Four new Meliolaceae (Sordariomycetes: Meliolales) members from Kottayam forests in Kerala State, India

 

V.B. Hosagoudar 1 & P.J. Robin 2

 

1,2 Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram 695562, Kerala

Email: 1 vbhosagoudar@rediffmail.com (corresponding author)

 

 

 

Date of publication (online): 26 May 2011

Date of publication (print): 26 May 2011

ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print)

 

Editor: Richard Mibey

 

Manuscript details:

Ms # o2747

Received 05 April 2011

Finally accepted 22 April 2011

 

Citation: Hosagoudar, V.B & P.J. Robin (2011). Four new Meliolaceae (Sordariomycetes: Meliolales) members from Kottayam forests in Kerala State, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(5): 1782–1787.

 

Copyright: ę V.B. Hosagoudar & P.J. Robin 2011. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.

 

Acknowledgements: We thank Director, Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala for providing facilities.

 

 

For figures -- click here

 

During a survey of the foliicolous fungi in the Western Ghats region of Kerala State, authors collected several specimens from the Kottayam forest. Of these, the following five distinct and interesting Meliolaceae taxa are described and illustrated here.   Four taxa do not match with any of the described Meliolaceae members, hence are described as new.

 

 

 

1. Appendiculella elaeocarpicola sp. nov.

(Fig. 1)

 

Materials examined: 04.iii.2007, on leaves of Elaeocarpus tuberculatus Roxb. (Elaeocarpaceae), Chapathu, Ponthanpuzha, Kottayam, Kerala, India, coll. P.J. Robin, HCIO 48808 (holotype), TBGT 3184 (isotype) (MycoBank 561265).

Coloniae epiphyllae, subdensae, ad 3mm diam..  Hyphae rectae vel undulatae, plerumque oppositae acuteque vel laxe ramosae, laxe vel arte reticulatae, cellulae 22–29 x 3–5 Ám. Appressoria alternata, antrorsa vel subantrorsa, 17–19 Ám longa; cellulae basilares cylindraceae vel cuneatae, 5–7 Ám longae; cellulae apicales globosae, ovatae, integrae, 12–14 x 7–10 Ám.  Phialides appressoriis intermixtae, alternatae vel oppositae, ampulliformes, 14–22 x 7–10 Ám.  Perithecia dispersa, globosa, ad 106Ám in diam.; appendages peritheciales conoideae, rectae vel curvulae, striatus horizontalis, attenuatae vel late roundata ad apicem, ad 24Ám longae; ascosporae oblongae vel ellipsoideae, 4-septatae, constrictae ad septatae, 34–38 x 12–14 Ám.

Colonies epiphyllous, subdense, up to 3mm in diameter.  Hyphae straight to undulate, branching mostly opposite at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 22–29 x 3–5 Ám.  Appressoria alternate, antrorse to subantrorse, 17–19 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–7 Ám long; head cells globose, ovate, entire, 12–14 x 7–10 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, 14–22 x 7–10 Ám.  Perithecia scattered, globose, up to 106 Ám in diameter; perithecial appendages conoid, straight to curved, horizontally striated, attenuated to broadly rounded at the apex, up to 24Ám long; ascospores oblong to ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 34–38 x 12–14 Ám.

Asteridiella elaeocarpi-tuberculati Hosag., A. elaeocarpicola Hansf. and Meliola elaeocarpi Yates are known on this host genus (Hansford 1961; Hosagoudar 1996, 2008; Hosagoudar et al. 1997; Hosagoudar & Agarwal 2008).  Appendiculella elaeocarpicola sp. nov. differs from all these species in having perithecial appendages.

Etmology: The specific epithet is based on the host genus.

 

 

2. Meliola sterculicola sp. nov.

(Fig. 2)

 

Materials examined: 22.xii.2006, on leaves of Sterculia sp. (Sterculiaceae), Ponthanpuzha, Placherry, Kottayam, Kerala, India, coll. P.J. Robin & M. Harish HCIO 48143 (holotype), TBGT 2879 (isotype) (MycoBank 561266).

Coloniae epiphyllae, tenues, ad 3mm diam., confluentes.  Hyphae rectae vel subrectae, plerumque oppositae ad laxe ramosae, laxe vel arte reticulatae, cellulae 19–26 x 4–7 Ám.  Appressoria plerumque alternata, unilateralis, antrorsa vel subantrorsa, 21–26 Ám longa; cellulae basilares cylindraceae vel cuneatae, 5–10 Ám longae; cellulae apicales ovatae, globosae, integrae, angularis vel leniter  lobatae,19–14 x 10–12 Ám. Phialides producentes a mycelia separata, oppositae, alternatae vel unilateralis, ampulliformes,14–24 x 5–7 Ám.  Setae paucae, simplices, rectae, acute ad apicem, ad 480Ám longae. Perithecia dispersa, globosa, ad 110Ám diam.; ascosporae oblongae, ellipsoidalae, 4-septatae, constrictus ad septatae, 34–41 x 14–17 Ám.

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching mostly opposite at wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 19–26 x 4–7 Ám.  Appressoria mostly alternate, unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 21–26 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–10 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, angular to slightly lobate,19–14 x 10–12 Ám.  Phialides borne on a separate mycelial branch, opposite, alternate to unilateral, ampulliform,14–24 x 5–7 Ám. Mycelial setae few, simple, straight, acute at the tip, up to 480Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, globose, up to 110Ám in diameter; ascospores oblong, ellipsoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 34–41 x 14–17 Ám.

Based on the digital formula 3111.3222, it can be compared with Meliola sterculiacearum Hosag. & Kamar. known on the same host genus from Wayanad in Western Ghats. However, Meliola sterculicola sp. nov.  differs from it in having longer appressoria with angular to sublobate head cells and phialides borne on a separate mycelia branch (Hosagoudar 2005).

Etmology: The specific epithet is based on the host genus.

 

3. Meliola gouaniae Hansf. var. keralica var. nov.

(Fig.3)

 

Materials examined: 12.iii.2007, on leaves of Gouania sp. (Rhamnaceae), Ponthanpuzha, Kottayam, Kerala, India, P.J. Robin HCIO 48793 (holotype), TBGT 3169 (isotype) (MycoBank 561268).

Affinis Meliola gouniae sed differt a var. gouniae setae myceliales nontorulose, longioribus et dentatus.

Colonies epiphyllous, thin, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching mostly opposite at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 19–29 x 5–7 Ám.  Appressoria mostly alternate, unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 12–17 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–7 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, angular to slightly lobate, 10–14 x 7–10 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, unilateral, ampulliform, 21–29 x 5–7 Ám.  Mycelial setae scattered, simple, straight, obtuse to dentate at the tip, up to 420Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, globose, up to 178Ám in diameter; ascospores obovoidal, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 31–38 x 12–14 Ám.

The present taxon is similar to Meliola gouaniae Hansf. known on Gouania sp. from Sierra Leone and Java.  However, Meliola gouaniae Hansf. var. keralica var. nov. differs from the var. gouaniae in having longer and not torulose but dentate mycelial setae.

Etmology: Named after the collection locality.

 

 

4. Meliola lophopetaligena sp. nov.

(Fig. 4)

 

Materials examined: 09.ix.2007, on leaves of Lophopetalum wightiana Arn. (Celastraceae), Ponthanpuzha, Kottayam, Kerala, India, coll. P.J. Robin HCIO 48792 (holotype), TBGT 3168 (isotype) (MycoBank 561267).

Coloniae epiphyllae, densae, velutinae, ad 4mm diam., confluentes.  Hyphae rectae vel subrectae, plerumque opposite acuteque ramosae, laxe vel arte reticulatae, cellulae 22–31 x 7–12 Ám.  Appressoria opposita, ad 3% alternata, positus ad spatium (pro parte maxima appressoria nulla), arte antrorsa, antrorsa vel subantrorsa, 19–26 Ám longa; cellulae basilares cylindraceae vel cuneatae, 2–7 Ám longae; cellulae apicales ovatae, globosae, integrae, angularis vel leniter lobatae, 10–14 x 7–10 Ám.  Phialides appressoriis intermixtae, oppositae vel alternatae, ampulliformes, 19–26 x 9–12 Ám.  Setae myceliales numerosae, dispersae, simplices, rectae, acutae vel obtusae ad apicem, ad 780Ám longae. Perithecia dispersa, globosa, ad 250Ám diam.; ascosporae oblongae vel cylindraceae, 4-septatae, constrictus ad septatae, 36–46 x 12–17 Ám.

Colonies epiphyllous, dense, velvety, up to 4mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching mostly opposite at acute angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 22–31 x 7–12 Ám.  Appressoria opposite, about 3% alternate, arranged after an intermittent interval (in most places mycelium devoid of appressoria), closely antrorse, antrorse to subantrorse, 19–26 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 2–7 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, entire, angular to slightly lobate, 10–14 x 7–10 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, opposite to alternate, ampulliform, 19–26 x 9–12 Ám.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 780Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, globose, up to 250Ám in diameter; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4-septate, constricted at the septa, 36–46 x 12–17 Ám.

Meliola lophopetali Stev. ex Hansf. is known on Lophopetalum toxicum from Philippines.  However, Meliola lophopetaligena sp. nov. differs from it in having closely arranged longer appressoria arranged after an intermittent intervals, longer mycelial setae and larger ascospores (Hansford 1961).  It also differs from Meliola chennaiana Hosag. & Goos known on Lophopetalum sp. from Chennai, Eastern Ghats in having 3% opposite appressoria, ovate, globose, entire, angular to slightly lobate head cells of the appressoria and phialides mixed with appressoria (Goos & Hosagoudar 1998).

Etmology: The specific epithet is based on the host genus.

 

 

5. Meliola garugae Stev. & Rold., Philippine J. Sci. 56: 67,1935; Hansf., Sydowia Beih. 2: 399, 1961. (Fig. 5)

 

Materials examined: 29.vi.2007, on leaves of Garuga pinnata Roxb. (Burseraceae), Vazhoor, Kottayam, Kerala, India, P.J. Robin HCIO 48791, TBGT 3167.

Colonies amphigenous, mostly epiphyllous, up to 3mm in diameter, confluent.  Hyphae straight to substraight, branching mostly opposite to alternate at acute angles, loosely reticulate, cells 24–36 x 5–7 Ám.  Appressoria alternate to unilateral, antrorse to subantrorse, 14–19 Ám long; stalk cells cylindrical to cuneate, 5–7 Ám long; head cells ovate, globose, entire,10–12 x 7–10 Ám.  Phialides mixed with appressoria, alternate to opposite, ampulliform, neck elongated, 19–24 x7–10 Ám.  Mycelial setae numerous, scattered, straight, dentate, cristate, bifid to obtuse at the tip, up to 370Ám long.  Perithecia scattered, up to 170Ám in diameter; ascospores oblong to cylindrical, 4–septate, constricted at the septa, 36–43 x 14–17 Ám.

This species was known in Garuga sp. from the Philippines and was known only from a single collection (Hansford 1961).  It is reported here for the first time from India on a hitherto unrecorded host species (Hosagoudar 1996, 2008).

 

REFERENCES

 

Goos, R.D. & V.B. Hosagoudar (1998). Meliola chennaiana sp. nov. and some additional records of fungi from India. Mycotaxon 68: 41–46.

Hansford, C.G. (1961). The Meliolineae. A Monograph. Sydowia Beih 2: 1–806.

Hosagoudar, V.B. (1996). Meliolales of India. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, 363pp.

Hosagoudar, V.B. (2005). meliolaceae of kerala, india – xxi. new species and new records. Journal of Mycopathological Research 43: 17–32.

Hosagoudar, V.B. (2008). Meliolales of India. Vol. II. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta, 390pp.

Hosagoudar, V.B. & D.K. Agarwal (2008). Taxonomic Studies of Meliolales. Identification Manual. International Book Distributors, Dehra Dun, 263pp.   

Hosagoudar, V.B., T.K. Abraham & P. Pushpangadan (1997). The Meliolineae - A Supplement. Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India, 201pp.