Description of a new species of Netomocera Bouček (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India, with a key to world species
Zoological Survey of India, Western Ghat Regional Centre, Kozhikode, Kerala 673006, India
Namdapha National Park is located in the Changlang District of Arunachal Pradesh located within 27023Õ-27039ÕN & 96015Õ-96058ÕE. The area lies within the northeastern India which is one of the global hot spots of Biodiversity. Namdapha National Park supports a rich assemblage of flora and fauna and the vegetation of the area is mainly tropical evergreen and semi evergreen forests. During the faunal exploration surveys conducted by the Zoological Survey of India, in the Namdapha National Park, an interesting species of Netomocera Bouček was collected from an evergreen forest patch. The specimens were collected by sweeping over the forest litter. Detailed studies of the specimens proved that they belong to an undescribed species which is described hereunder. The present species forms the second described species of Netomocera from the Oriental Region. Affinities of the new species with other known species were given and a key to separate the world species of Netomocera (females) is also provided here.
The genus Netomocera Bouček belongs to the subfamily Diparinae of the chalcidoid family Pteromalidae, species of which are nearly cosmopolitan in distribution except for the colder regions of the world. Among the members of subfamily Diparinae, Netomocera has rather robust body and an asymmetrical antennal clava. The other characters of Netomocera are the sessile or subsessile gaster in both sexes, strong bristles on the vertex and the thoracic dorsum, truncate and slightly produced shiny clypeus and strong sickle-shaped mandibles. The biology of Netomocera species is totally unknown. Currently, the genus is known by seven described species throughout the world including the type species N. setifera Bouček described from Europe (Noyes 2003; Desjardins 2007). The other species are N. africana Hedqvist, N. alboscapus Hedqvist, N. rufa Hedqvist (all Afrotropical), N. nigra Sureshan & Narendran (Oriental), N. sedlaceki Bouček (Australian) and N. nearctica Yoshimoto (Nearctic). Bouček (1988) mentioned the probable occurrence of about six species in the South Asia. Morphological terminology used in the paper follows that of Bouček (1988) and Gibson et al. (1997).
Netomocera ramakrishnai sp. nov.
(Figs. 1-4, Images 1-3)
Material examined: Holotype: Female, 7.xi.2009, 27032Õ18.8ÓN & 96026Õ27.5ÓE, Baranalla, Namdapha National Park, Changlang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India, coll. J.K. De and party (ZSIP A.1345)
Paratype: 1 male same data as that of holotype (ZSIP A.1346); 11.xi.2009, 2 males, Firm base camp, Road towards Ranijheel, 27031Õ16.1ÓN & 96029Õ52.9ÓE (ZSIP A.1347).
Etymology: The species is named in honour of Dr. Ramakrishna, Ex. Director, Zoological Survey of India, Kolkatta, India for his constant support and encouragement for my research.
Description: Female: Length 2.5mm. Head brownish-black, eyes silvery grey, ocelli silvery white; thorax reddish-brown with propodeum medially, anterior part of mesopleuron and ventral part of thorax black; gaster brownish-black except T2-T4 yellowish-brown (both dorsal and lateral aspects). Antennae with scape pale brownish-yellow, pedicel testaceous, remainder brown with club and preceding two segments blackish-brown. Legs uniformly brownish-yellow. Tegulae brown, wings hyaline, veins pale brown, bristles and pubescence brown.
Head: (Images 2 & 3) Uniformly reticulate, meshes small, scrobe and parascorbal areas striate reticulate in the form of circular lines, lower face minutely reticulate; vertex declivous with three pairs of long brown bristles; in dorsal view head 2.5x as wide as long; POL almost 5x as long as OOL; temple very narrow almost reduced. Head 1.1x as broad as high in front view; anterior margin of clypeus slightly projecting forward and projecting from the general surface, almost completely shiny, margins clearly demarcated; malar grooves distinct; posterior margin of gena sharp but not carinate; eye length 1.6x width in profile. Antennae (Fig. 1, Images 2, 3) inserted at level of lower ocular line; pedicel plus flagellum slightly shorter than head width; scape 0.9x as long as eye, not reaching median ocellus and 6.5x as long as broad, anelli very small and transverse; pedicel 2.5x as long as wide and slightly longer than F1, F2 slightly shorter than F1, F2-F4 equal, F5-F7 almost equal, slightly shorter than F4; funicular segments gradually broadening towards tip, flagellum moderately clavate, clava 1.9x as long as broad and slightly longer than four preceding segments combined, sutures oblique, distinct, area of micropilosity reaching 2/3 length, all funicular segments with a single row of long sensillae.
Thorax: (Images 1, 2) Prontoum 3.3x as broad as long, collar rounded and not carinate, anterior area with five long bristles, coriaceous reticulate, lateral panel transversely striate. Mesoscutum 3x as broad as long, moderately reticulate with densely small hairs; notauli complete, middle lobe with four bristles and side lobes with one bristle each. Scutellum as long as broad with two pairs of strong bristles, frenum clearly marked, longitudinally striate reticulate; dorsellum fine with transverse rugae. Propodeum (Fig. 3) 2.75x as broad as median length, with uniformly irregular strong ridged reticulate, enclosing broad foveae, interior of which very finely reticulate and almost shiny, callus with dense white pubescence, plicae complete, median carina irregular, not complete, nucha small, posterior border emarginate, spiracles round, small, separated from hind margin of metanotum by own diameter. Prepectus long, triangular, longer than tegulae, coriaceous reticulate. Mesopleuron with mesepisternum striate reticulate, sub alar area polished, mesepimeron shiny, clearly demarcated from mesepisternum, posterior margin with a longitudinal broad groove and with transverse rugae inside; anterior part of metapleuron fine, posterior part reticulate. Hind coxa transversely ridged, posterior dorsal side with three long white hairs, anterior lateral border moderately and densely hairy, hind tibia with two short unequal spurs, fore and mid coxae very finely and transversely striate reticulate. Relative lengths: hind coxa 22, femur 31, tibia 32, tarsus 24, basitarsus 2x as long as second segment. Forewing (Fig. 2) 2.2x as long as broad, pubescence almost complete, dense, except for a narrow elongated speculum which is shiny, marginal fringe present only in the lower margin, veins with a row of strong brown bristles which is in double row on MV, a line of long white hairs below MV on ventral surface, basal cell completely hairy, costal cell 11x as long as broad, hairy in the upper half of ventral surface which is complete at tip. Relative lengths of SMV 35, MV 25, STV 7, PMV 13
Gaster: (Fig. 3) elongate ovate, 1.8x as long as broad in dorsal view (excluding petiole) and as long as head and thorax combined.(including petiole); petiole transverse, 2.3x as broad as long, dorsally with strong longitudinal ridges inside of which is irregularly relticulate; T1 covering most of the gaster, 1.3x as long as broad, posterior margins of T1 and T2 slightly angulate, other tergites reduced, with hind margins straight, ovipositor slightly protruded; hypopygium reaching end of T4.
Male: Length 2.1mm. Differs from female in having short body which is completely black except for brown neck and lateral panel of pronotum. Legs except mid and hind coxae testaceous. Antennae (Fig. 4) with scape and pedicel testaceous remainder brownish-black, funicular segments elongated; antennal formula 11193; all funicular segments with numerous small sensillae and very small pubescence. Pubescence of lower face long; propodeum with median carina distinct; gaster short with petiole a little longer than broad with distinct longitudinal rugae; T1 covering most of the gaster, other tergites retracted; hind margin of T1 slightly emarginate; gaster including petiole 0.63x as long as head and thorax combined.
Remarks: In the nature of gaster, propodeum, shape of antenna (both male and female) N. ramakrishnai sp. nov. shows resemblance to N. sedlaceki Bouček, 1988 but in sedlaceki the wings are reduced. Except for the slight resemblance in the nature of antenna (both male and female antennae) the present species distinctly differs from the other Indian species N. nigra Sureshan & Narendran, 1990 in having a different gaster, propodeum and body colour In the nature of antenna, head with large eyes and colouration N. ramakrishnai sp. nov. shows some resemblance to N. alboscapus Hedqvist, 1971 but in alboscapus the antennae are inserted distinctly above anterior margin of eyes, eyes longer than scpae and gaster with petiole as long as broad. In having an oval gaster with short petiole and in other general morphology the new species also resembles N. setifera Bouček, 1954 but in setifera the forewings have double infumation, antennae less clavate and gaster with hind margins of T1 not angulate. Males of N. ramakrishnai sp. nov. resemble N. rufa Hedqvist (described based on males) in the nature of antenna but differs in having malar space shorter than the breadth of an eye and body mostly black in colour. In N. rufa Hedqvist, malar space as long as the breadth of an eye and body predominantly brown. The males of N. rufa may prove to be the male of N. afriicana Hedqvist, 1971. Desjardins (2007: page 71) wrongly mentioned the holotype of N. rufa as female with other type details same as given by Hedqvist in the original description.
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Desjardins, C.A. (2007). Phylogenetics and classification of the world genera of Diparinae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Zootaxa 1647: 1-88.
Gibson, G.A.P., J.T. Huber & J.B. Woolley (eds.) (1997). Annotated Keys to the Genera of Nearctic Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 794pp.
Hedqvist, K.J. (1971). Notes on Netomocera Bouč. with descriptions of new species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae). Entomologisk Tidskrift 92: 237-241.
Noyes, J.S. (2003). Universal Chalcidoidea database. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/jdsml/research-curation/projects/chalcidoids. Last updated April 2009.
Sureshan, P.M. & T.C. Narendran (1990). Taxonomic studies on Eurydinotomorpha and Netomocera (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae). Oriental Insects. 24: 219-227.