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, northeastern India is lacking.  The systematic study of these fungi from the Andaman Islands is yet to be started.  The present work is the third Indian monographic work in addition to my first and second volumes (Hosagoudar 1996, 2008).  The present work is mainly concentrated on the additional taxa to the preceding work.  To facilitate the generic identity, key has been provided.

 

 

Key to the genera

 

1. Perithecia flattened-globose in the radiating hyphae............................................................. Amazonia

1. Perithecia globose ............................. .............................................................................. 2

2. Mycelium partly endophytic ......... .................................. ................................................ Ectendomeliola

2. Mycelium ectophytic only ....... .................................. ...................................................... 3

3. Perithecial setae present ............. ................................ ................................................... Irenopsis

3.  Perithecial setae absent ....... ..... ................................ ................................................... 4

4.  Mycelial setae present ............................ ..... ................................ ............................... Meliola

4.  Mycelial setae absent ........... ..... ................................ ................................................. Asteridiella       

 

DIGITAL FORMULA

 

Beeli formula consists of 8 digits.  The first 4 digits before the stop  (left side to the stop) represent the morphological characters like ascospore septation, presence or absence and the nature of the perithecial setae or appendages, presence or absence and the nature of the mycelial setae and the arrangements of appressoria, respectively.  The second 4 digits, after the stop, represent the measurements such as length and breadth of ascospores, diameter of perithecia and length of mycelial setae, respectively.  The species having both simple & dentate setae is denoted by ⅓, while species having straight and uncinate setae are designated as ½.  The Beeli formula is modified here to accommodate the genus Armatella having 1-2 septate ascospores.  Further, for Prataprajella, the second digit becomes ¾ or so.

 

 

I. MORPHOLOGY (first four digits from left)

 

1. Normal septation of ascospores

1.         1-septate

2.         3-septate

3.         4-septate

2. Perithecia

1.         Without setae or appendages

2.         With larviform, horizontally striated append ages

3.         With uncinate or coiled setae

4.         With straight setae

3. Mycelial setae (often on perithecia and from subiculam)

0.         Absent

1.         Simple

2.         Simple, entire, uncinate or coiled

3.         Dentate or shortly furcate (up to 30Ám)

4.         Branched (branches more than 30Ám)

4. Appressoria

1.         Alternate or unilateral (less than 1% opposite)

2.         Regularly opposite

3.         Both opposite and alternate

 

II. Measurements (second four digits from the full stop)

5. Maximum ascospore length

1.         Below 20Ám

2.         21–30 Ám

3.         31–40 Ám

4.         41–50 Ám

5.         51–60 Ám

6.         More than 60Ám long

6. Maximum ascospore width

1.         Up to 10Ám

2.         11–20 Ám

3.         21–30 Ám

4.         More than 30Ám

7. Maximum diameter of perithecia

1.         Up to 100Ám

2.         101–200 Ám

3.         201–300 Ám

4.         More than 301Ám

 

8. Maximum length of mycelial setae

1.         Up to 300Ám

2.         301–500 Ám

3.         501–1000 Ám

4.         More than 1000Ám

0.         Absent.

 

The treatment of species and varieties consists of the original citation of the correct name, citation of the world monograph and Indian monograph, relevant synonyms (if any) based on the monographs Hansford (1961) and Hosagoudar (1996).  The citation is followed by the description based on the present collections, which are deposited in JNTBGRI (Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram) and HCIO (Herbarium Cryptogamae Indiae Orientalis), New Delhi and few are at ILLS (Illinois  Natural History Survey, Illinois, USA).  At the end of the description of each taxon, notes have been provided regarding their identification and distribution.  Line drawings have been provided to most of the studied taxa.

 

 

Description of species

 

The genus Amazonia

 

Amazonia dikesinghii Hosag., Jacob Thomas & Agarwal, Nelumbo 52: 1, 2010. (Image 1, Fig. 1)

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, up to 3mm in diameter, scattered.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching alternate to rarely opposite at acute angles, very closely reticulate to form a solid mycelial mat, cells 6–13x6–8Ám.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, straight to curved, antrorse to closely antrorse and often appressed to the hyphae, 12–17 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–5 Ám long; head cells ovate to globose, entire, 12–16x11–16 Ám.  Phialides born on a separate mycelial branches, alternate to opposite, conoid to ampulliform, 8–11x6–8 Ám.  Perithecia flattened-globose, up to 200Ám in diameter; ascospores oblong to ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 35–40x12–18 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 49045 (holotype), TBGT 3311 (isotype), 02.ii.2008, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, Athirumala, on leaves of Pogostemon travancoricus Bedd. (Lamiaceae), Jacob Thomas; HCIO 49045, TBGT 3300, 02.iii.2008, Thiruvananthapuram, Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary, Pongalappara, Jacob Thomas.  This is the only species of the genus Amazonia on the members of Lamiaceae (Hansford 1961; Hu et al. 1996, 1999; Hosagoudar 1996, 2008; Hosagoudar et al. 1997; Hosagoudar & Agarwal 2008).

 

Amazonia elaeocarpi Hosag., Agarwal, H. Biju & Archana,Indian Phytopathol. 60: 82, 2007 (Fig. 2)

Colonies amphigenous, thin, up to 2mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight to flexuous, branching alternate to opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 13–35x4–8 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, unilateral, antrorse to retrorse, straight to curved, 11–24 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–10 Ám long; head cells ovate, oblong, cylindrical, straight to curved, entire to angular, broadly rounded to truncate at the apex, 8–16x6–11 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate, opposite to unilateral, 9–26x–6–10 Ám.  Perithecia flattened-globose, scattered, up to 130Ám in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 41–48x14–19 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 46372 (holotype), TBGT 2018 (isotype), 12.xii.2003, Kerala, Palakkad, Silent Valley, Sairandhri, on leaves of Elaeocarpus munronii (Wight) Mast. (Elaeocarpaceae), V.B. Hosagoudar et al.

This species differs from Asteridiella elaeocarpicola Hansf., A. elaeocarpi-tuberculati Hosag. and Meliola elaeocarpi Yates in absence of mycelial setae and having flattened-globose perithecia (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996).

 

Amazonia palaquii Hosag. & Robin, Bioscience Discovery 2(2): 264, 2011. (Fig. 3)

Colonies hypophyllous, crustose, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight, branching opposite at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 13–22x5–7 Ám.  Appressoria alternate to unilataral, antrorse, straight to slightly curved, 13–17 Ám long; stalk cells cuneate, 2–5 Ám long; head cells globose, ovate, entire, 9–13x7–10 Ám.  Phialides few, mixed with appressoria, alternate, ampulliform, 13–20x7–9 Ám. Perithecia mostly aggregated, flattened-globose, up to 220Ám in diam.; ascospores ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 33–44x16–20 Ám.

Material examined: TBGT 4651(holotype), HCIO 50734 (isotype), 18.i.2007, Kerala, Pathanamthitta, Gavi, on leaves of Palaquium sp. (Sapotaceae), Gireesh Kumar et al.

Amazonia sideroxyli Hansf. is the only species of the genus Amazonia known on Sideroxylon sp. from Malaysia (Hansford 1961).  Three species of the genus Palaquium are known from Kerala and all are endemic to the region (Nayar et al. 2006).  The present species differs from A. sideroxyli Hansf. in having loosely reticulate hypophyllous colonies with straight to substraight mycelia in contrast to colonies forming solid mycelial mat and the hyphae straight to substraight.

 

The genus Appendiculella

 

Appendiculella elaeocarpi Hosag. & Robin, J. Threatened Taxa 3(5): 1782, 2011. (Fig. 4)

Colonies epiphyllous, subdense, up to 3mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight to undulate, branching mostly opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 22–29x3–5 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to subantrorse, 17–19 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–7 Ám long; head cells globose, ovate, entire, 12–14x7–10 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–22x7–10 Ám.  Perithecia scattered, globose, up to 106Ám in diameter; perithecial appendages conoid, straight to curved, horizontally striated, attenuated to broadly rounded at the apex, up to 24Ám long; ascospores oblong to ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 34–38x12–14 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 48808 (holotype), TBGT 3184 (isotype), 04.iii.2007, Kerala, Kottayam, Ponthanpuzha, Chapathu, on leaves of Elaeocarpus tuberculatus Roxb. (Elaeocarpaceae), P.J. Robin.

Asteridiella elaeocarpi-tuberculati Hosag., A. elaeocarpicola Hansf. and Meliola elaeocarpi Yates are known on this host genus (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar et al. 1997; Hosagoudar 1996, 2008; Hosagoudar & Agarwal 2008).  The present taxon differs from all in having perithecial appendages and is the first species of the genus Appendiculella known on the members of the family Elaeocarpaceae.

 

The genus Asteridiella

 

Asteridiella amomi Hosag., Jacob Thomas & Agarwal, Nelumbo 52: 1, 2010. (Image 2, fig 5).

Colonies amphigenous, dense, subvelvety, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to slightly crooked, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 19–36x7–10 Ám.  Appressoria alternate and unilateral, straight to curved, antrorse to spreading, 21–29 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 9–12 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, angular to sublobate, 12–18x9–15 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 19–26x4–7 Ám.  Perithecia scattered, up to 100Ám in diameter; perithecial cells conoid to mammiform, 9–14x9–12 Ám; ascospores ellipsoidal, 4- septate, constricted at the septa, 36–41x14–17 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 48833 (holotype), TBGT 3209 (isotype), 04.iii.2008, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, Athirumala, on leaves of Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Zingiberaceae), Jacob Thomas et al.; HCIO 48834, TBGT 3210, 04.iii.2008, Thiruvananthapuram, Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary, Kombe, Jacob Thomas et al.

Two species of the genus Asteridiella, namely, A. costi (Stev.) Hansf. and A. parasitica (Stev.) Hansf. are known on Costus sp. from Panama and Ecuador, respectively.  However, Asteridiella amomi differs from both the species in having broader mycelial cells, longer appressoria with entire to lobate head cells.  Further, this forms the first meliolaceous fungus on the genus Amomum (Hansford 1961).

 

Asteridiella anacolosae Hosag., Sabeena & Jacob Thomas, Bioscience Discovery 2: 17, 2011. (Fig. 6)

Colonies mostly hypophyllous, thin, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight, branching opposite to unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 12–25x7–10 Ám.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, closely arranged, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, 12–15 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–7 Ám long; head cells oblong, ovate, globose, entire, angular to sublobate, attenuated towards the tip, 10–17x7–15 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, ampulliform, 15–20x7–10 Ám.  Perithecia scattered, up to 100Ám in diam., perithecial wall cells conoid, up to 15Ám long; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 37–45x17–20 Ám.

Material examined: TBGT 4554 (holotype). HCIO 50637 (isotype), 14.iii.2007, Kerala, Pathanamthitta, Sabrimala, on leaves of Anacolosa sp. (Olacaceae), Jacob Thomas et al.

Three species of the genus Asteridiella are known on the members of the family Olacaceae, namely, A. ximeniae (Bat. & Silva) Hansf., A. scordocarpi Hansf. & A. strombosiae Hansf. Of these, the former two species are similar to the present species in having 3-septate ascospores but differs from both in having ovate, oblong to cylindrical head cells attenuated towards the apex in contrast to globose cells (Hansford 1961).

 

Asteridiella brahmagiriensis Hosag., Archana. & Agarwal, Indian Phytopath. 60: 237, 2007. (Fig. 7)

Colonies amphigenous, subdense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, cells 14–38x4–7 Ám.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, straight to slightly curved, 9–27 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–8 Ám long; head cells oblong, ovate, globose, entire, 6–19x6–11Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 11–24x4–8 Ám.  Perithecia globose, scattered to grouped, up to 284Ám in diameter; perithecial wall cells conoid to mammiform, up to 35Ám long; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 36–43x14–19 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 46967 (holotype), TBGT 2184 (isotype), 13.xi.2003, Karnataka, Coorg, Talacauveri, Brahmagiri, MPCA, on leaves of Syzygium sp. (Myrtaceae), V.B.Hosagoudar et al.

Based on the Beeli formula, this species is closer to Asteridiella zeheri (Doidge) Hansf. known on Eugenia zeheri from South Africa (Hansford 1961) but differs from it in having entire margin of the head cells of appressoria in contrast to angular to lobate.  Asteridiella eugeniae-fruticosae Jana et al. is known on Eugenia fruticosa from Nagaland (Jana et al. 2005).  However, A. brahmagiriensis differs from it in having longer appressoria (10–27 Ám against 12–17 Ám), head cells entire in contrast to angular, larger perithecia (284Ám vs. 105Ám) and having larger ascospores (36–43x14–19 Ám against 27–35x10–16 Ám).

 

Asteridiella chowrirae Hosag., Thimmaiah & Jayashankara, Mycosphere 2(6), 611, 2011. (Image. 3).

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, up to 3mm in diameter. Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching alternate to opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 23–25x6–8 μm.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse, subantrorse to reflexed, straight to variously curved, 22–30(–48) μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, rarely up to 2-septate, 6–12(–20) μm long; head cells ovate, globose, cylindrical, entire, angular to rarely sublobate, very few attenuated at the apex, 16–23 x 12–20 μm. Phialides numerous, apparently borne on a separate mycelium but mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 15–30 x 5–8 μm. Perithecia scattered, up to 120 μm in diam.; perithecial wall cells conoid, projected, attenuated at the apex, up to 20 μm high; ascospores straight to slightly curved, oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 42–45 x 16–18 μm.

Material examined: TBGT 5708 (holotype), 29.xi.2009, Karnataka, Kodagu, Hoddur, Chowrira House, on leaves of Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotz. (Poinsettia pulcherima Graham) (Euphorbiaceae), C. Jagath Thimmaiah.

Asteridiella antidesmatis Hansf., A. cleistanthi Hansf., A. drypeticola Hansf., A. malloticola Yamam., A. sapii Hansf. & A. subapoda Sydow have the same digital formula 3101.4220. Of these, it is similar to A. sapi Sydow in having entire to sublobate head cells of the appressoria but differs from it in having longer and often septate stalk cells of the appressoria and the head cells are entire, angular to sublobate (Hansford 1961).

 

Asteridiella crotonis-caudati Hosag., Riju & Agarwal, Indian Phytopath. 63: 76, 2010. (Fig. 8).

Colonies amphigenous, thin, scattered, up to 6mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight to flexuous, branching alternate, opposite, unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 17–40x3–5 Ám. Appressoria alternate, unilateral, antrorse, 13–21 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–8 Ám long; head cells globose, ovate, entire, 8–13x8–13 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, unilateral, ampulliform, 13–23x6–8 Ám.  Perithecia scattered, up to 110Ám in diameter; perithecial wall cells conoid to mammiform, up to 16Ám long; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 30–34x13–15 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO (holotype), TBGT 3436 (isotype), 3.viii.2008, Kerala, Palakkad, Silent Valley National Park, Thondakulam, on leaves of Croton caudatus Geisel. (Euphorbiaceae), M. C. Riju et al.; HCIO 50574, TBGT 4491, 04.viii.2008, M.C. Riju.

Based on the digital formula 3101.3220, this species is similar to Asteridiella phyllanthi (Deight.) Hansf., A. erythrococcae Hansf., A. hansfordii (Stev.) Hansf. and A. hansfordii (Stev.) Hansf. var. densa (Hansf. & Deight.) Hansf.  However, differs from all in having entire head cells of appressoria.  Based on the character of entire head cells of the appressoria, Asteridiella crotonis-caudati differs from A. phyllanthi in having longer and regularly antrorse appressoria; from A. macarangicola Hosag. in having straight to flexuous hyphae. Based on the host specificity, it differs from A. kombeensis Hosag., A. wyanadensis Hosag. et al. and A. crotonis Hosag. in having entire head cells of the appressoria (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996).

 

Asteridiella depokensis Hansf., Sydowia 10: 47, 1957; Sydowia Beih. 2: 688, 1961; Hosag., Timmaiah &

Jayashankara, Mycosphere 2(6), 612, 2011. (Image. 4)

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, up to 7mm in diameter. Hyphae flexuous to crooked, branching alternate to opposite at acute to wide angles, closely reticulate, cells 12–17x6–8 μm.  Appressoria alternate, closely placed, antrorse to closely antrorse, often appressed to the hyphae, straight to curved, 14–24 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–13 μm long; head cells globose, clavate, distinctly angular to truncate, rarely rounded, 9–16 x 12–18 μm.  Phialides many, mixed with appressoria, ampulliform, 16–20 x 6–7 μm. Perithecia scattered, up to 130μm in diam.; perithecial cells mammiform, broadly rounded at the apex, up to 12μm long; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 35–38x14–16 μm.

Material examined: TBGT 5698, 16.xi.2009, Karnataka, Kodagu, Hoddur, on leaves of Vitex negundo L. (Verbenaceae), C. Jagath Thimmaiah.

Angular head cells of the appressoria distinguish this species from others.

 

Asteridiella emciciana Hosag., Robin & Archana, Sydowia 61(2): 244, 2009. (Fig. 9)

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, thin, up to 3mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight, substraight to slightly undulate, branching mostly opposite at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 24–31 Ám long.  Appressoria alternate, unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 21–26 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 7–9 Ám long; head cells globose, ovate, oblong, entire, angular to slightly lobate, 12–17x10-12 Ám. Phialides mixed with appressoria , opposite, alternate to unilateral, ampliform, 14–19x5–7 Ám.  Perithecia scattered, up to 110Ám in diam.; ascospores oblong, ellipsoidal to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 34–39x12–14 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 48442 (holotype), TBGT 3163 (isotype), 24.xii.2007, Tamil Nadu, Chennai, in the campus of Madras Christian College, on leaves of Scutia myrtiana (Burm.f.) Kurz (Rhamnaceae),  V. B. Hosagoudar et al.

Asteridiella colubrinae (Stev.) Hansf. is known on Colubrina rufa from Panama, is the only species of the genus Asteridiella on Rhamnaceae (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996; Hosagoudar et al. 1997; Hosagoudar 2008; Hosagoudar & Agarwal 2008).  However, A. emciciana differs from it having straight hyphae with entire, angular to sublobate head cells of appressoria.

 

Asteridiella ficicola Hosag., Archana & Sabu, J. Threatened Taxa 1(9): 474, 2009. (Fig. 10)

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight, substraight to flexuous, branching mostly opposite to alternate at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 9–24x6–8 Ám.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, straight to slightly curved, antrorse to subantrorse, rarely retrorse, 12–21 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3.8Ám long; head cells straight to slightly curved, globose, ovate, oblong, entire to rarely angular, 8–13x6–10 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, alternate to unilateral, ampulliform, 12–19x6–10 Ám.  Perithecia scattered to grouped, up to 160Ám in diam., perithecial wall cells mammiform, up to 16Ám long; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 33–38x17–19 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 46806 (holotype), TBGT 2147 (isotype) (MycoBank # MB513420), 01.iv.2006, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Palode, JNTBGRI Campus, Arboretum, on leaves of Ficus microcarpa L. (Moraceae), T. Sabu.

Based on the digital formula 3101.3220, this species is similar to Asteridiella olmediae Hansf. reported on Olmedia aspera from Panama.  However, Asteridiella ficicola differs from it in having only epiphyllous and confluent colonies, shorter appressoria with mostly ovate to oblong head cells (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996).

In some perithecia, marginal cells were radiating and reminding of the genus Amazonia.  However, most of the perithecia were globose so as to accommodate it in the genus Asteridiella.

 

Asteridiella homaligena Hosag., Thimmaiah & Jayashankara, Mycosphere 2(6):613, 2012. (Image. 5)

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, subdense, up to 4mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching alternate to opposite at acute to subacute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 17–25x6–9μm. Appressoria alternate, about 5% opposite, antrorse to spreading, 16–25 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–6 μm long; head cells ovate to obovate, entire to slightly angular, 14–20x11–15 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 21–27x4–9 μm.  Perithecia scattered, up to 130μm in diam., perithecial wall cells mammiform, up to 15μm high; ascospores obovoidal, oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 37–40x13–16 μm.

Material examined: TBGT 5696 (holotype), 22.vii.2009, Karnataka, Kodagu, Hoddur, river side, on leaves of Homalium zeylanicum Benth. (Flacourtiaceae), C.Jagath Thimmaiah.

Asteridiella homalii-angustifolii (Deight.) Hansf. is known on Homalium angustifolium from Sierra Leone. However, the present species differs from it in having entire head cells of the appressoria in contrast to lobate ones (Hansford 1961, Hosagoudar 1996, 2008, Hu et al. 1996, 1999).

 

Asteridiella ixorae Hosag. & Archana, J. Threatened Taxa 2: 889, 2010. (Fig. 11)

Colonies amphigenous, subdense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 12–30x4–8 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, unilateral, 1% opposite, antrorse, to subantrorse, straight, 12–22 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–10 Ám long; head cells ovate, oblong, globose, entire to slightly angular, 8–13x8–11 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 12–22x6–8 Ám.  Perithecia scattered, globose, up to 145Ám in diameter; perithecial cells mammiform, obtuse at the tip, up to 10Ám long; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 35–42x12–18 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 48165 (holotype), TBGT 2901 (isotype), 27.ix.2006, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Palode Forest area, on leaves of Ixora sp. (Rubiaceae), V.B.Hosagoudar et al.

Based on the digital formula 3101.4220, it can be compared with Asteridiella glabra (Berk. & Curt.) Hansf. & Asteridiella uncariicola Hansf. but differs from the former species in having straight and loosely reticulate hyphae and from the latter species in having shorter with only entire head cells of the appressoria (Hansford 1961).

 

Asteridiella kodaikanalensis Hosag., Ravikumar & Archana, J. Threatened Taxa 1(8):434, 2009. (Fig. 12).

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, dense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent and opposite at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 11–32x6–10 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, unilateral, straight, antrorse, 14-27 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3.11Ám long; head cells mostly straight, globose, ovate, entire, 11–16x9–13 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, unilateral, ampulliform, 16–24x6–10 Ám. Perithecia globose, grouped, up to 168Ám in diam.; perithecial wall cells conoid to mammiform, up to 32Ám long; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 35–42x16–18 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 46807 (holotype), TBGT 2148 (isotype); HCIO 46808, TBGT 2149, 20.ii.2006, Tamil Nadu, Kodaikanal, Shenbaganur Shola, on leaves of Symplocos anamallayana Bedd. (Symplocaceae), K. Ravi Kumar.

This species is similar to Asteridiella fidelis (Toro) Hansf., known on Symplocos theiformis from Philippines in which ascospores are four septate (Hansford 1961).  However, A. kodaikanalensis differs from it in having predominantly globose but entire head cells of appressoria and also phialides produced on the mycelial branch where appressoria are also borne.

 

Asteridiella madikeriensis Hosag., Jagath & Jayashankara, Mycosphere 2(6): 613, 2011. Asteridiella depokensis sensu Hosag., Meliolales of vol. 2: 127, 2008 (non Hansford 1957). (Fig. 13)

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, up to 2mm in diameter. Hyphae flexuous to crooked, branching alternate, opposite to irregular at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 19–21x8–10 μm.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse, subantrorse, retrorse, straight to variously curved, 24–37 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 8–10 μm long; head cells ovate, oblong, globose, angular to variously sublobate, 16–21x12–14 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 19–23x6–8 μm.  Perithecia scattered, up to 196μm in diam.; perithecial wall cells conoid to mammiform, up to 24μm long; ascospores ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 41–45x16–18 μm.

Material examined: HCIO 46240 (holotype), TBGT 1652 (isotype), 14.xi.2003, Karnataka, Kodagu, Madikeri, Nishane motta, on leaves of Premna sp. (Verbenaceae), V.B. Hosagoudar et al.

This species differs from Asteridiella depokensis in having sublobate head cells of the appressoria (Hosagoudar 2008).

 

Asteridiella micheliifolia nom. nov. Asteridiella micheliae Hosag., Archana. & Agarwal, Indian Phytopath. 60: 237, 2007 (non Jana et al. 2005). (Fig. 14).

(Fig. 14; MycoBank 803916)

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, up to 4mm in diameter. Hyphae substraight, branching alternate to opposite at wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 19–22x3–5Ám.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse, mostly straight, 13–14 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–6 Ám long; head cells ovate, oblong, angular to sublobate, 8-10 x 6–8 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 12–13x4–5 Ám.  Perithecia scattered, globose, up to 145Ám in diameter; perithecial wall cells mammiform, obtuse at the tip, up to 20Ám long; ascospores obovoidal to slightly cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 20–29x10–12 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 47370 (holotype),  TBGT   2408 (isotype), 12.i.2005, Arboretum, on leaves of Michelia champaka L. (Magnoliaceae), JNTBGRI Campus, Palode,  Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, T. Sabu; HCIO 50939, TBGT 4856, 31.iii.2009, A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju; HCIO 50944, TBGT 4861, 15.xi.2007, A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju; HCIO 50953, TBGT 4870, 31.iii.2009, A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju; HCIO 51047, TBGT 4964, 27.xii.2008, Wayanad, 16th mile, Padinharathara, M.C. Riju; HCIO 49973, TBGT 4125, 14.iii.2007, Puthuserrykadavu, M.C. Riju; TBGT 5047, 03.i.2011, Kollam, Chozhiakodu, V.B. Hosagoudar et al.; TBGT 5047, 03.i.2011, Kollam, Chozhiakodu, V.B. Hosagoudar et al.

Asteridiella micheliae Hosag. et al. & Asteridiella micheliae Jana et al. are known on the same host genus from Kerala and Nagaland, respectively (Hosagoudar et al. 2007; Jana et al. 2005).  However, the former species differs from the latter in having shorter appressoria with angular to sublobate head cells, phialides and appressoria borne on the same hyphae and possessing smaller ascospores.  Taxonomically, both are different species. Hence, a new name has been proposed to Asteridiella micheliae Hosag. et al.

 

Asteridiella phukanea Hosag., Jacob. & Robin, Indian J. Sci. Technol. 2(6): 3, 2009. (Fig. 15)

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to slightly undulate, branching alternate to opposite at acute to wide angles, closely reticulate, cells 21–28x7–10 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to sub antrorse, 24–31 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–12 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, angular to slightly lobate, 14–22x10–19 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 17–22x7–10 Ám.  Perithecia scattered, up to 120Ám in diameter; ascospores obovoidal to cylindrical, 3-septate, constricted at the septum, 36–43x16–18 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 48066 (holotype), TBGT 2849 (isotype), 18.i.2007, Meghalaya, Shillong, Mawphlang, on leaves of Castanopsis armata Spach. (Fagaceae), Jacob Thomas & P.J. Robin.

This new species is distinct from all the known species of the genus Asteridiella known on the members of the family Fagaceae in having three septate ascospores (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996; Hu et al. 1996, 1999).

 

Asterediella pittosporacearum Hosag. & Sabeena, Plant Pathology & Quarantine 3(1): 10, 2012. (Fig. 16).

Colonies amphigenous, thin to subdense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 17–30x5–7 Ám. Appressoria alternate, antrorse to subantrorse, 12–17 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–5 Ám long; head cells globose to ovate, entire, 10–12x5–12 Ám. Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, ampulliform, 15–25x5–10 Ám.  Perithecia scattered, up to 110Ám in diam.; Perithecial cells conoid to mammiform, up to 22Ám long; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 37–42x15–17 Ám.

Materials examined: TBGT 5731 (holotype), 20.i.2009, Kerala, Kottayam, Pampavalley, on leaves of Pittosporum neelgherrense Wight & Arn. (Pittosporaceae), Jacob Thomas et al.   Part of the collection has been deposited in HCIO, New Delhi.

Five species of the genus Meliola are known on the members of Pittosporaceae (Hansford 1961).  However, the present collection differs from all in absence of mycelial setae and form the first species of the genus Asteridiella on the members of Pittosporaceae.

 

Asteridiella scolopiae var. indica Hosag. & Riju, Plant Pathology & Quarantine 1(2): 121, 2011. (Fig. 17).

Colonies epiphyllous, scattered, crustose, mostly near the leaf margins, up to 4mm in diam., often confluent. Hyphae substraight to crooked, branching alternate to opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 12–25×7–10 μm.  Appressoria alternate, unilateral, up to 1% opposite, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, 15–25 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–10 μm long; head cells ovate, oblong to cylindrical, straight to curved, entire to angular, 10–15×7–10 μm. Phialides mixed with appressoria, ampulliform, 17–23×7–8 μm.  Perithecia scattered, up to 145μm in diam.; perithecial wall cells conoid to mammiform, straight to curved, 12–15×22–28 μm; ascospores oblong, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 35–43×15–18 μm.

Material examined: TBGT 5066 (holotype), 10.i.2007, Kerala, Pathanamthitta, Sabarigiri project area, on leaves of Scolopia sp. (Flacourtiaceae), M.C. Riju et al. Part of the collection has been deposited in HCIO, New Delhi.

The variety differs from the species type in having straight to curved and antrorse to retrorse appressoria (Hosagoudar 1996).

 

Asteridiella sebastianiae Hosag., Sabeena & Jacob Thomas, Taprobanica 2(2): 95, 2010. (Fig. 18).

Colonies amphigenous, thin, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight, flexuous to crooked, branching opposite to unilateral at acute to wide angles, cells 20–50x6–9 μm.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, straight to curved, 18–29 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–9 μm long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, angular, 13–20x9–13 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 15–24x6–9 μm.  Perithecia globose, scattered, up to 172μm in diameter; perithecial walls conoid, up to 26μm long; ascospores oblong, ellipsoidal to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 31–37x9–13 μm.

Material examined: HCIO 48046 (holotype), TBGT 2829 (isotype), 14.v.2007, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Palode, JNTBGRI Campus, on leaves of Sebastiania chamaelea (L.) Mull. (Euphorbiaceae), A. Sabeena et al.; HCIO 48365, TBGT 3086, 10.vi.2007, A. Sabeena & Bijeesh; HCIO 48367, TBGT 3088, 14.v.2007, A. Sabeena & Bijeesh; HCIO 50587, TBGT 4504, 21.iv.2010, A. Sabeena; Thiruvananthapuram, Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, Kottoor Forest, HCIO 48836, TBGT 3212, 10.ii.2008, Jacob Thomas & Anilkumar.

Asteridiella sebastianiae can be compared with Asteridiella phyllanthi (Deight.) Hansf., A. erythrococcae Hansf., A. hansfordii (Stev.) Hansf. var. densa (Hansf. & Deight.) Hansf., A. macarangicola Hosag. & A. wayanadensis Hosag. et al. (Hansford 1961; Biju et al. 2005; Hosagoudar 1996, 2008; Hosagoudar & Agarwal, 2008) having the beeli formula 3101. 3220.  However, it differs from A. phyllanthi, A. hansfordii var. densa, A. macarangicola and A. combeensis in having distinctly narrow ascospores (9–13 μm against 16–18 μm).  It differs from A. erythrococcae in having entire head cells of the appressoria in contrast to angulose to sublobate.  Asteridiella sebastianiae also differs from A. wayanadensis in having longer, antrorse to retrorse appressoria. This is first report of meliolaceous fungi on this host genus.

 

Asteridiella shenbaganurensis Hosag., Ravikumar & Archana, J. Threatened Taxa 1(8): 434, 2009. (Fig. 19).

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, dense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent and cover an entire upper surface of the leaves.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite to alternate at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 16–42x8–10 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, unilateral, straight to often slightly curved, antrorse to subantrorse, 17–42 Ám long; stalk cells mostly unicellular, rarely 1-septate, cylindrical to cuneate, 4–18 Ám long; head cells mostly straight, often curved, oblong, ovate, clavate, mostly entire, often angular, rarely sublobate, 9–24x8–16 Ám. Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, alternate, unilateral, ampulliform, 20–37x8–10 Ám.  Perithecia globose, grouped, up to 208Ám in diam.; perithecial wall cells conoid to mammiform, up to 32Ám long; ascospores ellipsoidal to fusiform, straight to curved, 3-septate, constricted at the septa, 43–49x14–19 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 46808 (holotype), TBGT 2149 (isotype). (MycoBank # MB5140117), 20.ii.2006, Tamil Nadu, Kodaikanal, Shenbaganur Shola, on leaves of Symplocos anamallayana Bedd. (Symplocaceae), K. Ravi Kumar.

This species is similar to Asteridiella singalensis Hansf., reported on Symplocos sp. from Sri Lanka, in having 3-septate ascospores (Hansford 1961).  However, differs from it in having distinctly oblong and entire to angular head cells of appressoria.  Further, phialides are mixed with appressoria and having smaller ascospores.

 

Asteridiella solani Mc Alpine var. kodaikanalensis Hosag., Dhivaharan & Riju, J. Sci. Trans. Techno. 4(4): 165, 2011. (Fig. 20).

Colonies mostly epiphyllous, scattered, subdense, velvety, up to 2mm in diameter.  Hyphae flexuous, branching alternate at acute to wide angle, closely to loosely reticulate, cells 22–27x5–7 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, straight to curved, subantrorse to closely antrorse, 15–17 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–7 Ám; head cells globose, sub-lobate, slightly angular, entire, 10–12x7–10 Ám.  Phialides borne on a separate mycelial branch, alternate, rarely opposite, ampulliform, 15–17x7–10 Ám.  Perithecia scattered to grouped, up to 225Ám in diameter; perithecial cells larviform, mammiform, 12–15x12–17 Ám; ascospores 4- septate, cylindrical, 35–43x12–15 Ám.

Materials examined: 4457 (holotype), HCIO 50540 (isotype), 02.ii.2008, Tamil Nadu, Kodaikanal, Periyakanal, Kukkal shola forest, on leaves of Solanum viburnum (Solanaceae), V. Dhivaharan et al.

Based on the digital formula, morphology of the hyphae and appressoria, the present collection is similar to Asterina solani known on Solanum viride from New South Wales but the new variety differs from it in having the phialides borne on a separate mycelial branch.

Asteridiella symploci-microphyllae Hosag. & Sabeena, Bioscience Discovery 2: 117, 2011. (Fig. 21).

Colonies amphigenous, subdense, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite to unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 17–32x6–8 Ám.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 15–20 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–7 Ám long; head cells globose to ovate, entire, 10–15x10–12 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 15–25x5–10 Ám.  Perithecia scattered, up to 240Ám in diam., perithecial wall cells conoid to mammiform, up to 50Ám long; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 32–40x15–17Ám.

Material examined: TBGT 4553 (holotype), HCIO 50536 (isotype), 01.xi.2007, Kerala, Wayanad, Banasuramala, on leaves of Symplocos macrophylla Wallich. ex DC. (Symplocaceae), A. Chandraprabha.

Asterediella singalensis Hansf. & A. fidelis (Toro) Hansf. are known on the genus Symplocos sp. from Srilanka, Columbia and Philippines (Hansford 1961). However, the present new species differs from the former in having 4-septate ascospores and from the latter in having entire head cells of appressoria in contrast to angular ones.

 

Asteridiella toddaliae Hosag. & Riju, J. Threatened Taxa 3(3): 1615, 2011. (Fig. 22).

Colonies amphigenous, dense, velvety, up to 3mm diam., rarely confluent.  Hyphae straight, substraight to undulating, branching mostly opposite at wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 22–30x7–10 μm. Appressoria alternate, unilateral, about 10% opposite, antrorse to subantrorse, rarely retrorse, 12–25 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–8 μm long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, 10–18 x 7–13 μm. Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate, opposite, ampulliform, 15–23x5–8 μm.  Perithecia loosely grouped at the centre of the colony, up to 210μm in diam.; perithecial wall cells mammiform to conoid, 17–28 μm long; ascospores oblong to ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 45–48x22–25 μm.  

Material examined: TBGT 4513 (holotype),  HCIO 50596 (isotype), (MycoBank # 561021), 02.vii.2008, Kerala, Palakkad, Silent Valley National Park, Cheriavalakkad, on leaves of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (Rutaceae), M.C. Riju et al.; Palakkad, on leaves of Toddalia sp., HCIO 50719, TBGT 4636, 16.iii.2007, Robin et al.

Of the known species of the genus Asteridiella on Rutaceae, Asteridiella obesa (Speg.) Hansf. var. obesula (Speg.) Hansf. & A. fagaricola (Speg.) Hansf. var. zanthoxyli Hansf. having alternate and opposite appressoria (Hansford 1961).  The present new species differs from the former taxon known on Esenbeckia latifolia from Paraguay in having perfectly rounded head cells of appressoria in contrast to rounded-angulose.  It also differs from the latter taxon known on Zanthoxylum hymenale from Argentina in having only 10% opposite appressoria in contrast to 90% (Hansford 1961). The specific epithet is derived from the host genus.

Asteridiella viticis-negundoi Hosag., Jagath & Jayashankara, Mycosphere 2(6): 614, 2011. (Image. 6)

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, up to 3mm in diameter. Hyphae straight, substraight to flexuous, branching alternate to opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 18–23x7–10 μm.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to subantrorse, straight to curved, 20–32 μm long; stalk cells cuneate to cylindrical, 6–12 μm long; head cells globose, ovate, clavate to cylindrical, mostly angular, few sublobate, rarely entire, truncate, 15–23x11–20 μm.  Phialides many, apparently borne on a separate mycelial branch but mixed with appressoria, mostly opposite, often unilateral, ampulliform, 16–22x5–7 μm. Perithecia scattered, globose, up to 150 μm in diam.; perithecial wall cells mammiform to conoid, attenuated at tip, up to 22μm long; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 48–50x18–21 μm.

Material examined: TBGT 5704 (holotype), 29.xii.2008, Karnataka, Kodagu, Hoddur, on leaves of Vitex negundo L. (Verbenaceae), C. Jagath Thimmaiah.

Based on the morphology of appressoria and measurements, this collection can be compared with Asteridiella lagerheimii (Gaill.) Hansf. & A. depokensis Hansf. known on Citherexylum ilicifolium and Vitex paniculata and Premna subglabra from Eucador, Java and Philippines.  However, differs from the former species in having distantly placed and recurved appressoria with typically angular head cells.  It differs from the latter species in having flexuous hyphae and larger ascospores (Hansford 1961).

 

Asteridiella winteri (Speg.) Hansf. var. macrospora Jana & Ghosh, J. Mycopath. Res. 47(1): 91, 2009.

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, up to 6mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae flexuous, branching alternate, opposite to unilateral at acute angles, closely reticulate, cells 19–50x6–11 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, alternate to rarely opposite, antrorse, straight to curved, 17–36 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical, 5–16 Ám long; head cells ovate to cylindrical, sometimes reniform entire, 12–20x10–15 Ám.  Phialides borne on a separate mycelial branch, alternate to unilateral, ampulliform, 18–27x7–11 Ám.  Perithecia scattered to loosely grouped, up to 200Ám in diameter; perithecial wall cells projected; asci oval to elliptical, 2-spored, 55–64x39–51 Ám; ascospores cylindrical, straight, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, middle cell slightly larger, 60–80x32–38 Ám.

West Bengal, Chilapata forest, Cooch Behar, on leaves of Solanum verbasifolium L. (Solanaceae), 20August 1984, S.N. Ghosh IMI 233927 (holotype).

 

The genus Ectendomeliola

 

Ectendomeliola otonephelii Hosag. & Archana, J. Threatened Taxa 2(8): 1092, 2010. (Image. 7; Fig. 23).

Colonies hypophyllous, subdense, crustose, up to 4mm in diameter, often confluent. Hyphae substraight to crooked, branching irregular at acute angles, form irregular mycelial net, loosely to closely reticulate, cells beaded to bulged, 11–29x4–7 μm.  Appressoria ectophytic and endophytic, innate appressoria intra- epidermal, often in mesophyll cells, two celled, 11–24 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–8 μm long; head cells ovate, globose, oblong, entire to angular, 8–16x6–8 μm.  Phialides few, mixed with appressoria, opposite, ampulliform, 9–22x6–8 μm.  Mycelial setae numerous, simple, straight to uncinate, acute, obtuse, dentate to furcate at the tip, up to 412μm long.  Perithecia superficial, scattered to grouped, globose, ostiolate, up to 126μm in diameter; ascospores oblong, cylindrical, straight to slightly curved, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 35–4x11–15 μm.

Materials examined: TBGT 3941 (holotype), HCIO 49789 (isotype) (MycoBank # 518657), 14.xii.2007, Kerala, Patanamthitta, Moozhiyar forest, on leaves of Otonephelium stipulaceum (Bedd.) Radlk. (Sapindaceae), V. Gireesh Kumar et al. This species differs from E. walsurae in having longer mycelial setae and larger perithecia.

 

The genus Irenopsis

 

Irenopsis hiptages Yamam. var. indica Hosag. &

Sabeena, var. nov.

(Fig. 24; MycoBank 803918)

Colonies amphigenous, subdense, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 17–25x6–8 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, unilateral to 3–4% opposite, antrorse to subantrorse, 22–30 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–10 Ám long; head cells ovate, entire, mostly angular to rarely sublobate, 15–20x12–17 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 15–25x7–10 Ám.  Perithecia scattered orbicular, up to 190Ám in diam.; perithecial setae simple, straight, obtuse at the tip, up to 117Ám long; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 47–55x17–22 Ám.

Materials examined: TBGT 5747 (holotype), 18.ix.2008, Kerala, Wayanad, Thirunelli, on leaves of Hiptage sp. (Malphigiaceae), P.J. Robin et al.

This collection matches with the species but the new variety differs from it in having 2–3% opposite appressoria with mostly angular but often with slightly lobate head cells of appressoria.

Etymology: It is named after India.

 

Irenopsis kleinhoviae Hosag. & Archana, J. Threatened Taxa 2: 889, 2010. (Fig. 25)

Colonies amphigenous, subdense, up to 5mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to undulate, branching opposite , alternate at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 16–40x4–7 Ám. Appressoria alternate, unilateral, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, straight to curved, 12–23 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–11 Ám long; head cells globose, ovate, oblong, entire to angular, 8–14x8–11Ám. Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 12–24x4–8 Ám.  Perithecia globose, scattered to grouped, up to 130Ám in diameter; perithecial setae 4–10 in number, simple, straight, pale brown, septate, straight to uncinate at the apical part, obtuse at the tip, up to 145Ám long, smooth; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 32–43x11–18 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 48166 (holotype), TBGT 2902 (isotype), 24.iv.2007, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Karimancode, on leaves of Kleinhovia hospita L. (Sterculiaceae), G.R. Archana.

Irenopsis buettneriicola Deight. known on Buettneria sp. and Sterculia sphanoghei from Sierra Leone and Java having both straight and uncinate perithecial setae. However, Irenopsis kleinhoviae differs from it in having pale brown, smooth walled perithecial setae and shorter appressoria having entire head cells.

 

Irenopsis loranthicola Hosag. & Riju, Plant Pathology & Quarantine 1(2): 122, 2011. (Fig. 26).

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 3mm in diam., often confluent.  Hyphae substraight, flexuous to crooked, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 15–23×5–8 μm. Appressoria alternate to unilateral, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, 12–20 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–7 μm long; head cells mostly entire, ovate, clavate to cylindrical, rarely angular to sublobate, 10–13×10–13 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, alternate to unilateral, ampulliform, 12–18×5–8 μm.  Perithecia scattered, up to 130μm in diam.; perithecial setae 2–10 in number, simple, straight to uncinate at the apical portion, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 185μm long; ascospores cylindrical to oblong, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 37–48×11–18 μm.

Material examined: TBGT 5068 (holotype), 03.i.2011, Kerala, Kollam, Chozhiakode, on leaves of Loranthus sp. (Loranthaceae),  V.B. Hosagoudar et al. Part of the collection has been deposited in HCIO, New Delhi.

This collection showed much variation in the ascospores measurements.  Many Meliola species are known on members of the family Loranthaceae but the present fungus differs from the genus Meliola in having perithecial setae.  Hence, it has been accommodated in a new species of Irenopsis (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996, 2008; Hu et al. 1996, 1999).

The colonies of Irenoposis loranthi were associated with Meliola loranthacearum Hosag. & Abraham, M. prataprajii Hosag. & Abraham and Asterina deightonii Sydow .

 

Irenopsis pavoniae Hosag. & Jacob Thomas, J. Appl. & Nat. Sci. 2: 103, 2010. (Fig. 27).

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae flexuous, branching opposite to irregular at wide angles, closely reticulate, cells 19–58x4–7 μm.  Appressoria alternate, 5% unilateral, antrorse to spreading, straight to variously curved, 14–19 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–10 μm long; head cells ovate to globose, entire, subangular to sublobate, truncate, 9–11x9–12 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–24x4–7 μm.  Perithecia scattered to loosely grouped, up to 140μm in diameter; perithecial setae 10–16 in number, simple, straight, smooth, obtuse at the tip, up to 120μm long; ascospores obovoidal to ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 31–36x12–14 μm.

Materials examined: HCIO 49356 (holotype), TBGT 3601 (isotype), 18.xi.2007, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, on leaves of Pavonia sp. (Malvaceae), Jacob Thomas.

Based on the digital formula 3401.3220, flexuous to crooked hyphae and entire to sublobate apical cells of appressoria, this species is closer to Irenopsis aciculosa (Wint.) Stev., I. sidae (Rehim) Hughes (Hansford 1961). However, entire to angular head cells in contrast to lobate ones and obtuse tip of the perithecial setae are the distinguishing characters of this species.

 

Irenopsis pterigotae Hosag., Sabeena & Jacob Thomas, Bioscience Discovery 2: 119, 2011. (Fig. 28).

Colonies amphigenous, thin, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching opposite to unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 17–22x5–7 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, straight to curved, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, 15–25 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–10 Ám long; head cells globose, ovate, entire angular to sublobate, 10–15x10–12 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to unilateral, ampulliform, 12–25x5–7 Ám.  Perithecia scattered, up to 150Ám in diam.; Perithecial setae 2–6, simple, straight, obtuse at the tip, up to 120Ám long; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa 37–40x13–15 Ám.

Material examined: TBGT 4555 (holotype), HCIO 50638 (isotype), 16.ii.2008, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kottoor, on leaves of Pterigota alata (Roxb.) R.Br. (Sterculiaceae), Jacob Thomas.

This species is similar to I. helicteridis Hosag. and I. tjibodense Hansf. in having sublobate head cells of appressoria.  However, it differs from the former in having substraight hyphae and only antrorse appressoria having entire to sublobate head cells.  It differs from the latter in having predominantly angular to sublobate head cells of appressoria (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996).

 

Irenopsis sidae (Rehm) Hughes var. abutili Hosag., Agarwal, H. Biju & Archana, Indian Phytopathol. 60: 82, 2007. (Fig. 29).

Colonies amphigenous, thin, up to 1mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae sub straight to flexuous, branching opposite, alternate to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 14–34x4–7 Ám.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, antrorse, sub-antrorse to retrorse, straight to curved, 11–19 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–8 Ám long; head cells globose, ovate, entire to sublobate, 8–11x6–11 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, ampulliform, opposite, alternate to unilateral, 12–22x4–8 Ám.  Perithecia globose, scattered up to 120Ám in diameter, perithecial setae simple, straight to slightly curved, acute, obtuse at the tip up to 127Ám long; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 27–32x11–13 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 46340 (holotype) TBGT 1986 (isotype), 15.xii.2004, Kerala, Pathanamthitta, Anathode dam site, on leaves of Abutilon sp. (Malvaceae), V.B. Hosagoudar et al.

This variety differs from the variety sidae in having shorter perithecial setae and smaller ascospores (Hansford 1961).

 

Irenopsis trichiliae Hosag. & Riju, J. Threatened Taxa 2(4): 824, 2010. (Fig. 30).

Colonies epiphyllous, subdense, scattered, up to 2Ám in diam., confluent.  Hyphae straight to flexuous, branching opposite to alternate at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 11–33x6–11 Ám. Appressoria alternate, unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 13–26 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–11 Ám long; head cells globose, angular, sublobate to deeply globate 8–18x11–18 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to unilateral, ampulliform, 17–24x6–9 Ám.  Perithecia scattered, up to 209Ám in diameter; perithecial setae 0–5 in number, straight, simple, obtuse at the apex, up to 198Ám long; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 37–47x15–18 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 48177 (holotype), TBGT 2913 (isotype), 10.xi.2007, Kerala, Wayanad, Padinharathara, on leaves of Trichilia sp. (Meliaceae), 16th mile, M. C. Riju.

Irenopsis chukrasiae Hosag., I. inidica (Anahosur) Hosag., I. murrayae Hosag. & Rajkumar are known on the members of the family Meliaceae (Hosagoudar 1996; Hosagoudar et al. 2001).  Irenopsis trichiliae differs from I. chukrasiae in having only unicellular stalk cells of the appressoria and from I. indica in having straight hyphae and 0–5 perithecial setae.  It also differs from I. murrayae in having angular to lobate head cells of the appressoria.

 

Irenopsis xeromphidis Hosag. & Sabeena, Taiwania 55(3): 249, 2010. (Fig. 31).

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branchingopposite to unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 15–35x5–10 μm.  Appressoria alternate, 1% opposite to unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 20–30 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–10 μm long; head cells ovate, oblong, straight to curved, entire, angular to rarely slightly lobate, 15–20x12–15 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to unilateral, ampulliform, 12–25x5–10 μm.  Perithecia scattered, up to 150μm in diameter; perithecial setae 5–8, straight to slightly curved, upright, smooth walled, broadly rounded at the tip, up to 110μm long; ascospores cylindrical to obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 40–45x17–20 μm.

Materials examined: HCIO 49241 (holotype), TBGT 3480 (isotype), 24.ix.2008, On leaves of Xeromphis uliginosa (Thunb.) Keay (Rubiaceae), Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Palode, TBGRI Campus, A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju.

Irenopsis bayamonensis Tehon var. guettardae (Cif.) Hansf. and I. chiococcae Stev. are known on the members of the family Rubiaceae.  The former taxon is of doubtful nature (Hansford 1961).  The present new species differs from I. chiococcae in having longer appressoria, smooth walled perithecial setae in contrast to asperulate ones and straight to curved setae in contrast to twisted.

 

The genus Meliola

 

Meliola abdulkalamii Hosag. & Riju, Plant Pathology & Quarantine 1(2): 123, 2011. (Fig. 32).

Colonies epiphyllous, crustose, up to 5mm in diam., scattered, confluent.  Hyphae straight to flexuous, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 20–33×5–8 μm.  Appressoria alternate, unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 17–20 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–8 μm long; head cells globose, subglobose, entire, 7–10×7–13 μm. Phialides mixed with appressoria, mostly opposite, rarely alternate, ampulliform, 12–18×7–8 μm.  Mycelial setae simple, straight, obtuse, clavate, inflated, notched to bifid at the apex, ends broadly rounded, up to 320μm long. Perithecia up to 230μm in diam.; ascospores cylindrical to oblong, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 27–33×10–13 μm.

Material examined: TBGT 4958 (holotype), HCIO 51041 (isotype), 14.vi.2009, Kerala, Wayanad, Padinharathara, 16th mile, on leaves of Aralia sp. (Araliaceae), M.C. Riju.

The present species different from other Meliola species known on members of Araliaceae in having broadly obtuse, inflated to bifid tips of the mycelial setae (Hansford 1961, Hosagoudar 1996, 2008, Hu et al. 1996, 1999).

 

Meliola abri Hosag. & Riju, Plant Pathology & Quarantine 1(2): 124, 2011. (Fig. 33)

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, scattered, up to 3mm in diam.  Hyphae flexuous to crooked, branching opposite at wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 17–30×5–8 μm. Appressoria alternate to unilateral, up to 1% opposite, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, 17–20×10–13 μm; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–3 μm long; head cells globose, ovate, straight to curved, 12–15×10–13 μm. Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to unilateral, ampuliform, 20–25×5–8 μm.  Mycelial setae scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 360μm long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 130μm in diam.; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 30–33×10–13 μm.

Material examined: TBGT 5070 (holotype), 16.i.2011,  Kerala, Wayanad, Padinharathara, on leaves of Abrus pulchellus Wallich ex Thwaites (Fabaceae), M.C. Riju. Part of the collection has been deposited in HCIO, New Delhi.

Meliola bicornis Wint. is known on Abrus canescens from Sierra Leone (Hansford 1961), but this is a complex species and Hansford (1961) has segregated more thanhundred species.  Based on the simple setae and smaller ascospores, we prefer to accommodate our collection in a new species.

 

Meliola abrupta Sydow, Ann. Mycol. 15: 181, 1917; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 292, 1961; Hosag., Jacob Thomas & Agarwal, Taprobanica 3(1): 42, 2011.  Meliola derridis Yates, Philippine J. Sci. 13: 368, 1918. (Fig. 34).

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent and covering entire upper surface of the leaves.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching mostly opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 14–38x4–7 Ám. Appressoria alternate, about 5% opposite, antrorse, curved, 12–17 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–5 Ám long; head cells globose to subglobose, straight to curved, entire, 9–14x7–12 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 16–29x6–12 Ám.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, straight, simple, acute to dentate at the tip, up to 520Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, verrucose, globose, up to 160Ám in diameter; ascospores cylindrical to ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted, 36–43x12–17 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 49034, TBGT 3289, 18.xi.2007, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Peppara wildlife sanctuary, near Peppara Dam, on leaves of Derris sp. (Fabaceae), Jacob Thomas.

This is the only species known on this from India (Hosagoudar 1996, 2008).

 

Meliola aganopes Hosag., Jacob Thomas & Agarwal, Nelumbo 52: 3, 2010. (Fig. 35).

Colonies epiphyllous, subdense, crustose, up to 4 mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight, branching opposite at acute to subacute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 24–46x4–7 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, about 1% opposite, antrorse to spreading, straight to curved, 14–19 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–5 Ám long; head cells ovate to oblong, entire, rounded at the apex, 9–15x7–10 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–22x6–8 Ám. Mycelial setae fairly numerous, scattered, straight, simple, acute to dentate at the tip, up to 740Ám long. Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 170Ám in diam.; ascospores cylindrical to oblong, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 33–38x12–15 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 49016 (holotype), TBGT 3271 (isoype), 21.viii.2007, Kerala, Thrissur, Vazhachal, on leaves of Aganope thyrsiflora (Benth.) Polh. (Fabaceae), Jacob Thomas et al.

Based on the digital formula 311/-3 3.3223, Meliola aganopes is similar to M. teramni var. millettiae Hosag. reported on Millettia rubiginosa from the Western Ghats region of Tamil Nadu (Hosagoudar & Goos, 1991; Hosagoudar 1996).  However, Meliola aganopes differs from it in having typically ovate to oblong head cells of appressoria with appreciable number of mycelial setae.

 

Meliola ailanthicola Hosag. & Riju, J. Threatened Taxa 2(4): 824, 2010. (Fig. 36).

Colonies hypophyllous, thin, up to 4mm in diam., confluent.  Hyphae crooked, branching alternate to opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 13–33x4–9 Ám.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, straight to curved, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, 13–27 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–16 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, truncate to slightly lobate, 8–13x6–9 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, alternate to unilateral, ampulliform, 13–22x4–9 Ám.  Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight, acute, obtuse to 2–5 dentate at the tip, up to 400Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 160Ám in diam.; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 37–44x13–16 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 48170 (holotype), TBGT 2906 (isotype); HCIO 48173, TBGT 2909, 30.ix.2007, Kerala, Wayanad, 16th mile, Padinharathara, on leaves of Ailanthus malabarica (Dennst.) Alston (Simaroubaceae), M. C. Riju.

This species differs from Meliola ailanthi Sharma et al. emend. Hosag. in having strongly appressed colonies on the lower surface of the leaves and having distinctly crooked mycelium (Hosagoudar 1996).

 

Meliola alangii var. salvifolii Hosag. & Sabeena, Zoos, Print J. 22:2786, 2007. (Fig. 37)

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to undulating, branching mostly opposite at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 24–29x4–8 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, 30% opposite, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, 16–19 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–8 Ám long; head cells cylindrical, oblong, globose, ovoid, broadly rounded to truncate and often narrowed towards its apex, entire, 11–13x8–10 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 12–24x6–8 Ám. Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 500Ám long.  Perithecia globose, scattered, up to 140Ám in diam.; ascospores cylindrical to oblong, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 33–37x12–16 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 47493 (holotype), TBGT 2531 (isotype), 16.x.2006, Kerala, Kozhikode, in the Malabar Botanic Garden, on leaves of Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wagerin (Alangiaceae), A. Sabeena et al.

Meliola alangii Sydow is the only Meliola species known on the members of the family Alangiaceae (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996, Hosagoudar et al. 1997).  However, variety salvifolii differs from the var. alangii in having 30% opposite appressoria.

 

Meliola aporusae Hosag. & Robin, Bioscience Discovery 2(2): 265, 2011. (Fig. 38).

Colonies amphigenous, mostly hypophyllous, crustose, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching mostly opposite to alternate at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 19–24x5–7 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, about 15% opposite, antrorse to subantrorse, spreading, 24–29 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 10–12 Ám long; head cells ovate, clavate, globose, entire to 2–5-times lobate, often slightly angular, 12–19x14–19 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate, ampulliform, 17–24x7–10 Ám. Mycelial setae few, simple, straight, obtuse at the tip, up to 410Ám long. Perithecia scattered, up to 115Ám in diam.; ascospores ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 41–43x14–17 Ám.

Materials examined: TBGT 4652 (holotype), HCIO 50735 (isotype), 25.iv.2007, Kerala, Kottayam, Ponthanpuzha, Placherry, on leaves of Aporusa sp. (Euphorbiaceae), P.J. Robin et al.; HCIO 50925, TBGT 4842, 23.xii2008, Wayanad, Banasur mala, on leaves of Aporusa sp., M.C. Riju.

Based on the digital formula, the present new species is close to Meliola goleoria Hansf. and M. tetrorchidiicola Hansf. known on Galeario filiformis and Tetrorchidium rubivenium from Java and Brazil, respectively. However, differs from both in having stellately lobate head cells of the appressoria (Hansford 1961).  Based on the lobate head cells, it can be compared with M. octephilae Hosag. et al. but differs from it in having only 15% opposite appressoria with stellately lobate head cells (Biju et al. 2005; Hosagoudar 2008; Hosagoudar & Agarwal 2008).

 

Meliola ardisiigena Hosag., Sabeena & Robin, Bioscience Discovery 2: 120, 2011. (Fig. 39).

Colonies hypophyllous, subdense to dense, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight, branching opposite to unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 15–30x5–7 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, up to 30% opposite to unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 12–22 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–7 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, 10–17x7–12 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 12–25x5–10 Ám. Mycelial setae simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 350Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 200Ám in diam.; ascospores elliptic, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 42–57x12–15 Ám.

Material examined: TBGT 4556 (holotype), HCIO 50639 (isotype), 27.ix.2008, Kerala, Wyanadu, Pulpally, on leaves of Ardisia sp. (Myrsinaceae), Robin et al.

Meliola ardisiicola Hosag. et al. is known on Ardisia missionis from the high ranges of Western Ghats (Hosagoudar 2008).  However, the present new species differs from it in having longer and 30% opposite appressoria and longer ascospores.

 

Meliola arippaensis sp. nov. Hosag. & Sabeena

(Fig. 40; MycoBank 803909)

Colonies hypophyllous, subdense to dense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight, branching opposite to unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 22–32x5–7Ám.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, 1% opposite, antrorse to subantrorse, 20–30 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–10 Ám long; head cells ovate, oblong, globose, entire, 12–20x10–15 Ám. Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, ampulliform, 12–25x7–10 Ám. Mycelial setae are of two types: setae on mycelia are scattered, simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 1200Ám long and setae grouped around perithecia are simple, straight to curved, uncinate, up to 260Ám long, acute, obtuse to dentate at the tip. Perithecia scattered, up to 180Ám in diam.; ascospores cylindrical to oblong, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 47–57x20–22 Ám.

Materials examined: TBGT 5748 (holotype), 3.i.2011, Kerala, Kollam, Arippa, on leaves of Flacourtia sp. (Flacourtiaceae), V.B. Hosagoudar et al. Part of the collection has been deposited in HCIO, New Delhi.

Etymology: Named after the collection locality.

This species stands distinct from the Meliola species reported on the members of Flacourtiaceae in possessing shorter and straight to uncinate mycelial setae (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996, 2008; Hu et al., 1996, 1999).

 

Meliola aristolochigena Hosag. & Archana, J. Threatened Taxa 1: 348, 2009. (Fig. 41).

Colonies epiphyllous, thin to dense, up to 2mm in diam.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching alternate, opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 12–16x8–10 Ám. Appressoria alternate to about 3% opposite, antrorse to subantrorse, 14–20 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–7 Ám long; head cells ovate to globose, entire, 11–13x9–13 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 16–20x8–10 Ám.  Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 540Ám long. Perithecia scattered, up to 120Ám in diam.; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 35–40x12–14 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 46237 (holotype), TBGT 1649 (isotype), 13.xii.2003, Kerala, Palghat, Silent Valley, Sairandhri, on leaves of Aristolochia tagala Cham. (Aristolochiaceae), V.B. Hosagoudar et al.; HCIO 46033, TBGT 1796, 14.xii.2004, Mozhiar Forest, Pathanamthitta, Kerala, V.B. Hosagoudar et al.; Sairandhri, Silent Valley, Palghat, Kerala, HCIO 46376, TBGT 2022; HCIO 46378, TBGT 2024, 15.xii.2003, V.B.Hosagoudar et al.; Aristolochia grandiflora Sw., Wayanad, Periya, Gurukulam Botanic Garden, HCIO 50362, TBGT 4279, 5.xi.2009, A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju.

Having opposite appressoria, Meliola aristolochigena can be compared with M. catharinensis Hansf. reported on Aristolochia triangularis from Brazil (Hansford 1961). However, differs from it in having distinctly longer appressoria (14–20 Ám against 11–15 Ám) and mycelial setae (540Ám against 230Ám).

 

Meliola arkevermae Hosag. & Sabeena, Plant pathology & Quarantine 3(1): 11, 2012. (Fig. 42).

Colonies epiphyllous, subdense, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 17–30x5–7 Ám. Appressoria arranged closely by leaving an intermittent gap, part of the mycelium literally devoid of appressoria, opposite, antrorse to subantrorse, closely arranged on the hyphae, 17–25 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–7 Ám long; head cells oblong, ovate, entire, angular to sublobate, 12–17x12–17 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, ampulliform, 15–27x5–12 Ám.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 950Ám long. Perithecia scattered, up to 160Ám in diam.  Ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 37–45x12–17 Ám.

Materials examined: TBGT 5732 (holotype), 10.xi.2007, India, Kerala, Kottayam, Ponthanpuzha, Valiyakavu, on leaves of Meliaceae member, P.J. Robin. Part of the collection has been deposited in HCIO, New Delhi.

Meliola dysoxyli Hansf., M. amoora Yates, M. opposita Sydow, M. opposita Sydow var. africana Hansf., M. aglaiana Hansf. and M. ekebergiae Hansf. are known on the members of Meliaceae having opposite appressoria. Of these, the present species is similar to M. dysoxyli and as M. opposita Sydow var. africana Hansf. in having densely arranged appressoria. However, Meliola arkevarmae differs from both in possessing intermittently densely arranged appressoria by leaving a gap or by leaving the mycelium free from appressoria (Hansford 1961, 1963).

 

Meliola bakeri Sydow, Ann. Mycol. 14: 335, 1916; Hansf. Sydowia Beih.2: 374, 1961; Hosag., Jacob Thomas and Agarwal, Taprobanica 3(1): 42, 2011. (Fig. 43)

Colonies epiphyllous, scattered, up to 2mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight to undulate, branching opposite at acute angles, closely reticulate, cells 17–24x4–7 Ám.  Appressoria alternate to opposite, antrorse to subantrorse, retrorse to spreading, 17–20 Ám long; stalk cells cuneate, 4–7 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, 13–16x8–11 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 19–24x4–7 Ám.  Mycelial setae straight, simple, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 580Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 128Ám in diam.; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted, 30–38x13–16 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 48261, TBGT 3000, 19.xi.2006, Kerala, Pathanamthitta, Thiruvalla, on leaves of Cayrtia pedata (Lam.) A.L. Juss ex Gagnepain (Vitaceae), Jacob Thomas; HCIO 49143, TBGT 3398, 6.xi.2008, Karnataka, Bhagamandala, on leaves of Vitaceae member, V.B. Hosagoudar et al.; TBGT 5358, 26.xi.2008, C. Jagath.

 

Meliola bauhiniicola Yamam. var. brevipoda Hosag. & Sabeena in Hosag. & Archana, Foliicolous fungal flora of Palode forest range, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, p. 99, 2012. (Fig. 44)

Colonies epiphyllous, thin up to 2mm in diameter. Hyphae substraight to undulating, branching opposite to unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 24–33x4–6 μm.  Appressoria opposite, alternate to unilateral, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, 9–14 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–5 μm long; head cells ovate, globose, straight to curved, entire, 7–9x5–7 μm, phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, ampulliform, 14–16x4–7 μm.  Mycelial setae many, scattered, simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 350μm. Perithecia scattered, up to 132μm in diam.  Ascospores oblong, cylindrical, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 31–44x12–16 μm.

Material examined: 22.iii.2007, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Palode, JNTBGRI Campus, on leaves of Bauhinia purpurea L. (Caesalpiniaceae) 22.iii.2007, A. Sabeena & Jacob Thomas HCIO 48057 (holotype), TBGT 2840 (isotype); 15.xi.2007, A. Sabeena et al. HCIO 48374, TBGT 3095.

Based on the Beeli formula (3113. 4222) and host specificity, this fungus is similar to Meliola bauhinicola Yamam (Hansford 1961).  However, var. brevipoda differs from the var. bauhinicola in having shorter appressoria (9–14 μm against 14–24 μm).

 

Meliola caesalpiniicola Deight., Sydowia 11:40, 1958; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 253, 1961. (Fig. 45).

Colonies amphigenous, subdense to dense, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 13–23x6-8 Ám.  Appressoria opposite, unilateral, 2% alternate, antrorse to subantrorse, 16-18 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–5 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, oblong, entire, 11–13x7–10 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, ampulliform, 16–27x3–6 Ám.  Mycelial setae numerous, simple, straight to uncinate, acute at the tip, up to 294Ám long.  Perithecia numerous, scattered, up to 182Ám in diameter; ascospores cylindrical to obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 38–52x14–16 Ám.

Materials examined: 21.i.2011, Kerala, Kannur, Payyannur, Edat, on leaves of Caesalpinia banduc (L.) Roxb. (Caesalpiniaceae), P. Ramya TBGT 4933, HCIO 51016.

This species was known on Caesalpinia nuga from Philippines and is reported here for the first time from India on a hitherto unrecorded host (Hansford 1961).

 

Meliola calycopteridis sp. nov. Hosag., G.R. Archana, K.M. Khaleel & M.P. Libina.

(Fig. 46; MycoBank 803911)

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, up to 2mm in diameter, scattered.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching opposite at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 16–27x4–8 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, unilateral, antrorse, 13–20 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–7 Ám long; head cells globose, ovate, entire to slightly angular, 9–13x9–12 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, ampulliform, 13–37x8–10 Ám.  Mycelial setae numerous, simple, straight to uncinate, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 588Ám long.  Perithecia scattered to grouped, up to 146Ám in diameter; ascospores cylindrical to obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 26–33x13–17 Ám.

Materials examined: TBGT 4906 ((holotype), HCIO 50989 (isotype), 21.i.2011, Kerala, Kannur, Mangattuparamba, Neeliyarkottam, on leaves of Calycopteris floribunda (Roxb.) Poiret (Combretaceae), M.P. Libina.

Asteridiella combreti (Stev.) Hansf. var. leonensis Hansf. is known on this host plant but differs from it in having mycelial setae (Hosagoudar 1996).  Based on the digital formula, it is close to Meliola sudanensis Hansf. but differs from it in having longer mycelial setae and shorter but broader ascospores (Hansford 1961).

 

Meliola canavaliae Hosag. & Riju, Plant Pathology & Quarantine 1(2): 125, 2011. (Fig. 47).

Colonies foliicolous, epiphyllous, thin, scattered, up to 4 mm in diam. Hyphae flexuous to undulate, branching mostly opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 15–38×5–8 μm.  Appressoria alternate, unilateral, rarely opposite, straight to slightly curved, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, 10–18 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–8 μm long; head cells ovate, globose, 10–15×8–15 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, unilateral, ampulliform, 15–25×7–10 μm.  Mycelial setae scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, straight to slightly curved, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 340μm long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 160μm in diam.; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 33–35×10–13 μm.

Material examined: TBGT 4960 (holotype), HCIO 51043 (isotype), 10.1.2011, Kerala, Wayanad, Padinharathara, 16th mile, on leaves of Canavalia sp. (Fabaceae), M.C. Riju.

Hansford (1961) identified M. teramni Sydow infecting leaves of Canavalia ensiformis collected by F.C. Deighton from Sierra Leone.  The present fungus is similar but differs in having shorter (340 μm vs. 1000 μm), acute to obtuse setae (in contrast to 2–4 dentate or furcate) and smaller ascospores (33–35×10–13 μm vs. 35–42×13–16 μm).

 

Meliola canthiigena Hosag., Archana. & Agarwal,  Indian Phytopath. 60: 239, 2007. (Fig. 48).

Colonies amphigenous, thin, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite to alternate at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 11–29x6–8 Ám.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, straight to curved, 12–27Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–11 Ám long; head cells ovate, oblong, entire to slightly angular, 9–18x6–11 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 11–27x6–10Ám.  Mycelial setae simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 600Ám long.  Perithecia grouped, globose, up to 160Ám in diameter; ascospores obvoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 32–35x12–16 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO (holotype), TBGT 2357 (isotype), 11.xi.2003, Karnataka, Coorg, Nishanemotta, Madikeri, on leaves of Canthium sp. ( Rubiaceae), V.B. Hosagoudar et al.

Based on the host specificity, Meliola canthiigena can be compared with M. canthii Hansf. known on Canthium vulgare from Uganda (Hansford 1961) but differs from it in having entire head cells of the appressoria, longer mycelial setae and smaller ascospores (Hansford 1961).

 

Meliola cariappae sp. nov. V.B. Hosagoudar, Jagath Thimmaiah & G.R. Archana.

(Fig. 49; MycoBank 803913)

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, up to 4mm in diam., confluent.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous to slightly crooked, branching mostly opposite, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 14–20x6–8 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, opposite to unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, straight to variously curved, 19–27 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, often gibbous, 4–11 Ám long; head cells ovate, oblong to cylindrical, entire, angular, crenately lobate to sublobate, 12–27x11–15 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 17–27x4–8 Ám.  Mycelial setae grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 475Ám long. Perithecia loosely grouped, up to 177Ám in diam.; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 40–46x14–17 Ám.

Materials examined: TBGT 5824 (holotype), 14.i.2010, On leaves of Michelia champaka L. (Magnoliaceae), Sampaje Ghats, Kodagu, Karnataka, C. Jagat Thimmaiah.

Etymology: Named in honour of the IndiaŇs first Air Marshal K.C. Cariappa.

Asteridiella micheliae Jana et al. (Hosagoudar 2008) known on this host genus from northeastern India but differs from it in absence of mycelial setae.  It also differs from Meliola micheliae Hansf. known on Michelia fuscata from Sri Lanka in having mostly angular to sublobate head cells of appressoria (Hansford 1961).

 

Meliola cayratiae Hosag., Jacob Thomas & Agarwal, Nelumbo 52: 3, 2010. (Fig. 50).

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, velvety, scattered, up to 2mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight to undulate, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, closely reticulate to form a mycelial mat, cells 12–22x7–12 Ám. Appressoria opposite, about 20% alternate to unilateral, very closely placed, mostly antrorse, rarely spreading, straight to slightly curved, 16–22 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–5 Ám long; head cells ovate to oblong, cylindrical, entire, slightly angular, often truncate at the apex, 14–19x9–15 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 16–22x7–10 Ám.  Mycelial setae grouped around perithecia, straight, simple, obtuse to broadly rounded at the tip, up to 520Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 240Ám in diam.; ascospores cylindrical to subellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 38–43x14–17 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 48840 (holotype), TBGT 3216 (isotype), TBGT 3217, 1.iii.2008, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary, Pongalappara, on leaves of Cayratia pedata (Lam.) A.L.Juss.ex Gagnepain (Vitaceae), Jacob Thomas.

Based on the digital formula 3113.4233, it is similar to Meliola bakeri Sydow (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996; Hosagoudar & Agarwal, 2008) but differs from it in having mycelial setae grouped around perithecia with broadly obtuse tip. Often sterile mycelia emerged from the base of the perithecia.

 

Meliola cipadessae Hosag., Jacob Thomas & Agarwal, Nelumbo 52: 5, 2010. (Fig. 51).

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, velvety, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent, mixed with the colonies of Aserina cipadessae.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite at acute to angles, closely reticulate, cells 16–26x6–8 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, straight to curved, antrorse to spreading, 16–21 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–8 Ám long; head cells straight to curved, ovate, globose, cylindrical, entire, 11–16x6–10 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 12–19x6–8 Ám. Mycelial setae scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 550Ám long.  Perithecia grouped, verrucose, up to 210Ám in diameter; ascospores obovoidal to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 32–35x12–15 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 48871 (holotype), TBGT 3247 (isotype), 6.iii.2008, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, Bonocaud, on leaves of Cipadessa bacciferra (Roth) Miq. (Meliaceae), Jacob Thomas.

Based on the digital formula 3111.3233, it can be compared with Meliola togoensis Hughes var. angulata Hughes known on Trichilia prieuriana from Gold Coast. However, differs from it in having shorter appressoria with entire head cells.  Further, this is the first report of the genus Meliola on this host genus Cipadessa (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996; Hosagoudar & Agarwal 2008).

 

Meliola clausenigena Hosag. & Riju, J. Threatened Taxa 3(3): 1617, 2011. (Fig. 52).

Colonies amphigenous, dense, velvety, up to 3mm in diam., scattered to confluent.  Hyphae straight, flexuous, branching opposite at wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 15–30x5–8 μm.  Appressoria mostly opposite, rarely unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 17–23 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–8 μm long; head cells ovate, oblong, rarely globose, straight to curved, entire, often sinuate, truncate at the apex, 12–15x7–10 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, alternate to unilateral, 15–20x7–10 μm. Mycelial setae simple, straight to uncinate at the apical portion, acute, obtuse to 2–3 times dentate at the tip, up to 240μm long.  Perithecia scattered to grouped in the colonies, up to 190μm in diam.; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septum, 37–40x15–20 μm.

Material examined: TBGT 4514 (holotype), HCIO 50597 (isotype), 1.viii.2008, Kerala, Palakkad, Silent Valley National Park, Poochipara, on leaves of Clausena sp. (Rutaceae), M.C. Riju et al.

This is the only species of the genus Meliola known on the members of the family Rutaceae having straight, curved to uncinate apical portion of the mycelial setae (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar et al. 1996; Hu et al. 1996, 1999; Hosagoudar 1996, 2008; Hosagoudar & Agarwal 2008).  The specific epithet is derived from the host genus.

 

Meliola colubrinicola Hosag. & Sabeena, Plant Pathology & Quarantine    3(1): 11, 2012. (Fig. 53).

Colonies hypophyllous, subdense to dense, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae flexuous to crooked, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 25–40x5–7 Ám. Appressoria alternate, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, 15–20 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–7 Ám long; head cells oblong, ovate, entire, 10–15x10–15 Ám. Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, ampulliform, 12–25x5–7 Ám.  Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight, up to 850Ám long, acute to obtuse at the tip. Perithecia scattered, orbicular, up to 200Ám in diam.; ascospores ellipsoidal to oblong, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 37–42x12–15 Ám.

Materials examined: TBGT 5733 (holotype), 25.xi.2009, India, Kerala, Kottayam, Ponthanpuzha, on leaves of Colubrina travancorica Bedd. (Rhamnaceae), P.J. Robin et al. Part of the collection has been deposited in HCIO, New Delhi.

Asteridiella colubrinae (Stev.) Hansf. known on Colubrina ruffa from Panama but the present species differs from it in having mycelial setae (Hansford 1961).

 

Meliola cookeana Speg., Ann. Soc. Cient. Argentina 12: 41, 1881; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 695, 1961; Hosag. & Sabeena, Bulletin of Basic and Applied Plant Biology, 1(1): 49, 2011. Meliola rizalensis Sydow , Ann. Mycol. 12: 551, 1914. (Fig. 54).

Colonies epiphyllous, subdense to dense, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight, branching opposite to unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 27–42x5–7 μm.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 15–20 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–7 μm long; head cells globose to ovate, entire, 10–12x7–12 μm. Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to unilateral, ampulliform, 12–17x5–7 μm.  Mycelial setae straight to curved, simple, up to 300μm long, acute to obtuse at the tip. Perithecia scattered, up to 150μm in diam. Ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 30–37x10–15 μm.

Material examined: TBGT 5098, 25.iii.2009, Kerala, Kottayam, Koruthodu, on leaves of Vitex leucoxylon L.f. (Verbenaceae), V. Gireesh Kumar et al. Part of the collection has been deposited in HCIO, New Delhi.

L.J. Sedgwick had collected this species on this host plant from North Canara, Karnataka, during the month of October, 1919.  Since then there was no collection of this species on this host and the present collection forms the relocation of this species after a lapse of more than nine decades (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996).

 

Meliola cynanchi Hosag., H. Biju, Agarwal & Archana, Indian Phytopath. 59: 345, 2006. (Fig. 55).

Colonies epiphyllous, thin to dense, up to 2mm in diam. Hyphae straight, substraight to flexuous, branching alternate to opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 16–27x6–8 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, about 20% opposite, antrorse to subantrorse, 16–20 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–6 Ám long; head cells globose to ovate, entire, 9–13x9–11 Ám. Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 16–25x8–10 Ám.  Mycelial setae many, densely scattered, simple, straight to curved, very few uncinate, obtuse, dentate, cristate, often furcate up to 20Ám at the tip, up to 600Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 125Ám in diam.; ascospores oblong, cylindrical to slightly ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 38–42x15–17 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 46245 (holotype), TBGT 1657 (isotype), 12.xi.2003, Karnataka, Coorg, Madikeri, Jodupal, on leaves of Cynanchum sp. (Asclepiadaceae), V.B. Hosagoudar et al.

Meliola asclepiadacearum Hansf. is known on the host genus Cynanchum. According to Beeli formula 31⅓3.4223, it is similar to M. hoyae Sacc.. M. cynanchi differs from the former species in having opposite appressoria and dentate to furcate and longer mycelial setae.  While, it differs from the latter species in having longer and dentate to furcate mycelial setae (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar et al. 1997).

 

Meliola cyperacearum Hosag., Dhivaharan & Riju, J. Sci. Trans. Technov. 4(4): 165, 2011. (Fig. 56).

Colonies amphigenous, dense, velvety, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching alternate at acute angles, cells 20–23x7–9 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, straight to curved, 30–35 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 10–12 Ám long; head cells cylindrical, globose, slightly angular, sublobate to lobate, often truncate at the apex, 20–22x10–17 Ám.  Phialides borne on a separate mycelial branch, alternate, ampulliform, 15–20x7–9 Ám.  Mycelial setae straight, simple, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 360 Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 140Ám in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 35–37x12–15 Ám.

Materials examined: TBGT 4391 (holotype). HCIO 50474 (isotype), 7.i.2007, Tamil Nadu, Kodaikanal, Kukkal shola forest, Periyakanal, on leaves of Cyperus sp. (Cyperaceae), V. Dhivaharan et al.

Based on the angular to sublobate head cells of appressoria and the position of the Phialides on a separate mycelial branch, this species can be compared with Meliola cyperi Pat. but differs from it in having distinctly shorter mycelial setae (Hansford 1961).  It also differs from Meliola tibigirica Hosag. et al. in having distinctly lobate head cells of appressoria (Hosagoudar 2008).

 

Meliola daviesii Hansf. var. kodaikanalensis Hosag., Dhivaharan & Riju, J. Sci. Trans. TechNovember 4(4): 166, 2011.

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, up to 2mm in diameter scattered.  Hyphae flexuous, branching opposite at wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 20–30x7–10 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, straight to curved, antrorse to retrorse, 30–32 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 7–10 Ám long; head cells oblong, ovate, rarely globose, entire, 20–25x12–17 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, ampulliform, 20–22x7–10 Ám. Mycelial setae scattered, simple, obtuse at the tip, up to 440Ám long. Perithecia scattered, globose upto 85Ám in diameter; ascospores oblong, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 45–47x15–20 Ám.

Materials examined: 7.iii.2007,  Tamil Nadu, Kodaikanal, Kukkal shola forest, Periyakanal, on leaves of Jasminum brevilobum A. DC. (Oleaceae), V. Dhivaharan et al. TBGT 4445 (holotype), HCIO 50528 (isotype); 7.ii.2007, Kodaikanal, Periya kanal, R. Nithya tharani HCIO 50648, TBGT 4565.

Based on the digital formula, nature of the hyphae and morphology of appressoria, the present collection fits well into the assigned species but the new variety differs from it in having phialides borne with appressoria.

 

Meliola desmodii-laxiflori Deight. var. indica Hosag., Agarwal, Biju & Archana, Indian Phytopath. 59: 346, 2006. (Fig. 58). 

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, up to 2mm in diam. Hyphae flexuous to crooked, branching alternate to opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 24–30x5–7 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to subantrorse, 12–21 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–7 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, straight to curved, entire, rarely slightly angular, 11–15x11–13 Ám.  Phialides borne on a separate mycelial branch, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 12–18x7–9 Ám.  Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 430Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 130Ám in diam.; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, slightly constricted at the septa, 32–35x9–11 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 46236 (holotype), TBGT 1648 (isotype); HCIO 46242, TBGT 1654, 12.xi.2003, Karnataka, Coorg, Madikeri, Jodupal, on leaves of Desmodium laxiflorum DC. (Fabaceae), V.B. Hosagoudar et al.

 

Meliola dioscoreacearum Hosag. & Jacob Thomas, Indian J. Sci. Technol. 2(6): 22, 2009. (Fig. 59).

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight, branching opposite at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 16–34x4–7 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, about 3% opposite, antrorse to subantrorse, straight to curved, 14–19 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–5 Ám long; head cells curved, cylindrical, ovate, entire, rounded at the apex, 12–15x7–10 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–24x7–10 Ám.  Mycelial setae scattered, straight, simple, acute to dentate at the tip, up to 510Ám long. Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 200Ám in diam.; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, strongly constricted at the septum, 36–38x14–17 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 48251 (holotype), TBGT 2990 (isotype), 12.xi.2007, Kerala, Thrissur, Vazhachal, lower Sholayar, on leaves of Dioscorea sp. (Dioscoreaceae), Jacob Thomas et al. 

Based on the dentate mycelial setae and oppositely placed appressoria, this species can be compared with Meliola dioscoreicola Hansf. & Deight. and its variety peruviensis Hansf. but differs from both in having only 3% opposite appressoria, minutely dentate mycelial setae and the apical cells of the appressoria are typically ovate to cylindrical (Hansford 1961). 

 

Meliola dioscoregena Hosag. & Jacob., Indian J. Sci. Technol. 2(6): 22, 2009. (Fig. 60, Imgae. 8).

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 2mm in diameter, not confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite at acute angles, closely reticulate, cells 9–15x4–7 Ám.  Appressoria opposite, less than 1% alternate, antrorse to spreading, straight to slightly curved, 12–17 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–5 Ám long; head cells subglobose to ovate, entire, 9–12x7–10 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 7–14x4–7 Ám. Mycelial setae scattered to grouped around perithecia, straight, simple, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 440Ám long.  Perithecia mostly grouped at the centre of the colony, verrucose, up to 190Ám in diam.; ascospores cylindrical to ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted, 36–41x14–17Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 48250 (holotype), TBGT 2989 (isotype), 18.xi.2007, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, on leaves of Dioscorea sp. (Dioscoreaceae), Jacob Thomas & Vimalkumar.

Typically opposite appressoria distinguishes this species from rest of the Meliola species known on the members of the family Dioscoreaceae (Hansford 1961, Hosagoudar et al. 1997).

Ascospores produce three appressoria from the terminal cells and the mycelium is being produced from the sub-terminal cells.

 

Meliola diospyri-buxifoliae Hosag., Sabeena & Riju, Bioscience Discovery 2: 120, 2011. (Fig. 61).

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, thin, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite to unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 13–24x4–6 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, very rarely opposite, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, 11–15 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–4 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, 9–13x4–6 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, alternate to unilateral, ampulliform, 13–22x4–9 Ám.  Mycelial setae simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 450Ám long. Perithecia scattered, up to 170Ám in diam.; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 28–35x11–17 Ám.

Material examined: TBGT 3731 (holotype), HCIO 49489 (isotype), 15.xi.2007, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Palode, JNTBGRI Campus, on leaves of Diospyros buxifolia (Blume) Hiern. (Ebenaceae), A. Sabeena & M.C. Riju.

Meliola megalocarpa Sydow var. microspora Hosag., M. diospyri Sydow var. yatesiana Hansf. & Deight. and M. diospyri Sydow are known on this host genus (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996).  Based on the morphology of head cells of appressoria, this species is similar to M. diospyri known on Diospyros sp. from the Western Ghats. However, differs from it in having only 2% opposite (in contrast to 40%) shorter appressoria (11–15 Ám against 18–26 Ám) and having shorter ascospores (28–35 Ám against 42–50 Ám).

 

Meliola dysoxyligena Hosag. & Riju, Plant Pathology & Quarantine 1(2): 126, 2011. (Fig. 62).

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 5mm in diam. Hyphae substraight to crooked, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 20–45×7–8 μm.  Appressoria alternate, unilateral, opposite, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, 15–17×7–10 μm; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–5 μm long; head cells globose, subglobose, entire to rarely truncate, 10–13×7–10 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 15–38×7–10 μm.  Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight, acute-, 2–3-times dentate at the tip, up to 200μm long. Perithecia scattered, up to 210μm in diam.; ascospores cylindrical to oblong, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 35–40×12–15 μm.

Material examined: TBGT 4962 (holotype),  26.xii.2009, Kerala, Wayanad, Padinharathara, Chennalode, on leaves of Dysoxylum sp. (Meliaceae), M.C. Riju. Part of the collection has been deposited in HCIO, New Delhi.

Meliola ptaeroxyli Doidge, M. carapace Hansf. & Deight. and M. toonae Hosag. & Sabu are the species that have simple and dentate mycelial setae.  The present fungus differs from M. ptaeroxyli in not producing a pathogenic effect on the host, from M. carapace in having shorter appressoria (15–17 μm vs. 24–40 μm) and smaller ascospores (35–40×12–15 vs. 51–58×19–23 μm).  It differs from M. toonae in having shorter appressoria (15–17 μm vs. 16–24 μm) and shorter ascospores (35–40 μm vs. 40–44 μm) (Hansford 1961; Hu et al. 1996; 1999; Hosagoudar 1996, 2008, ).

The neck or apical portion of the phialides are unusually elongated, often variously bent and proliferate as hyphae by holding the phialoconidia in their neck.

 

Meliola ebeni Hosag. & Archana, J. Threatened Taxa 2: 890, 2010. (Fig. 63)

Colonies amphigenous, subdense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to crooked, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 12–32x4–8 Ám. Appressoria opposite, alternate, unilateral, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, straight to curved, 11–26 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–8 Ám long; head cells oblong, ovate, cylindrical, globose, straight to differently curved, entire to angular, 8–18x6–15 Ám. Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 16–24x6–8 Ám.  Mycelial setae, simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 490Ám long.  Perithecia scattered to grouped, up to 160Ám in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 38–45x12–16 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 48167 (holotype), TBGT 2903 (isotype), 10.ix.2006, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, JNTBGRI Campus, on leaves of Diospyrus ebenum Koenig (Ebenaceae), G.R. Archana et al. .

Crooked mycelium with variously curved appressoria with cylindrical to oblong head cells distinguishes this species from rest of the Meliola species known on the members of the family Ebenaceae (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar et al.1997; Hu et al. 1997, 1999; Hosagoudar & Agarwal 2008).

 

Meliola erumeliensis Hosag., Archana., Rajendraprasad & Nazarudeen, J. Threatened Taxa 1: 347, 2009. (Fig. 64)

Colonies hypophyllous, subdense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 11–32x6–8 Ám. Appressoria mostly opposite, alternate, straight to curved, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, 9–22 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–8 Ám long; head cells ovate, oblong, entire to predominantly angular, 8–16x8–11 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, numerous, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 11–22x6–10 Ám.  Mycelial setae simple, crooked, uncinate, obtuse at the tip, up to 294Ám long.  Perithecia globose, scattered to grouped, up to 176Ám in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 36–43x17–21 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 46831 (holotype), TBGT 2172 (isotype), 16.iii.2006, Kerala, Idukki, Peeramed, Erumeli range, Murinjapuzha, on the leaves of Drypetes elata (Bedd.) Pax & Hoffm. (Euphorbiaceae), A. Nazaruddin & M. Rajendraprasad.

Meliola drypeticola Hosag. is the only species known on the host genera Drypetes and Epiprinus from the Western Ghats region of peninsular India (Hosagoudar 1996).  Meliola erumeliensis distinctly differs from it in having crooked and uncinate mycelial setae.

 

Meliola erythrinae Sydow var. indica Hosag. & Jacob. Indian J. Sci. Technol. 2(6): 23, 2009. (Fig. 65).

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to slightly undulate, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 21–41x4–7 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, 5% unilateral, 5% opposite, antrorse to spreading, straight to curved, 12–17 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–5 Ám long; head cells subglobose, clavate, entire, 9–12x12–15 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 14–22x7–10 Ám.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered to grouped around perithecia, straight, simple, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 410Ám long.  Perithecia scattered to grouped, verrucose, up to 160Ám in diam.; ascospores cylindrical to subellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 33–43x12–17 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 48253 (holotype), TBGT 2992 (isotype), 12.xi.2007, Kerala, Thrissur, Vazhachal, near Lower Sholayar dam, on leaves of Erythrina variegata L. (E. indica Lam.) (Fabaceae), Jacob Thomas et al. 

The present collection is similar to Meliola erythrinae but the variety differs from the var. erythrinae in having 5% opposite appressoria.

 

Meliola euonymi Stev. ex Hansf., Sydowia Beih.1:108, 1957; Beih.2: 342, 1961. (Fig. 66).

Colonies amphigenous, subdense, up to 2mm in diam., confluent.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching alternate at acute to wide angles, cells 16–34x6–8 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, straight to slightly curved, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, 24–42 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 8–28 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, clavate, oblong, irregularly deeply lobate, rarely angular, 14–27x19–24 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate, unilateral, ampulliform, 19–26x4–7 Ám.  Mycelia setae simple, scattered, straight to slightly curved, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 420 Ám long. Perithecia scattered to loosely aggregated, up to 110Ám in diam.; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 3-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 48–58x17–23 Ám.

Materials examined: TBGT 5746, 12.xi.2007, Tamil Nadu, Kodaikanal, Bhoothakanal, on leaves of Eunymous sp. (Celastraceae), R. Nithytharani.

This species was known only from a single collection from Philippines (Hansford 1961).

 

Meliola exacigena Hosag., Archana & Kandavel, J. Scient. Trans. Environ. Techn. 1: 53, 2007. (Fig. 67)

Colonies hypophyllous, dense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching mostly opposite, often alternate at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 12–26x6–10 Ám.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, straight to curved,16–29 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 6–10 Ám long; head cells ovate, oblong, entire to angular, 9–19x9–16 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate, ampulliform, 12–19x6–10 Ám.  Mycelial setae simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 530Ám long.  Perithecia scattered to grouped, globose, up to 235Ám in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 38–42x14–18 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 47699 (holotype), TBGT 2721(isotype), 18.vii.2006 Tamil Nadu, Kodaikanal, Mathikettan shola, on leaves of Exacum sp. (Gentianaceae), B. Bhairavi.

Meliola exaci Hosag. is the only Meliola species known on the host genus Exacum (E. tetragonum) from Maharashtra (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar et al. 1997; Hosagaoudar 1996; Hu et al. 1996 1999; Mebey & Hawkswoth 1997; Mibey & Cannon 1999; Patil & Mahamulkar 1999).  M. exacigena differs from it in having straight mycelium, having entire to angular head cells of the appressoria, longer mycelial setae and larger ascospores.

 

Meliola filicii Hosag. var. indica Hosag. & Archana, J. Threatened Taxa 2: 891, 2010. (Fig. 68)

Colonies hypophyllous, dense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite, alternate at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 11–24x4–7 Ám.  Appressoria opposite, alternate, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, 8–15 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–6 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, entire to angular, straight to curved, 6–11x6–8 Ám.  Phialides few, mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 9–16x4–7 Ám. Mycelial setae, simple, straight, acute, dentate to furcate at the tip, up to 350Ám long. Perithecia scattered to grouped, up to 196Ám in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 25–37x8–13 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 48168 (holotype), TBGT 2904 (isotype), 20.ii.2007, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Ponmudi, on leaves of Filicium decipiens (Wight & Arn.) Thw. (Sapindaceae), G.R. Archana et al.

The variety indica differs from the variety filicii in having only dentate to furcate apical tip of the mycelial setae (Hosagoudar 1996).

 

Meliola garugae Stev. & Rold., Philippine J. Sci. 56: 67,1935; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 399, 1961; Hosag. & Robin, J. Threatened Taxa 3(3): 1786, 2011. (Imge. 9, Fig. 69)

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching mostly opposite to alternate at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 24–36x5–7 Ám.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 14–19 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–7 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, entire,10–12x7–10 Ám. Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, neck elongated, 19–24x7–10 Ám.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, straight, dentate, cristate, bifid to obtuse at the tip, up to 370Ám long. Perithecia scattered, up to 170Ám in diameter; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 36–43x14–17 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 48791 (holotype), TBGT 3167, 29.vi. 2007, On leaves of Garuga pinnata Roxb. (Burseraceae), Vazhoor, Kottayam, Kerala, P. J. Robin.

This species was known in Garuga sp. from Philippines and was known only from a single collection (Hansford 1961).

 

Meliola gluticola Hosag., Sabeena & Jacob Thomas, Taprobanica 2(2): 95, 2010. (Fig. 70)

Colonies amphigenous, mostly hypophyllous, thin, upto 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, cells 13–20x6–9 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, closely arranged on the hyphae antrorse to subantrorse, 15–20 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–6 Ám long; head cells ovate, entire, 13–15x6–9 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform 15–22x6–9 Ám.  Mycelial setae simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 330Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 110Ám in diameter; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 39–44x15–17 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 48337 (holotype), TBGT 3058 (isotype), 10.x.2007, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Palode, JNTBGRI Campus, on leaves of Gluta travancorica L. (Anacardiaceae), A. Sabeena et al.

Gluta travancorica L. is an endemic plant and Meliola glutae is known to infect this plant (Hosagoudar 1996, 1998; Hosagoudar & Agarwal 2008; Hosagoudar et al. 1997).  However, differs from it in having regularly antrorse to subantrorse appressoria with ovate to oblong and entire head cells.  The colonies of both these species were mixed together but can be easily distinguished based on the above characters.

 

Meliola gouaniae Hansf. var. keralica Hosag. & Robin, J. Threatened Taxa 3(5): 1785, 2011. (Fig. 71)

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching mostly opposite at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 19–29x5–7 Ám.  Appressoria mostly alternate, unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 12–17 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–7 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, angular to slightly lobate, 10–14x7–10 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, unilateral, ampulliform, 21–29x5–7 Ám. Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight, obtuse to dentate at the tip, up to 420Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, globose, up to 178Ám in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 31–38x12–14 Ám, wall smooth.

Materials examined: HCIO 48793 (holotype), TBGT 3169 (isotype), 12.iii.2007, Kerala, Kottayam, Ponthanpuzha, on leaves of Gouania sp. (Rhamnaceae), P. J. Robin.

The present taxon is similar to Meliola gouniae Hansf. known on Gouania sp. from Sierra Leone and Java. However, the new variety differs from the var. gouaniae in having longer and not torulose but dentate mycelial setae.

 

Meliola gouaniicola Hosag. & Robin, Bioscience Discovery 2(2): 266, 2011. (Fig. 72)

Colonies amphigenous, dense, velvety, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to slightly undulate, branching opposite to irregular at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 22–26x4–7 Ám.  Appressoria alternate to 5% unilateral, antrorse to sub antrorse, 13–18 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–6 Ám long; head cells globose, subglobose to oblong, 9–13x6–13 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 15–22x4–6 Ám.  Mycelial setae scattered, grouped around perithecia straight, simple, obtuse at the tip, up to 360Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 121Ám in diameter; ascospores oblong to ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 28–33x11–12 Ám.

Materials examined: TBGT 4654 (holotype), HCIO 50737 (isotype), 24.xi.2007, Karnataka, Coorg, Galibeedu, on leaves of Gouania sp. (Rhammanaceae),  P.J. Robin.

Meliola gouniae Hansf. is known on Gouniae sp. from Sierra Leone and Java. However the M. gouaniicola differs from M. gouaniae in having striagt and obtuse mycelia setae torulose but dentate mycelial setae.

 

Meliola harpullicola sp. nov. Hosag. & Sabeena

(Fig. 73; MycoBank 803914)

Colonies epiphyllous, subdense to dense, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite to unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 22–37x5–10 Ám.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 15–20 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–5 Ám long; head cells ovate, entire, 10–15x7–3 Ám.  Phialides numerous, mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 10–25x5–7 Ám.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, simple, straight to uncinate, up to 320Ám long, obtuse , 1–3 dentate but predominantly cristate at the tip.  Perithecia scattered, orbicular, up to 170Ám in diam.; ascospores oblong, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 37–42x12–15 Ám.

Materials examined: TBGT 5749 (holotype), 3.i.2011, Kerala, Kollam, Chozhiakodu, on leaves of Harpullia arborea (Blanco) Radlk. (H. imbricate (Blume) Thwaites) (Sapindaceae),  V.B. Hosagoudar et al. Part of the collection is deposited in HCIO, New Delhi.

Etymology: Named after the host genus.

This species stands distinct from the other Meliola species known on the members of Sapindaceae in having straight to uncinate mycelial setae having obtuse to cristate apical tip (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996, 2008; Hu et al. 1996, 1999).

 

Meliola homonoiae Hosag. & Sabeena, Bulletin of Basic & Applied Plant Biology 1(1): 49, 2011. (Fig. 74)

Colonies mostly hypophyllous, subdense, velvety, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae crooked, branching opposite to unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 15–32x7–10 μm. Appressoria alternate to unilateral, straight to curved, antrorse to subantrorse, 17–22 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–7 μm long; head cells globose to ovate, entire, angular to lobate, 12–15x10–15 μm. Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, alternate to unilateral, ampulliform, 17–32x5–12 μm.  Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight, up to 650μm long, acute to obtuse at the tip. Perithecia scattered, up to 150μm in diam.; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 40–50x17–22 μm.

Material examined: TBGT 5097 (Holotype p.p.), 25.iii.2009, Kerala, Kottayam, Koruthodu, on leaves of Homonoia riparia Lour. (Euphorbiaceae), V. Gireesh Kumar et al.  Part of the collection has been deposited in HCIO, New Delhi.

Meliola romosii Sydow is known on this host from Philippines and India (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996).  However, the present new species differs from it in having crooked hyphae, longer mycelial setae and ascospores.

 

Meliola hoveniae Hosag., Dhivaharan & Riju, J. Sci. Trans. Techn. 4(4): 166, 2011. (Fig. 75)

Colonies amphigenous, thin, confluent, 1–2 mm in diameter.  Hyphae flexuous, branching alternate at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 25–27x7–9 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, straight to curved, antrorse to retrorse, 24–25 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 7–10 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, truncate to attenuated at the apex, sublobate, 15–17x12–15 Ám.  Phialides on borne on a separate mycelial branch, alternate, unilateral, opposite, ampulliform, 17–22x7–10 Ám.  Mycelial setae grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 360Ám long. Perithecia scattered to connate, globose, up to 205Ám in diam.; ascospores cylindrical to obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 42–45x15–17 Ám.

Materials examined: TBGT 4442 (holotype), HCIO 50525 (isotype), 25.x.2007, Tamil Nadu, Kodaikanal, Kukkal shola, Periyakanal, on leaves of Hovenia acerba Lindl. (Rhamnaceae), V. Dhivaharan et al.

Meliola ziziphi Hansf. & Theiss. and Meliola krugiodendr Cif. can be compared with the present species.  However, differs from both in having angular and truncate head cells of appressoria (Hansford 1961).

 

Meliola hugoniae Hanf. & Deight., Mycol. Pap. 23: 5, 1948; Hansf. Sydowia Beih. 2: 91,1961; Hosag., Jacob Thomas & Agarwal, Taprobanica 3(1): 43, 2011. (Fig. 76)

Colonies epiphyllous, subdense to dense, velvety, up to 2mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching mostly opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 15–29x4–7 Ám. Appressoria opposite, about 2% alternate to unilateral, straight to curved, antrorse to spreading, 13–20 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–5 Ám long; head cells ovate to oblong, entire, broadly rounded at the apex, 11–15x6–9 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 17–26x5–7 Ám.  Mycelial setae scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 1200Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 160Ám in diam.; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 28–41x11–17 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 49036, TBGT 3291, 28.ii.2007, Kerala, Kannur, Aaralam Wildlife Sanctuary, on leaves of Hugonia belli Sedgwick (Linaceae), Jacob Thomas et al.

This is the only species known on this host genus from India (Hosagoudar 1996, 2008).

 

Meliola ichnocarpi-volubili Hansf., Sydowia 16: 320, 1963. (Fig. 77)

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent and covering almost an entire upper surface of the leaves.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, closely reticulate, cells 16–29x4–7 Ám. Appressoria alternate, about 5% unilateral, straight to curved, antrorse to spreading, 9–15 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, up to 3Ám long; head cells globose to subglobose, ovate, entire, 7–12x7–10 Ám. Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–19x4–10 Ám.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, straight, simple, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 420Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 130Ám in diam.; ascospores cylindrical to obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted, 26–38x12–14 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 49017, TBGT 3272, 18.xi.2007, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Peppara wildlife sanctuary, near Peppara Dam, on leaves of Quirivelia frutescens (L.) M.R. Almeida & S.M. Almieda (Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) R. Br (Apocyanaceae), Jacob Thomas.

Meliola ichnocarpiii Hansf. & Thirum and Meliola ichnocarpii-volubilii Hansf. are known on this host genus. The former species differs from the latter in having longer appressoria (15–30) and larger ascospores (40–48x20–28 Ám).  Hence, the present species is accommodated in the latter species.  This species was known on Ichnocarpus volubilis from Philippines and is reported here for the first time from India (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996, 2008).

 

Meliola kakachiana Hosag. var. poochiparensis Hosag. & Sabeena, Plant Pathology & Quarantine 3(1): 12, 2012. (Fig. 78)

Colonies hypophyllous, subdense, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite to unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 17–35x5–7 Ám. Appressoria alternate, about 40% opposite, antrorse to subantrorse, 12–17 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–5 Ám long; head cells globose, entire, 10–12x12-15 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, ampulliform, 12–20x5–10 Ám.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, simple, straight, up to 950Ám long, acute, obtuse to dentate at the tip. Perithecia scattered, orbicular, up to 190Ám in diam.; ascospores cylindrical to oblong, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 40–45x17–22 Ám.

Materials examined: TBGT 5734 (holotype), 8.iii.2010, Kerala, Palghat, Silent Valley, Poochippara, on leaves of Litsea sp. (Lauraceae), P.J. Robin et al.  Part of the collection has been deposited in HCIO, New Delhi.

Based on the alternate and opposite appressoria and digital formula it is similar to M. dactylipoda Sydow var. brevipoda Hansf. and M. acutisata Sydow known on Cryptocarya patentinervis and Persea piriformis from New South Wales and Philippines.  However, differs from both in having shorter appressoria and globose head cells.  This collection is similar to the assigned species but differs from it in having more number of opposite appressoria and smaller ascospores (Hansford 1961).

 

Meliola kamettiae Hosag. & Riju, J. Threatened Taxa 2(4): 825, 2010. (Fig. 79)

Colonies hypophyllous, scattered, dense, velvety, up to 4Ám in diam., rarely confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching mostly opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 13–35x4–7 Ám. Appressoria alternate, unilateral, straight, antrorse, 11–20 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–9 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, 7–13x6–11 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, alternate, unilateral, ampulliform 11–22x4–7 Ám.  Mycelial setae numerous, up to 260Ám long, simple, straight, few slightly curved to uncinate, obtuse, bifid, trifid, often subdentate to furcated to branched at the tip, branches up to 30Ám long. Perithecia scattered, up to 150Ám in diam.; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 26–33x8–11 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 48175 (holotype), TBGT 2911 (isotype), 29.ix.2007, on leaves of Kamettia caryophyllata Roxb. (Apocynaceae), 16th mile, Padinharathara, Wayanad, Kerala, M. C. Riju.

Straight, slightly curved to uncinate, obtuse, bifid, trifid, often subdentate to furcated mycelial setae distinguishes this taxon from rest of the Meliola species reported on the members of the family Apocynaceae (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996, 2008; Hosagoudar et al. 1997).

 

Meliola kanniyakumariana Hosag. var. brahmagiriense Hosag., Agarwal, H. Biju & Archana, Indian Phytopath. 59: 347, 2006. (Fig. 80)

Colonies amphigenous rarely hypophyllous, sub-dense, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae sub straight, branching opposite to irregular at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 14–24x6–8 Ám. Appressoria alternate to unilateral, antrorse, spreading, straight,14–22 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–8 Ám long; head cells globose, ovate, straight, entire, 9–14x8–11 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, ampulliform, opposite to alternate,12–22x6–10 Ám. Mycelial setae numerous, simple, straight to slightly curved, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 216Ám long. Perithecia globose, scattered to grouped up to 147Ám in diameter; ascospores obovoidal to cylindrical, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 30–35x11–14 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 46304 (holotype), TBGT 1950 (isotype), 13.xi.2003, Karnataka, Talakaveri, Brahmagiri, on leaves of Knoxia sp. (Rubiaceae), V.B. Hosagoudar et al.

This taxon is close to M. kanniyakumariana reported on Hedyotis sp. from the Western Ghats (Hosagoudar 1996) in having straight to uncinate mycelial setae but differs from it in having phialides with appressoria.

 

Meliola kannurensis Hosag., Archana, Khaleel & Soumya, Bioscience Discovery 2(3): 348, 2011. (Fig. 81)

Colonies epiphyllous, thin to subdense, up to 5mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight, substraight, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 16–27x6–10 μm.  Appressoria opposite, alternate, antrorse to subantrorse, 16–23 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–6 μm long; head cells oblong, ovate, entire to slightly angular, 13–17x9–13 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate, opposite, ampulliform, 16–23x9–12 μm.  Mycelial setae numerous, simple, acute, obtuse to dentate at the tip, up to 882μm long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 176μm in diameter; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 39–43x13–17 μm.

Materials examined: TBGT 4942 (holotype), HCIO 51025 (isotype), 21.i.2011, Kerala, Kannur, Payyannur, Edat, on leaves of Ficus gibbosa Bl. (Moraceae), M. Soumya.

Based on the alternate and opposite appressoria, Meliola kannurensis is similar to M. chlorophorae Hansf. reported on Chlorophora excelsa from Uganda but differs from it having both acute, obtuse and dentate and longer mycelial setae (Hansford 1961).

 

Meliola knemae Hosag. & Robin, Bioscience Discovery 2(2): 266, 2011. (Fig. 82)

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite to alternate at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 22–29x7–10 Ám.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 19–24 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–10 Ám long; head cells ovate to oblong, entire, 14–17x7–10 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 1.7–24x7–10 Ám.  Mycelial setae grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 750Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 173Ám in diam.; ascospores ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 36–43x14–19 Ám.

Material examined: TBGT 4653 (holotype), HCIO 50736 (isotype), 2.iii.2008, Kerala, Kottayam, Ponthanpuzha reserve forest, on leaves of Knema attenuata (Wall.ex Hook.f.) Thoms. (Myristicaceae), P.J. Robin.

Meliola myristicae Hosag. and Raghu is the only species known on Myristica fatuo Houtl var. mognifico (Bedd.) Sinclair (Myristicaceae) from Gerusoppa, Uttara Kannada, Karnataka (Hosagoudar 1996).  However, this species differs from it in having entire, ovate to oblong head cells of appressoria.

 

Meliola knowltoniae Doidge, Bothalia 1: 308, 1924; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 62, 1961. (Fig. 83)

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 25–47x5–7 Ám.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse 22–32 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical, 7–12 Ám long; head cells, ovate, entire, angular to sublobate, 15–20x5–12 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, ampulliform, 15–25x5–7 Ám.  Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight, obtuse at the tip, up to 490Ám long. Perithecia scattered orbicular, up to 170Ám in diam.; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 37–40x14–18 Ám.

Materials examined: TBGT 5816, 9.i.2010, on leaves of Clematis sp. (Rananculaceae), Igguthappa temple, Kodagu, Karnataka, C. Jagath Thimmiah.

 

Meliola kukkeensis Hosag., Archana. & Agarwal, Hosag., Archana. & Agarwal, Indian Phytopath. 60: 240, 2007. (Fig. 84)

Colonies amphigenous, sub-dense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to sub-straight, branching opposite, alternate to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 16–40x6–8 Ám. Appressoria alternate, unilateral, antrorse to retrorse, straight to curved, 16–30 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 6–11 Ám; head cells oblong, ovate, curved, entire to angular, 10–22x10–16 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, unilateral, 16–29x6–11 Ám.  Mycelial setae straight, acute, obtuse, dentate to furcate at the tip, very long up to 1196Ám long.  Perithecia globose, up to 160Ám in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 48–53x17–22 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO (holotype), TBGT 2075 (isotype), 15.xi.2003, Karnataka, South Canara, Kukke Subramanya, on leaves of Syzygium sp. (Myrtaceae), V.B. Hosagoudar et al.

This species differs from all the known Meliola species on the members of the family Myrtaceae in having simple, dentate to furcate mycelial setae (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996; Hosagoudar et al. 1997; Hosagoudar & Abraham 1998).

 

Meliola lophopetaligena Hosag. & Robin, J. Threatened Taxa 3(3): 1785, 2011. (Fig. 85)

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching mostly opposite at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 22–31x7–12 Ám.  Appressoria opposite, about 3% alternate, arranged after an intermittent interval (in most places mycelium devoid of appressoria), closely antrorse, antrorse to subantrorse, 19–26 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–7 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, angular to slightly lobate, 10–14x7–10 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 19–26x9–12 Ám.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 780Ám long. Perithecia scattered, globose, up to 250Ám in diameter; ascospores oblong to cylindrical,4-septate,constricted at the septa, 36–46x12–17 Ám, wall smooth.

Materials examined: HCIO 48792 (holotype), TBGT 3168 (isotype), 9.xi.2007, Kerala, Kottayam, Ponthanpuzha, on leaves of Lophopetalum wightiana Arn. (Celastraceae), P.J. Robin.

Meliola lophopetali Stev. ex Hansf. Is known on Lophopetalum toxicum from Philippines.  However, Meliola lophopetalilola differs from it in having closely arranged longer appressoria arranged after an intermittent intervals, longer mycelial setae and larger ascospores (Hansford 1961).  It also differs from Meliola chennaiana Hosag. & Goos known on Lophopetalum sp. from Chennai, Eastern Ghats in having 3% opposite appressoria, ovate, globose, entire, angular to slightly lobate head cells of the appressoria and phialides mixed with appressoria (Goos & Hosagoudar 1998).

 

Meliola luculiae Hosag., Dhivaharan & Riju, J. Sci. Trans. Technov. 4(4): 167, 2011. (Fig. 86)

Colonies amphigenous, thin, scattered, 1–2 mm in diameter.  Hyphae flexuous, branching alternate at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 22–30x6–7 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to subantrorse, straight to curved, 22–25 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 7–10 Ám long; head cells cylindrical, ovate, angular to sublobate, 15–17x10–12 Ám.  Phialides borne on a separate mycelial branch, alternate, opposite to unilateral, ampulliform, 15–17x7–10 Ám.  Mycelial setae numerous, grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, obtuse at the tip, up to 300Ám long.  Perithecia scattered to loosely grouped, up to 190Ám in diam.; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 42–45x15–17 Ám.

Materials examined: TBGT 4443 (holotype), HCIO 50526 (isotype), 4.iv.2008, Tamil Nadu, Kukkal shola, Periyakanal, on leaves of Lucculia grandifolia Ghose (Rubiaceae), V. Dhivaharan et al.

Based on the digital formula 3111. 4221, it is closer to Meliola mitragynicola Deight, M. mitragynicola var. leonensis (Hansf. & Deight.) Deight. and M. henryi Hansf. var. oldenlandiae Hosag. but differs from all in having angular to sublobate head cells of the appressoria and shorter mycelial setae (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996; 2008).

 

Meliola luvungicola Hosag. & Rajkumar, Hosag., Archana. & Agarwal, Indian Phytopath. 60: 241, 2007. (Fig. 87)

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 11–29x6–8 Ám.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, antrorse, 11–24 Ám; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–8 Ám long; head cells oblong, sublobate, angular, straight to curved, 8–16x8–14 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, few, opposite, ampulliform, 11–16x6–8 Ám.  Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 314Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, globose, up to 128Ám in diameter; ascospores 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 27–30x9–11 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 47056 (holotype), TBGT 2273 (isotype), 2.i.2002, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Chemunji, on leaves of Luvunga sp. (Rutaceae), G. Rajkumar.

Meliola luvungae Hosag. is known on this host from Idukki region of the Western Ghats.  However, Meliola luvungicola differs from it in having typically lobate head cells of the appressoria and smaller ascospores (Hosagoudar & Goos 1990; Hosagoudar 1996).

 

Meliola mahamulkarii Hosag., Robin & Archana, J. Appl. & Nat. Sci. 2: 93, 2010. (Fig. 88).

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllus dense, up to 2mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight to substright, branching opposite at acute angles, densely reticulate, cells 24–31x5–7 Ám.  Appressoria opposite to alternate, antrorse, 12–17 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–5 Ám long; head cells ovate to globose, entire, 7–12x5–7 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–19x7–10 Ám. Mycelial setae scattered, straight, simple, obtuse at the tip, up to 440Ám long. Perithecia scattered, up to 178Ám in diam.; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 43–50x17–19 Ám.

Materials examined: TBGT 3688 (holotype), HCIO 49443 (isotype), 01.i.2009, Maharashtra, on the way to Mahabeleswar, on leaves of Osyris arborea Wall. (Santalaceae), V.B. Hosagoudar et al.

Meliola osyridicola Hansf. and Meliola osyridicola Hansf. var. indica Hosag. are known on the host genus from the western Ghats of peninsular however Meliola mahamulkarii differs from both having 75% opposite appressoria.

 

 

Meliola manoharacharyi Hosag., Riju & Agarwal, Indian Phytopath. 63: 76, 2010. (Fig. 89)

Colonies epiphyllous, scattered, thin, up to 2Ám diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching mostly opposite, rarely unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 12–38x6–8 Ám.  Appressoria opposite (48%), alternate, unilateral, antrorse to sub antrorse, 15–23 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–8 Ám long; head cells globose, ovate, rarely truncate, entire, 7–18x7–13 Ám. Phialides mixed with appressoria, mostly opposite, often unilateral to alternate, ampulliform, 20–25x7–10 Ám.  Mycelial setae simple, straight to slightly curved, acute to 1–3 times dentate at the tip, up to 1050Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, varrucose, up to 163Ám in diameter; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 50–53x20–23 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 49198 (holotype), TBGT 3437 (isotype), 1.vii.2008, Kerala, Palakkad, Silent Valley National Park, on leaves of Myristica sp. (Myristicaceae), M.C. Riju et al.

Meliola knemicola Hansf., M. uncinata Sydow and M. pycnanthi Hansf. are known on the members of the family Myristicaceae (Hansford 1961).  Meliola manoharacharyi differes from the latter two species in having straight mycelial setae and from Meliola knemicola in having opposite appressoria.  Meliola knemicola Hansf. var. minor Song & Ouyang and M. myristicae Hosag. & Raghu are known from China and the Western Ghats of Peninsular respectively, differ from the present taxon in absence of opposite appressoria and dentate mycelial setae (Hosagoudar 1996; Hosagoudar et al. 1997; Hosagoudar & Agarwal 2008; Hu et al. 1996, 1999).

 

Meliola meghalayensis Hosag., Jacob. & Robin, Indian J. Sci. Technov. 2(6): 3, 2009. (Fig. 90)

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, up to 2mm in diameter. Hyphae straight to substraight, branching opposite at wide angles, closely reticulate and form a mycelial net, cells 21–31x7–10 Ám.  Appressoria alternate and about 2% unilateral, straight to curved, antrorse to subantrorse, 24–29 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 10–12 Ám long; head cells subglobose to ellipsoidal, entire to slightly angular, 14–19x12–19 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to unilateral, ampulliform, 17–26x9–12 Ám.  Mycelial setae grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, acute, obtuse to dentate at the tip, up to 820Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, globose, verrucose, up to 180Ám. in diam.; ascospores cylindrical to ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 41–43x14–19 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 48069 (holotype), TBGT 2852 (isotype), 18.i.2007, Meghalaya, Shillong, Lumshillong, on leaves of Castanopsis armata Spach. (Fagaceae), Jacob Thomas & P.J. Robin.

This species differs from Meliola taiwanionaYamam. and M. melanochaeta Sydow in having simple to dentate mycelial setae.  However, it differs from both in having entire head cells of appressoria and smaller ascospores (Hansford 1961).  It also differs from M. bosei Hosag. in having longer appressoria, mycelial setae and larger ascospores (Hosagoudar 1996).

 

Meliola mesuae Hosag., Jacob Thomas & Agarwal, Nelumbo 52:5, 2010. (Fig. 91)

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, dense, up to 4mm in diameter, rarely confluent.  Hyphae straight, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 15–26x6–9 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, about 2% opposite, closely arranged, antrorse to subantrorse, straight to curved, 17–29 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–13 Ám long; head cells ovate to globose, entire, rarely angular, 11–20x13–18 Ám. Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 13–26x6–9 Ám.  Mycelial setae few, straight, simple, acute at the tip, up to 280Ám long. Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 180Ám in diameter; ascospores cylindrical to ellipsoidal, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 37–42x17–20 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 49074 (holotype), TBGT 3329 (isotype), 28.ii.2008, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, Bonoccord, Kombe, on leaves of Mesua ferrea L. (Clusiaceae), Jacob Thomas.

Based on the angular head cells of the appressoria, this species can be compared with Meliola clusiae Stev. known on Clusia spp. from Porto Rico and Surinam but differs from it in having regularly antrorse appressoria, possessing few mycelial setae and having smaller ascospores (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996, 2008; Hosagoudar et al. 1997; Hosagoudar & Agarwal, 2008).

 

Meliola mutabilidis sp. nov. Hosag., Archana, Khaleel & Libina

(Fig. 92; MycoBank 803915)

Etymology: Based on the species name of the host plant

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, up to 2mm in diameter, scattered. Hyphae substraight to flexuous, branching mostly opposite at acute to wide angles, closely reticulate, cells 12–19x4–6 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, unilateral, antrorse, 9–16 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–6 Ám long; head cells globose, ovate, entire to slightly angular, 6–13x6–10 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, ampulliform, 12–28x7–10 Ám. Mycelial setae numerous, scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, straight to curved, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 294Ám long.  Perithecia scattered to grouped, up to 146Ám in diameter; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 32–35x11–13 Ám.

Materials examined: TBGT 4911 (holotype), HCIO 50994 (isotype); TBGT 4923, HCIO 51006, 21.i.2011, Kerala, Kannur, Mangattuparamba, Neeliyarkottam, on leaves of Hibiscus mutabilis L. (Malvaceae), M.P. Libina.

Irenopsis molleriana (Wint.) Stev. is known on this host from Sierra Leone (Hansford 1961) but differs from it in having mycelial setae.  Meliola kydiae-calycinae Hansf. & Thirum. is the only Meliola species on the members of the family Malvaceae.  M. mutabilidis sp. nov. differs from it in having straight hyphae in contrast to crooked, having shorter appressoria 9–16 Ám (against 15–24 Ám) and having entire head cells of appressoria in contrast to lobate (Hansford 1961).

 

Meliola ougeiniae R.K. Verma, N. Sharma & Soni, Forest fungi of India, p. 47, 2008. (Fig. 93)

Colonies epiphyllous, subdense, up to 3mm in diam., confluent.  Hyphae substraight, flexuous, branching opposite, alternate at acute to wide angles, closely to loosely reticulate, cells 24–40x4–6.5 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, opposite (20%), unilateral, straight to curved, antrorse, subantrorse, retrorse, 8–19 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 1–12 Ám long; head cells globose, ovate, oblong, entire to slightly angular, 8–12x8–11 Ám. Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate, opposite, unilateral, ampulliform, 11–24x6–8 Ám.  Mycelial setae scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, straight to slightly curved, acute at the tip, up to 637Ám long. Perithecia scattered, up to 175Ám in diam.; ascospores cylindrical to obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 38–41x12-16 Ám.

Materials examined: TF201, HCIO No. 46,449, 18.xii.2004, On leaves of Ougeinia oojeinensis (Roxb.) Hocherut (Fabaceae), Bhaisanghat, Balaghat (M.P.), R.K. Verma, GP 22008Ň408Ë 81005Ň500Ë Tropical Forest Research Institute.

 

Meliola palakkadensis Hosag., Agarwal, H. Biju & Archana, Indian Phytopathol. 60: 84, 2007. (Fig. 94)

Colonies hypophyllous, sub-dense, velvety, up to 10mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to undulate, branching mostly opposite to irregular at wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 18–24x6–8 Ám. Appressoria alternate to unilateral, antrorse to sub-antrorse, straight to curved, 14–24 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–7 Ám long; head cells globose, ovate, slightly angular, entire, 9–18x8–13 Ám. Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to unilateral, ampulliform, 13–21x8–10 Ám.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, straight, very few uncinate, simple, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 700Ám long. Perithecia globose, scattered, up to 265Ám in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 40–48x16–21 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 46140 (holotype), TBGT 1903 (isotype), 12.12.2003, On leaves of Litsea sp. (Lauraceae), Sairandhiri, Silent Valley, Palakkad, Kerala, V.B. Hosagoudar et al.

Based on the Beeli formula 3111.4333, this species is similar to M. pushpangadanii Hosag. & Abraham (Hosagoudar et al. 1998) but differs from it in having dense colonies, shorter mycelial setae (against 1554 Ám) further, many setae are flexuous to uncinate.

 

Meliola pleurostylicola Hosag. & Sabu in Hosag., Archana. & Agarwal. Indian Phytopath. 60: 242, 2007. (Fig. 95)

Colonies mostly epiphyllous, rarely amphigenous, dense to subdense, up to 2mm in diameter, confluent. Hyphae substraight, branching opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, closely reticulate, cells 12–17x4– 5 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse, 12–13 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–6 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, straight, 7–8x4–5 Ám. Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 12–13x2–4 Ám.  Mycelial setae many, simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 468 Ám long. Perithecia scattered, globose, up to 133Ám in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 28–31x10–12 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 47317 (holotype), TBGT 2355 (Isotype), 12.i.2005, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Palode, JNTBGRI Campus, Arboretum, on leaves of Pleurostylia sp. (Celastraceae), T. Sabu.

Asteridiella pleurostyliae (Berk. & Br.) Hansf. is known on Pleurostylia spp. from South Africa.  However, Meliola pleurostylicola differs from it in having mycelial setae. Meliola pleurostylicola differs from Meliola lophopetalii Stev. ex Hansf., M. daliasica Petrak, M. bhesae Hosag. and M. celastracearum Hosag. & Dayal in having only alternate appressoria (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996).  It also differs from all the Meliola species known on the members of Celastraceae in having 3-septate ascospores, only alternate appressoria and acute to obtuse tip of the mycelial setae (Hansford 1961, Hosagoudar 1996).  It differs from M. chennaiana Hosag. & Goos in having shorter appressoria with entire head cells, phialides mixed with appressoria and smaller ascospores (Goos & Hosagoudar 1998).

 

Meliola premnigena Hosag. & Riju, Plant pathology & Quarantine 1(2): 127, 2011. (Fig. 96)

Colonies epiphyllous, velvety, up to 5mm in diam. Hyphae flexuous to crooked, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, cells 15–25×5–8 μm.  Appressoria alternate, unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 15–23 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–8 μm long; head cells globose, subglobose, entire to sublobate, 10–18 × 7–13 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite, alternate to unilateral, ampulliform, 14–23×4–6 μm. Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight, slightly curved to uncinate, up to 300μm long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 150μm in diam.; ascospores cylindrical to oblong, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 32–38×12–15 μm.

Material examined: TBGT 5069 (holotype), 10.i.2011, Kerala, Wayanad, Padinharathara, Banasura mala, on leaves of Premna glaberrima Wight (Verbenaceae), M.C. Riju.  Part of the collection has been deposited in HCIO, New Delhi.

Based on the alternate appressoria and simple setae, this species comes close to M. cookeana Speg. and M. premnae Hansf.  However, it differs from the former in not having inflated, dentate or furcate apex of mycelial setae.  It differs from the latter in having straight hyphae and mycelial setae in contrast to flexuous, crooked, uncinate and twisted mycelia setae (Hansford 1961).  It also differs from M. premnicola in having only obtuse mycelia setae in contrast to variously dentate ones (Hosagoudar 1996).

 

Meliola pseudarthriae var. indica Hosag. & Jacob Thomas, J. Appl. & Nat. Sci. 2: 104, 2010. (Fig. 97)

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to undulate, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, closely reticulate, cells 12.8–25.6x6.4–8 Ám.  Appressoria alternate to opposite, antrorse to spreading, straight to curved, 9.617.6 Ám long;. stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3.26.4 Ám long; head cells globose to subglobose, ovate, cylindrical, entire, 6.414.4x814.4 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14.420.8x6.48 Ám. Mycelial setae , numerous, scattered, simple, straight to slightly curved, acute, dentate to cristate at the tip, up to 600 Ám long. Perithecia scattered, globose, up to 160Ám in diam.; ascospores cylindrical to obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 35.240x12.816 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 49360 (holotype), TBGT 3605 (isotype), 15.iii.2008, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary, near Kombe, on leaves of Pseudarthria viscida (L) Wight & Arn. (Fabaceae), Jacob Thomas.

This variety differs from var. pseudarthriae in having dentate to cristate mycelia setae.

 

Meliola psophocarpi Hosag. & Riju, J. Threatened Taxa 2(4): 826, 2010. (Image. 10, Fig. 98)

Colonies foliicolous, fructicolous, epiphyllous, thin, scattered, up to 3Ám in diam., often confluent. Hyphae undulating, branching mostly opposite at wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 1133x47 Ám. Appressoria alternate, unilateral, up to 3%, opposite, straight to slightly curved, subantrorse to retrorse, 1120 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 211 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, 811 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate, opposite, unilateral, ampulliform, 1320x69 Ám.  Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight to slightly curved, acute to obtuse, up to 360 Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 130Ám in diam., ascospores cylindrical, 4 septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 3338x811 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 48174 (holotype), TBGT 2910 (isotype), 30.ix.2007, on leaves of Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L. (Fabaceae), 16th mile, Padinharathara, Wayanad, Kerala, M.C. Riju.

Psophocarpus tetragonolobus is a climbing shrub, native of South East Asia, has been extensively cultivated in the backyards for its quadrangular pods used in the culinary purposes.  The leaves of this plant is being infected with the black mildew fungus and is similar to M. nyanzae in having the same digital formula but differs from it in not being a strong parasite in producing pathogenic symptoms (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996; Hu et al. 1996, 1999).

 

Meliola pterigotae Hosag., Agarwal, H. Biju & Archana, Indian Phytopath. 59: 347, 2006. (Fig. 99)

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 3mm in diam., confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching alternate to opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 2432x68 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to subantrorse, 1423 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 310 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, oblong, mostly entire, often angular to rarely slightly lobate, 1115x911 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 1421x810 Ám.  Mycelial setae scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, flexuous to rarely curved, very few uncinate, obtuse at the tip, up to 440Ám long.  Perithecia scattered to loosely grouped, up to 120Ám diam.; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 3236x1113 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 46238 (holotype), TBGT 1650 (isotype), 15.xi.2003, Karnataka, South Canara, Kukke Subramanya, on leaves of Pterygota alata (Roxb.) R. Br. (Sterculiaceae), V.B. Hosagoudar et al.

Based on the Beeli formula 3111.3222 and flexuous mycelial setae, M. pterigotae is closer to M. pterospermicola Stev. & Rold. reported on Pterospermum obliquum from Philippines but differs from it in having smaller but dense colonies, shorter appressoria and longer mycelial setae (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar1996; Hosagoudar et al. 1997).

 

Meliola pycnosporae Hosag. & Archana, J. Threatened Taxa 1: 348, 2009. (Fig. 100).

Colonies amphigenous, caulicolous, dense, up to 2mm in diam.  Hyphae substraight, flexuous to crooked, branching alternate, opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 1928x68 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, about 2% opposite, antrorse to subantrorse, 1116 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 35 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, straight to curved, entire, 811x710Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 1924x810 Ám.  Mycelial setae few, scattered, simple, straight, obtuse at the tip, up to 300Ám long. Perithecia scattered, up to 120Ám in diam.; ascospores oblong, cylindrical, 4-septate, very slightly constricted at the septa, 3032x911 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 46244 (holotype), TBGT 1656 (isotype), 14.xii.2003, Kerala, Palghat, Silent Valley, on the way to Chempathy, on leaves of Pycnospora lutescens (Poir.) Schindl. (Fabaceae), V.B. Hosagoudar et al.

Based on the Beeli formula 3113.3221, this species is close to Meliola erythrinae-microptericis Hansf. known on Erythrina micropteryx from San Domingo, but differs from it in having only 2% opposite appressoria, have straight setae and distinctly narrow ascospores (Hansford 1961).

 

Meliola rachammae Hosag., Riju & Agarwal, Indian Phytopath. 63: 77, 2010. (Fig. 101)

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, crustose, up to 5mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight, branching opposite at wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 815x68 Ám.  Appressoria opposite, antrorse, 1621 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 37 Ám long; head cells globose, ovate, entire, 1115x811 Ám. Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to unilateral, ampulliform, 1627x710 Ám.  Mycelial setae simple, straight to slightly curved, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 690Ám long. Perithecia scattered, globose, up to 185Ám in diameter; ascospores cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 5053x2023 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 49199 (holotype), TBGT 3438 (isotype), 30.vii.2008, Kerala, Palakkad, Sailent Valley National Park, Cheriyavalakkad, on leaves of Symplocos macrocarpa ssp. kanarana (Talbot) Nooteb. (Symplocaceae), M.C. Riju et al.

There are seven taxa known on the members of the family Symplocaceae (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996, 2008; Hosagoudar et al. 1997; Hosagoudar and Agarwal, 2008).  Of these, the present species can be compared with Meliola bissei in having both alternate and opposite appressoria.  However, the present new species differs from all in having regularly opposite appressoria.

 

Meliola rapaneae Sydow, Ann. Mycol. 26: 87, 1928; Hansf, Sydowia Beih. 2: 510, 1961. (Fig. 102)

Colonies hypophyllous, dense, velvety, up to 5mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to crooked, branching mostly opposite at acute angles, closely reticulate, cells 1621x710 Ám.  Appressoria alternate to opposite, straight to curved, antrorse to spreading, retrorse, 1422 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 25 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose to subglobose, cylindrical, clavate, entire, 917x912 Ám. Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 1926x712 Ám.  Mycelial setae fairly numerous, scattered to grouped around perithecia, straight to curved but not uncinate, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 700Ám long. Perithecia scattered to grouped, verrucose, up to 180Ám in diam.; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 5055x1417 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 49035, TBGT 3290, 3.iii.2008, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary, Pongalappara, on leaves of Rapanea sp. (Myrsinaceae), Jacob Thomas et al.

Meliola rapaneae Sydow was known on Rapanea umbellata from British north Borneo and was known only from its holotype locality and the present record reveals it extended distribution.

In the present collection, ascospores were narrower than the holotype.

 

Meliola sairandhriana Hosag. & Archana, J. Threatened Taxa 1: 348, 2009. (Fig. 103)

Colonies amphigenous, mostly hypophyllous, dense, velvety, up to 5mm in diam.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching alternate to unilateral at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 1932x68 Ám.  Appressoria opposite, rarely solitary, straight to curved, antrorse, subantrorse to retrorse, 1418 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 35 Ám long; head cells ovate, oblong, cylindrical, entire, angular, sublobate to often bilobed, 1113x812 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 1923x810 Ám.  Mycelial setae many, grouped around perithecia, simple, sigmoid, curved to uncinate at the apical portion, acute, obtuse to bifid at the tip, up to 345Ám long. Perithecia loosely grouped, up to 196Ám in diam.; ascospores oval, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 3640x2023 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 46139 (holotype), TBGT 1902 (isotype), 13.xii.2003, Kerala, Palghat, Silent Valley, Sairandhri, on leaves of Aglaia minutiflora Bedd. (Meliaceae), V.B. Hosagoudar et al.

Based on the uncinate mycelial setae, M. sairandhriana can be compared to M. reinwardtiodendri Hosag. known on Reinwardtiodendron anamallayanam from the Western Ghats region but differs from it in having amphigenous colonies, simple to dentate mycelial setae and smaller ascospores (Hosagoudar 1996).

 

Meliola salaciicola Hosag., Agarwal, H. Biju & Archana, Indian Phytopathol. 60: 85, 2007. (Fig. 104)

Colonies amphigenous, subdense, up to 2mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight to sub straight, branching mostly opposite to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 1429x68 Ám. Appressoria mostly alternate, up to 1% opposite, unilateral , antrorse to sub-antrorse, straight to slightly curved, 1219 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 36 Ám long; head cells globose, ovate, oblong, entire to slightly angular, straight, 816x610 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, ampulliform, opposite, alternate to unilateral, 1224x611 Ám.  Mycelial setae numerous, simple, straight, curved to arcuate, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 510Ám long.  Perithecia globose, grouped, up to 245Ám in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 4048x1618 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 46307 (holotype), TBGT 1953 (isotype), 13.xii.2003, Kerala, Palakkad, Silent Valley, Sairandhiri, on leaves of Salacia sp. (Hippocrataceae), V.B. Hosagoudar et al.

This species differs from all the Meliola species known on the members of the host family Hippocrataceae in having curved to arcuate mycelial setae (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996; Hosagoudar et al. 1997).

 

Meliola sanjappae Hosag., Jacob Thomas & Agarwal, Nelumbo 52: 7, 2010. (Fig. 105)

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 4mm in diameter, scattered.  Hyphae straight, branching opposite at wide angles, closely reticulate and form a mycelial net, cells 1735x1013 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, up to 5% opposite, antrorse to retrorse, straight to curved, 2024 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 410 Ám long; head cells cylindrical to clavate, curved, entire, truncate, angular to rarely sublobate, 1622x916 Ám. Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 1116x811 Ám.  Mycelial setae scattered, fairly numerous, simple, straight, dichotomously branched, up to 250Ám long up to first branching, first ray up to 70Ám long, second ray up to 5Ám long, acute to dentate at the tip, branches reflexed. Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 180Ám in diameter; ascospores obovoidal to subellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 4450x2023 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 49043 (holotype), TBGT 3298 (isotype), 5.iii.2008, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary, Kombe, on leaves of Semecarpus travancorica Bedd. (Anacardiaceae), Jacob Thomas.

Meliola tapiriae Stev. & Tehon and M.brachydenta Sydow var. dammeri Hansf. are the two taxa reported on Tapiria sp. and Rhus villosa from British Guiana and Uganda having dichotomously branched mycelial setae.  However, the new species differs from both in having alternate and opposite appressoria and differ in ascospore measurements (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996; Hosagoudar et al. 1997; Hosagoudar & Agarwal, 2008).

 

Meliola shillongensis Hosag., Jacob. & Robin, Indian J. Sci. Technol. 2 (6): 4, 2009. (Fig. 106)

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 3mm in diameter.  Hyphae substraight to undulate, branching alternate to opposite at acute to wide angles, closely reticulate and form a mycelial mat at the centre, cells 1925x79 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to retrorse, straight to curved, closely placed, 22-34 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 7-12 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose to subglobose, entire, 14–22x9–12 Ám.  Phialides few in number, mixed with appressoria, opposite, ampulliform, 21–29x7–10 Ám.  Mycelial setae numerous, grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, slightly curved, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 620Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, globose, verrucose, up to 170Ám in diam.; ascospores oblong to obovoidal, cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 19–31x10–12 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 48065 (holotype), TBGT 2848 (isotype), 21.i.2007, Meghalaya, Shillong, Mawphlang, on the leaves of Vaccinium griffithianum Wight (Vacciniaceae), Jacob Thomas & P.J. Robin.

Based on the morphology and measurements, M. shillongensis closer to M. vaccinii Stev. known on Vaccinium reticulatum from Hawaii (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar et al. 1997).  However, differs from it in having only alternate and shorter appressoria and smaller ascospores.

 

Meliola sterculicola Hosag. & Robin, J. Threatened Taxa 3(5): 1782, 2011. (Fig. 107)

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching mostly opposite at wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 19–26x4–7 Ám.  Appressoria mostly alternate, unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 21–26 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–10 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, angular to slightly lobate, 19–14x10–12 Ám.  Phialides borne on a separate mycelia branch, opposite, alternate to unilateral, ampulliform, 14–24x5–7 Ám.  Mycelial setae few, simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 480Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, globose, up to 110Ám in diameter; ascospores oblong, ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 34–41x14–17 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 48143 (holotype), TBGT 2879 (isotype), 22.xii.2006, Kerala, Kottayam, Placherry, Ponthanpuzha, on leaves of Sterculia sp. (Sterculiaceae), P.J. Robin & M. Harish.

Based on the digital formula 3111.3222, it can be compared with Meliola sterculiacearum Hosag. & Kamar. known on the same host genus from Wayanad in Western Ghats.  However, the present new species differs from it in having longer appressoria with angular to sublobate head cells and phialides borne on a separate mycelia branch (Hosagoudar 2005).

 

Meliola strebli Hosag. & Archana, J. Threatened Taxa 1: 349, 2009. (Fig. 108)

Colonies amphigenous, mostly hypophyllous, dense, velvety, up to 3mm diam., confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching alternate to opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 20–24x6–8 Ám.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, distantly placed, antrorse, subantrorse to rarely retrorse, 17–21Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–6Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, straight to curved, 11–15x9–11 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 16–19x8–10 Ám.  Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 735Ám long.  Perithecia scattered to loosely grouped, up to 212Ám diam.; ascospores oblong, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 40–44x16–18 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 46162 (holotype), TBGT 1574 (isotype); TBGT 1605, HCIO 46193, 24.xi.2004, Kerala, Kollam, Sankili forest, Shendhurney Wildlife Sanctuary, near Sasthanada tribal colony, on leaves of Streblus taxoides (Heyne ex Roth) Kurz (Moraceae), V.B. Hosagoudar et al.; TBGT 1889, HCIO 46126, Kollam, Shendhurney Wildlife Sanctuary, Sankili forest, on leaves of S. asper Lour., V.B. Hosagoudar et al.; TBGT 1893, HCIO 46130, Tribal colony, Sasthanamada, on leaves of Streblus sp., V.B. Hosagoudar et al. 

Based on the digital formula 3111.4233, this species can be compared with Meliola ficium Yates and its variety var. ugandensis Hansf. However, M. strebli differs from M. ficium in having narrow ascospores and having longer mycelial setae (3111.4333). It also differs from M. ficium Yates var. ugandensis Hansf. in having shorter appressoria and larger ascospores (Hansford 1961).

 

Meliola  strombosiicola nom. nov. Meliola strombosiae Hosag., Agarwal, H. Biju & Archana, Indian Phytopath. 59: 348, 2006 (non Ciferri, 1954).

(Fig. 109; MycoBank 803917)

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, up to 1mm in diam. Hyphae straight, substraight to flexuous, branching alternate to opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 16–20x6–8 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse, 20–32 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–10 Ám long; head cells ovate, oblong, entire, broadly rounded to truncate to attenuated at the apex, 16–24x6–8 Ám.  Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 650Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 120Ám in diam.; ascospores cylindrical to ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 36-40x15–17 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 45972 (Holotype), TBGT 1736 (Isotype), 15.xi.2003, Karnataka, South Canara, Kukke Subramanya, on leaves of Strombosia ceylanica Garden. (Olacaceae), V.B. Hosagoudar et al.

Etymology: Based on the host genus

Hansford (1946) proposed Irenina strombosiae on Strombosia scheffleri from Uganda.  Ciferri (1954) transferred this taxon to Meliola strombosiae (Hansf.) Cif. Hansford (1961) regarded the new combination of Ciferri (1954) are entirely unnecessary and superfluous Ďname-makingË.  Subsequent notable works of Hu et al. (1996, 1999), Hosgoudar (1996, 2008), Mibey & Hawksworth (1997) have followed Hansford (1961). Since Meliola strombosiae Hosag. et al. is the homonym of Meliola strombosiae (Hansf.) Cif., a new name has been proposed here.

 

Meliola strombosiigena Hosag. & Riju, J. Threatened Taxa 3(3): 1618, 2011. (Fig. 110)

Colonies amphigenous, mostly hypophyllous, dense, velvety, up to 4mm diam., confluent.  Hyphae flexuous to undulate, branching opposite to alternate at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 15–25x5–10 μm.  Appressoria alternate, opposite to unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, rarely retrorse, 17–28 μm long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–8 μm long; head cells oblong to cylindrical, straight to flexuously curved, entire, 10–20x5–8 μm.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate, opposite to unilateral, ampulliform, 20–30x6–8 μm.  Mycelial setae straight to curved, scattered, acute at the tip, up to 720μm long; Perithecia scattered in the colonies, up to 240μm in diam.; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 50–55x20–23 μm.

Material examined: TBGT 4515 (holotype), HCIO 50598 (isotype), New Delhi, (MycoBank # 561023), 01.viii.2008, Kerala, Palakkad, Silent Valley National Park, Cheriavalakkad, on leaves of Strombosia sp. (Olacaceae), M.C. Riju et al.

Meliola strobosiae Hosag. et al. is known on Strombosia ceylonica from Kukke Subramanya, Karnataka (Hosagoudar 2008).  However, the present new species differs from it in having narrow head cells (5–8 μm against 8–12 μm) and larger spores (50–55 x 20–23 against 36–40 x 15–17 μm).  The specific epithet is derived from the host genus.

 

Meliola strophanthicola Hansf. var. indica Hosag. & Jacob Indian J. Sci. Technol. 2(6): 23, 2009. (Fig. 111)

Colonies amphigenous, dense, velvety, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae substraight to undulate, branching mostly opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 19–26x5–7 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to subantrorse, spreading, 17–24 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 6–9 Ám long; head cells cylindrical, ovate, entire, 11–15x6–9 Ám. Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 13-18 x 5-7 Ám.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, straight to curved, acute at the tip, up to 480Ám long. Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 170Ám in diam.; ascospores cylindrical to subellipsoidal, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 33–38x11–16 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 48017 (holotype), TBGT 2800 (isotype), 1.ii.2007, Kerala, Pathanamthitta, Kozhencherry, St. Thomas College Campus, on leaves of Strophathus wightianus Wallich ex Wight (Apocynaceae),  Jacob Thomas.

Two species of the genus Meliola, M. monilispora Gaill. and M. strophanthicola Hansf. are known on the host genus Strophanthus from Congo Francoise and Uganda (Hansford 1961).  The present collection differs from the former species in having only acute mycelial setae in contrast to all dentate ones.  It is similar to the later species but the new variety differs from the var. strophanthicola in having distinctly smaller ascospores (33–38x11–16 Ám) in contrast to 42–46x15–17 Ám.

 

Meliola tabernaemontanae Speg. var. wrightiae Hosag., Agarwal, H. Biju & Archana, Indian Phytopath. 59: 349, 2006. (Fig. 112)

Colonies amphigenous, sub-dense, up to 2mm in diameter, scattered.  Hyphae straight to sub straight, branching opposite at wide angles, loosely reticulate, cells 12–35x4–8 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse, recurved, straight to slightly curved,14–19 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 3–5 Ám long; head cells, ovate, oblong, entire,11–14x6–10 Ám.  Phialides mixed with to obtuse appressoria, ampulliform, opposite, alternate, 12–19x3–8 Ám.  Mycelial setae, simple, acute at the tip, up to 363Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 100 Ám in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, 35–45x14–18 Ám.

Material examined: HCIO 46142  (type), TBGT 1905 (isotype), 13.xi.2003, On leaves of Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) R. Br. (Apocynaceae), MPCA, Talakaveri, Karnataka, India, V.B. Hosagoudar et al.

This variety differs from the species type in having straight apical portion of the mycelial setae and larger ascospores.

 

Meliola vallaridis Hosag., Sabeena., Archana. & Jacob. J. Scient. Trans. Environ. Techn. 1: 69, 2007. (Iamge. 11, Fig. 113)

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, caulicolous, ramicolous, dense, crustose to velvety, up to 2mm in diam., confluent.  Hyphae straight, substraight to flexuous, branching mostly opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to very closely reticulate, often form solid mycelial mat, cells 11–18x4–7 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, less than 1% opposite, antrorse to subantrorse, 17–22 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 4–8 Ám long; head cells ovate, oblong to cylindrical, often narrowed towards apex, entire, 11–16x6–9 Ám.  Phialides numerous, mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 13–22x4–7 Ám.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered to grouped around perithecia, simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 450Ám long.  Perithecia closely scattered, up to 165Ám in diam.; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, deeply constricted at the septa, 30–37x11–16 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO (holotype), TBGT 2832 (isotype), 8.ii.2007, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Palode, JNTBGRI campus, on leaves of Vallaris solanacea (Roth.) Kuntze (Apocynaceae), Sabeena et al.; TBGT 867, HCIO 44580, 05.i.2001, H. Biju; Thiruvananthapuram, Govt. Museum (Zoo), TBGT 1120, HCIO 44892, 28.xii.2002, G. Rajkumar.

Meliola tabernaemontanicola Hansf. & Thirum. was described on Tabernaemontana sp. from Balehonnur, Karnataka (Hansford and Thirumalachar, 1948). Kar and Maity (1972) collected Meliola sp. on Vallaris solanacea from Mallickput, West Bengal and attributed it to M. tabernaemontanicola.  Hosagoudar (1996) procured the slide of the same from IMI (no. 139202) and also placed it under M. tabernaemontanicola. The present collections differ from the assigned species in causing pathological effect in producing yellow haloes around the colonies, infecting leaf petioles, soft and younger stem portions, causing ďshot-holesŇ and turning the infected leaves yellow and result in withering of such leaves.

 

Meliola vatsavayae Hosag. & Riju, Indian J. Sci. Technol. 2(6): 25, 2009. (Image. 12, Fig. 114)

Colonies amphigenous, dense, velvety, scattered to confluent, up to 4mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight, branching opposite at acute to wide angles, closely reticulate, cells 13–18x6–11 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, rarely unilateral, often crowded, antrorse, straight, 24–40 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 8–13Ám long; head cells ovate, angular, sinuately lobate to deeply lobate, 15–27x9–18 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, mostly opposite, rarely alternate to unilateral, ampulliform, 22–31x4–9 Ám.  Mycelial setae straight to slightly curved, scattered to grouped around perithecia, obtuse at the tip, up to 270Ám long. Perithecia scattered, up to 110Ám in diam.; ascospores cylindrical to slightly ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 37–44x15–20 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 48299 (holotype), TBGT 3018 (holotype), 22.iii.2008, Kerala, Wayanad, Padinharathara, 16th mile, on leaves of Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb) DC. (Rutaceae), M.C. Riju.

Based on the digital formula 3113.4221, this species can be compared with M. toddaliicola Hansf. and M.toddaliicola Hanf. indica Hansf. & Thirum. known on the host genus Toddalia from Uganda and respectively. However, the present new species differs from both in having angular, sinuately to deeply lobate head cells of the appressoria (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996, 2008; Hosagoudar et al. 1997).

This species is named in honour of Prof. Vatsavaya S. Raju, Professor in Kakatiya University, Warangal, Andhra Pradesh, whose association and friendship triggered interest of the senior author (VBH) in this group around three decades ago.

 

Meliola vazhachalensis Hosag. & Jacob, Indian J. Sci. Technol. 2(6): 24, 2009. (Fig. 115)

Colonies epipyllous, subdense, velvety, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight, branching opposite at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 12–28x5–7 Ám.  Appressoria opposite, antrorse, to subantrorse to spreading, 12–17 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–5 Ám long; head cells ovate, cylindrical, slightly attenuated and broadly rounded at the apex, entire, 9–15x7–10 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–22x5–9 Ám.  Mycelial setae grouped around perithecia, simple, uncinate to slightly coiled, acute at the tip, up to 220Ám long. Perithecia scattered, verrucose, up to 140Ám in diam.; ascospores cylindrical to obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 28–36x12–15 Ám.

Materials examined: HCIO 48206 (holotype), TBGT 2942 (isotype), 12.xi.2007, On leaves of Aglaia sp. (Meliaceae), Lower Sholayar, Vazhachal, Thrissur, Kerala, Jacob Thomas et al.

This species can be compared with Meliola reinwardtiodendri Hosag. known on Reinwardtiodendron anamallayanum (Bedd.) from Anamalai forests, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu having opposite appressoria with uncinate mycelial setae. The new species differs from it having distinctly attenuated head cells of appressoria in contrast to broadly rounded to truncate ones (Hosagoudar 1996).

 

 

References

 

Biju, C.K., V.B. Hosagoudar & T.K. Abraham (2005). Meliolaceae of Kerala, India - XV. Nova Hedwigia 80: 465–502.

Ciferri, R. (1954). Meliolae of Santo Domingo. Mycopathologia 7: 81–211.

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