New records of Tubulifera (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) from the state of Karnataka, India

 

Kaomud Tyagi

 

Zoological Survey of India, M-Block, New Alipore, Kolkata, West Bengal 700053, India

Email: kumud.tyagi5@gmail.com

 

 

 

Date of publication (online): 26 May 2012

Date of publication (print): 26 May 2012

ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print)

 

Editor: R. Varatharajan

 

Manuscript details:

Ms # o2934

Received 03 September 2011

Final received 28 March 2012

Finally accepted 27 April 2012

 

Citation: Tyagi, K. (2012). New records of Tubulifera (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) from the state of Karnataka, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 4(5): 2596–2602.

 

Copyright: © Kaomud Tyagi 2012. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.

 

Acknowledgement: Author thanks Dr. J. Poorani for her encouragement and moral support. Financial support for this work was provided by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) through ICAR Network Project on Insect Biosystematics.

 

Abbreviations: NBAII - National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects, Bangalore

 

 

 

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The family Phlaeothripidae is the sole family of the suborder Tubulifera, the largest family of Thysanoptera. It includes 3500 species reported from all over the world, of which only 10% are recorded from India (Tyagi & Kumar 2011).  The family Phaleothripidae is classified into two subfamilies, Phlaeothripinae and Idolothripinae.  The members of Phaleothripinae are distinguished from Idolothripinae by the following characters: (a) slender maxillary stylets, (b) presence of pore plate on median sternites in many species, (c) short and stout S2 setae on abdominal tergite IX and (d) the presence of maxillary guides.  So far 50 species in 34 genera have been reported from Karnataka (Ananthakrishnan & Sen 1980; Tyagi & Kumar 2011).  In surveys for Thysanoptera in different parts of Karnataka, 13 species are being reported here for the first time from Karnataka and they include leaf-feeders, flower dwellers, predators, and a few being gall inducers.

Material and Methods: Specimens were preserved in collecting fluid (9 parts 10% alcohol+1 part glacial acetic acid+1 ml Triton X-100 in 1000ml of the mixture).  The photographs were taken through an Leica stero zoom Microscope (Leica M 205A) and using Leica software application suite (LAS V3.8).  Specimens were mounted in Canada balsam for permanent preservation.  The specimens were collected at random, subsequently sorted out and identified with the help of the standard key available for Indian fauna (Ananthakrishnan & Sen 1980).

 

Aleurodothrips fasciapennis Franklin

(Image 1)

Aleurodothrips fasciapennis Franklin, 1909, Ent. News, 228.

Material studied: One male, 14.x.2006, Ficus sp., Udupi, Hullikal Ghat, Karnataka, India; one male, 09.v.2008, Mangifera indica, Hessarghatta, Bengaluru, leg. Kaomud Tyagi; one male, 4.x.2006, ornamental plant, NBAII, Bengaluru, leg. S.K. Rajeshwari; one female, 30.ix.2007, mango galls, Ravi Shankar Farm, Thalghatpura, leg. Ankita Gupta (2011/Thy/ Tub/201, 202, 203, 204-NBAII).

Diagnosis: Bicoloured body with banded wings, notopleural sutures absent, pelta divided into three parts and fore femora of male with distinctive tooth.  It is a predator of scale insects and immature stages of whitefly (Mound & Marullo 1996).

Distribution: India: Karnataka (new record), Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal.

 

Arrhenothrips ramakrishnae Hood

(Image 2)

Arrhenothrips ramakrishnae Hood, 1919, Insecut. Inscit. Menstr. 99.

Material studied: Eight females, one male, three pupae, 25.x.2005, unidentified plant,  Hessarghatta, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, leg. Vikas Kumar & Kaomud Tyagi; five females and two males, 17.i.2006, unidentified plant, Nandi Hills, leg. Kaomud Tyagi (2011/Thy/Tub/205 to 222-NBAII).

Diagnosis: Dark blackish-brown body, notopleural sutures complete, fore femora broader than head, fore tibia apex with bifid tooth and fore tarsus with well developed tooth.

Distribution: India: Karnataka (new record), Tamil Nadu, West Bengal.

 

Bamboosiella varia (Ananthakrishnan & Jagadish)

(Image 3)

Xenothrips varius Ananthakrishnan & Jagadish, 1969, Zool. 182(1–2): 132.

Material studied: One female, 23.iv.2008, Bamboo, Magadi near to Bengaluru, leg.  Kaomud Tyagi, (2011/Thy/Tub/223-NBAII).

Diagnosis: Brown body, postocular setae expanded apically, maxillary stylets short and confined to the mouth cone, pronotal anteromarginals setae well developed and expanded at apex, notopleural sutures complete, fore tarsus with tooth and S1 setae on tergite IX expanded apically and S2 setae pointed.

Distribution: India: Karnataka (new record), Kerala, Uttar Pradesh.

 

Byctothrips ayyari  Ananthakrishnan

(Image 4)

Byctothrips ayyari Ananthakrishnan, 1973, Oriental Ins. 7: 540.

Material studied: Ten females, 16.ii.2006, Unidentified plant, Malaya Maaruta (20km west from Mudigree), Chikmagalur, Karnataka, India leg. Shivprakash (2011/Thy/Tub/224 to 233-NBAII).

Diagnosis: Brown body, prothorax 1.4 times broader than head, notopleural sutures complete, basantral plates absent, fore femora strongly enlarged, fore tibia very short and with tooth at apex and fore tarsus with tooth in both sexes.

Distribution: India: Karnataka (new record), Tamil Nadu.

 

Dixothrips onerosus Ananthakrishnan

(Image 5)

Dixothrips onerosus Ananthakrishnan, 1969, Oriental Ins. 3: 294. 

Material studied: 10 females, 08.vi.2010, galls of Terminalia chebula, Savandurga, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, leg. Umeshkumar (2011/Thy/Tub/234 to 243-NBAII).

Diagnosis: Body brown, notopleural sutures complete, basal wing setae (S1, S2 and S3) of fore wing arranged peculiarly, S2 setae just below the S1 setae, antennal segments globular and tube much longer than head.

Distribution: India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka (new record), Kerala.

 

Dolichothrips citripes (Bagnall)

Neoheegeria citripes Bagnall, 1921, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9)7: 360–361.

Material studied: One female and two males, 17.ix.2009, Abutilon, Kolar, Karnataka, India, leg. Kaomud Tyagi (2011/Thy/Tub/244, 245, 246-NBAII).

Diagnosis: Brown body, pronotal anteroangular setae close to anteromarginal setae and midlateral setae much smaller than other major setae and presence of 3 pairs of sigmoid setae on tergite II to VII.

Distribution: India: Bihar, Chandigarh, Delhi, Karnataka (new record), Orissa.

 

Ecacanthothrips tibialis Bagnall

Ecacanthothrips tibialis Bagnall, 1909, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 52: 348.

Material studied: Three females and three males, 06.viii.2010, dry twigs of coconut, Shettahalli, Tumkur, Karnataka, India; one female and two males, 12.viii.2009, dead branches, Tumkur; one male, 22.vi.2010, Artocarpus altilis, Somnathanahalli, Bengaluru, leg. Kaomud Tyagi (2011/Thy/ Tub/256 to 265-NBAII).

Diagnosis: Antennal segment III with 10 sense cones, pelta triangular, mid and hind femur with three stout capitates setae on anterior margin and fore femora of male with a pair of apical tubercle.

Distribution: India: Assam, Karnataka (new record), Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, deposited in NBAII, Bangalore, Karnataka.

 

Gynaikothrips bengalensis Ananthakrishnan

(Image 6)

Gynaikothrips bengalensis Ananthakrishnan, 1973, Oriental Ins. 7: 543.

Material studied: 13 females and four males, 11.viii.2008, galls of Ficus benjamina, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, leg. Sunil Joshi; six females, January 2008, galls of unidentified plant; four females and one male, 21.ix.2010, galls of Ficus sp., Rajunukunte,  leg. Kaomud Tyagi (2011/Thy/Tub/266 to 293-NBAII).

Diagnosis: Pronotum with twisted striae, all dorsal prothoracic setae well developed, head with two pairs of postocular setae, outer pair longer than inner; mouthcone broadly rounded, fore tarsus with tooth in both sexes, S1 and S2 setae on tergite IX pointed apically and tube longer than head.

Distribution: India: Karnataka (new record), Manipur, Nagaland, West Bengal.

 

Gynaikothrips uzeli (Zimmerman)

(Image 7)

Mesothrips uzeli Zimmerman, 1900, Bull. Inst. Bot. Buit. 7: 12.

Material studied: Four females, 15.vi.2010, galls of Ficus retusa, Devarayanadurga, Tumkur, Karnataka, India, leg. Kaomud Tyagi (2011/Thy/ Tub/294 to 297-NBAII).

Diagnosis: Pronotum with twisted striae, pronotal anteroangulars and anteromarginals subequal and short as also midlaterals and posteroangulars, only epimeral setae long and well developed, head with two pairs of postocular setae, mouthcone broadly rounded, fore tarsus with tooth in both sexes, S1 and S2 setae on tergite IX pointed apically and tube longer than head.

Distribution: India: Assam, Karnataka (new record), Orissa, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal.

 

Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones)

(Image 8)

Anthothrips flavipes Jones, 1912, U.S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent., Tech Ser. 23(1): 18–19.

Material studied: One female, 31.x.2005, vitex negundo, IIHR, Hessarghatta, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India; one female, 06.vi.2006, mixed vegetation; one female, 02.v.2006, Premna obtusifolia, leg. Kaomud Tyagi (2011/Thy/Tub/298,299, 300-NBAII).

Diagnosis: Body dark blackish-brown, segment III with two and IV with four sense cones, postocular setae expanded at apex, pronotal anteromarginals vestigial, other prothoracic setae well developed and dilated at apex and S1 setae on tergite IX expanded at apex.

Distribution: India: Karnataka (new record).

 

Karnyothrips melaleucus (Bagnall)

(Image 9)

Hindsiana melaleucus Bagnall, 1911, Ent. Mag. 47: 61. 

Material studied: 15 females, 03.xii.2006, Hibiscus, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India; 11 females, 06.v.2008, grass clumps, Hessarghatta; two  females, 23.iv.2008, Bamboo, Magadi; two females, 20.i.2010, grass clumps, Haroanhalli; one female, 23.iv.2010, dry twigs, GKVK; four females, 14.viii.2006, grass, Bannerghatta, leg. Kaomud Tyagi; one female 15.xii.2006, Hosakote, leg. Ankita Gupta (2011/Thy/Tub/301 to 336-NBAII).

Diagnosis: Body bicoloured, segment III with two and IV with three sense cones, postocular setae expanded at apex, pronotal anteromarginals vestigial, other prothoracic setae well developed and dilated at apex and S1 setae on tergite IX pointed or blunt at apex.

Distribution: India: Assam, Karnataka (new record), Kerala, Tamil Nadu.

 

Mallothrips indica Ramakrishna

(Image 10)

Mallothrips indica Ramakrishna, 1928, Mem. Dept. Agr. India, Ent. Ser. 10(7): 308.

Material studied: Nine females, 09.viii.2007, Syzium cumini, Thalghatpura, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India, leg. Ankita Gupta (2011/Thy/ Tub/337 to 345-NBAII).

Diagnosis: Brown body, maxillary stylets close together in the middle of head, maxillary bridge present, broad, segment III with two and IV with four sense cones, all dorsal prothoracic setae well developed and expanded at apex and S1 and S2 setae on tergite IX pointed.

Distribution: India: Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka (Bangalore, new record).

 

Xylaplothrips ligs Ananthkrishnan & Jagadish

Xylaplothrips ligs Ananthakrishnan & Jagadish, 1971, Zoo. Anz. 186: 261–263.

Material studied: One female, 13.vi.2006, Tegetes erecta, Chikkaballapura, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India,  leg. Kaomud Tyagi (2011/Thy/Tub/346-NBAII).

Diagnosis: Body brown, maxillary stylets retracted far into the head, wide apart; maxillary bridge present, antennal segment III with one and IV with three sense cones and S1 and S2 setae pointed apically.

Distribution: India: Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Karnataka (new record)

 

 

References

 

Ananthakrishnan, T.N. (1969). Mycophagous Thysanoptera-II. Oriental Insects 3: 289–299. 

Ananthakrishnan, T.N. (1973). Further studies on Indian Gall Thrips III. Oriental Insects 7: 539–546. 

Ananthakrishnan, T.N. & A. Jagadish (1969). Studies on the species of Xylaplothrips Priesner from India. Zoologischer Anzieger 182(1–2): 121–133. 

Ananthakrishnan, T.N. & A. Jagadish (1971). Further studies on the mycophagous species of Xylaplothrips Priesner. Zoologischer Anzieger 186: 259–267.

Ananthakrishnan, T. N. & S. Sen (1980). Taxonomy of Indian Thysaoptera—Volume 1. Handbook Series. Zoological Survey of India, 234pp.

Bagnall, R.S. (1909). Synonymical notes; with a description of a new genus of Thysanoptera. Annals de la Societe entomologique de Belge 52: 348–352.

Bagnall, R.S. (1911). Descriptions of three new Scandinavian Thysanoptera (Tubulifera). EntomologistŐs Monthly Magazine 47: 60–63. 

Bagnall, R.S. (1921). Brief descriptions of new Thysanoptera. XI. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (9)7: 355–368. 

Franklin, H.J. (1909). On Thysanoptera. Entomological News 20: 228–231. 

Hood, J.D. (1919). One some new Thysanoptera from Southern India. Insecutor Inscitiae. Menstruus 7: 90–103.

Jones, P.R. (1912). Some new California and Georgia Thysanoptera. Technical series USDA Bureau of Entomology 23(1): 1–24. 

Mound, L.A. & R. Marullo (1996). The thrips of Central and South America: An Introduction. Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–488.

Ramakrishna, T.V. (1928). A contribution to our knowledge of the Thysanoptera of India. Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture in India, Entomology Series 7: 217–316. 

Tyagi, K. & V. Kumar (2011). The Indian species of Liophloeothrips Priesner (Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae) with one new species. Zootaxa 2803: 21–31.

Zimmermann, A. (1900). †ber einige javanische Thysanopteren. Bulletin de lŐInsitut Botanique de Buitenzorg. Java 7: 6–19.