Two new Indian gall midges of the genus Contarinia Rondani (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera) reared from Amaranthaceae & Poaceae

 

M.S. Siddiqui 1, K.A. Ahad Najam 2, & V.D. Deshpande 2

 

1,2 P.G. Department of Zoology, N.E.S. Science College, Nanded, Maharashtra 431603, India

Email: 1 dr.mssiddiqui50@yahoo.com

 

 

Date of publication (online): 26 March 2010

Date of publication (print): 26 March 2010

ISSN 0974-7907 (online) | 0974-7893 (print)

 

Editor: R. Ramanibai

 

Manuscript details:

Ms # o2217

Received 26 May 2009

Final received 08 December 2009

Finally accepted 17 February 2010

 

Citation: Siddiqui, M.S., K.A. Ahad Najam, & V.D. Deshpande (2010). Two new Indian gall midges of the genus Contarinia Rondani (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera) reared from Amaranthaceae & Poaceae. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(3): 773-778.

 

Copyright: © M.S. Siddiqui, K.A. Ahad Najam, & V.D. Deshpande2010. Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this article in any medium for non-profit purposes, reproduction and distribution by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.

 

Acknowledgements:  We express our gratitude to Principal and Head, P.G. Dept. of Zoology, NES, Science College, Nanded for facilities and encouragements. Thanks are also due to Dr. S.K. Atkalikar, Reader, P.G. Dept. of Botany, NES, Science College, Nanded for identifying host grass species.

 

 

For Figures – click here

 

Family Cecidomyiidae (= Itonididae) is one of the largest but youngest family of nematocerous Diptera having worldwide distribution.  Insects commonly known as gall midges are included in this family.  Many of them produce characteristics galls, i.e., deformities on various plant parts on both dicotyledon and monocotyledon plants caused by gall midges of the subfamily Cecidomyiinae; however members of the subfamilies Lestremiinae and Porricondylinae do not produce such galls.  Gall midges have phytophagus, saprophagus, xylophagus and predaceous feeding habits. A few of them are serous pests of economically important crops such as jowar, rice, bajra, wheat; fruit trees such as mango, citrus, papaya; oilseed crop such as linseed, safflower and several grass species.  A few gall midge species have a role in the biological control of a few serous insect pests.

A total of 394 species belonging to 125 genera under three subfamilies are so far enlisted in India (Sharma 2009). The collection of gall midge fauna made during 2003-2008 in Nanded District of Maharashtra State revealed two new species of genus Contarinia Rondani, namely, Contarinia asperae sp. nov.bred from leaf galls of Achyranthes aspera L. (Amaranthaceae) and Contarinia dichanthiumae sp. nov. reared from ear heads of Dichanthium aristatum Hub. (Poaceae).  Presently, 13 species under the genus Contarinia are reported from India.  With the addition of these two new species the number of species is now 15.   All type slides are presently retained for the time being with the P.G. Department of Zoology, Science College, Nanded.

 

 

Contarinia asperae sp. nov.

(Figs. 1-16)

 

Material examined

Holotype: Male, 17.xi.2006, (slide no Cont.1) labelled as, “reared from leaf galls of Achyranthes aspera L. (Amaranthaceae), Bhokar forest, Nanded District, India, dissected and mounted on slide, coll. M.S. Siddiqui.

Allotype: One female (slide no Cont.2), dissected and mounted on slide, data as of Holotype.

Paratype: One male (slide no Cont.3), dissected and mounted on slide, coll, data as of Holotype.

 

Study area: Sitakhandi and Bhokar forest, Nanded District, Maharashtra, India.

 

Etymology

The specific epithet asperae is associated with the host plant i.e. Achyranthes aspera L.

 

Diagnostic features

Male

Body: 1.30mm long.

Head: eyes confluent above.  Trophi normal.  Palpus (Fig. 1) quadriarticulate, short, first segment (5) not clearly observed in the preparation; second segment (9:6) subcylindrical, longer and thicker than the first; third segment (9:5) cylindrical; fourth segment (11:4) longest of all, cylindrical.

Antenna: 0.75mm long, shorter than the body, with 2+12 segments, flagellate segments binodose, basal enlargements subglobose, with one whorl of long regular circumfila and one whorl of long bristles, apical enlargements subglobose, with one whorl of long regular circumfila and one whorl of long bristles; scape (Fig. 6a) (10:12) cup-shaped; pedicel (Fig. 6b) (10:10) globose, third segment (Fig. 4a) (29) confluent and longer than the fourth, with a very short basal prolongation (3:5), basal enlargement (9:8) 0.31 the length of the segment; basal stem (3:4) nearly one-third the length of basal enlargement; apical enlargement (10:9) nearly as long as the basal enlargement; apical stem (4:3) less than half the apical enlargement; fourth segment (Fig. 4b) (23) the basal enlargement (8:10) 0.34x the length of the segment & thicker than long, basal stem (3:4) one-third the length of basal enlargement and thicker than long, apical enlargement (10:10) 0.8x the length of the segment and as long as thick, apical stem (3:4) one-third the length of apical enlargement and as long as thick; fifth segment (Fig. 5) (24) shorter than the third, the basal enlargement (8:10) one-third the length of segment & thicker than long, basal stem (3:4) and nearly the length of basal enlargement and thicker than long, apical enlargement (11:10) longer than the basal and nearly as long as thick, apical stem (3:4) less than one-third the length of apical enlargement and thicker than long; sixth to twelfth segments nearly similar to the fifth; penultimate segment (Fig. 3a) (22) shorter than the fifth; terminal segment (Fig. 3b) (16) with a basal enlargement (7:6 ) 0.43 the length of segment, basal stem (3:2) nearly half the length of basal enlargement, apical enlargement (4:3) half the length of basal enlargement & thicker than long, ending with nipple like prolongation.

Thorax: pale brown.  Wing (Fig. 8) (97:33) hyaline, 2.93 x as long as broad, vein Rs short, Vein R5 reaching wing margin at its apex and interrupting costa at its union; vein Cu simple.

Legs: brown, densely hairy, metatarsus (19) little longer than terminal tarsal segment (17), second tarsal segment (66) longest of all, fourth (17) shorter than the third. Claw (Fig. 7) (11) simple on all legs, sickle shaped, empodium (8) 0.72 the length of claw. Genitalia (Fig. 2) light brown, basal clasp segment (28:15) oval, without lobe, terminal clasp segment (18:5) broad basally and narrow beyond middle, ending with a tooth apically; dorsal plate (13:11) deeply bilobed, lobes oval, subdorsal plate (10:13) shallowly bilobed, shorter and broader than the dorsal plate, lobes rounded apically, with a pair of unsclerotised harpes, the later shorter than the dorsal plate; aedeagus (10) short, tip pointed, shorter than both the plates.

 

Female

Body: 1.60mm long.

Head: Eyes confluent above.  Trophi normal.  Palpus (Fig. 9) quadriarticulate, moderately hairy, and sparsely setose; first segment (5:4) subglobose, second segment (9:6) subcylindrical, broad basally; third segment (9:5) cylindrical, shorter and thinner than the second, fourth segment (11:4) longest of all, cylindrical.

Antenna: 0.35mm long, shorter than the body, with 2+12 segments, flagellate segments cylindrical, constricted medially, apical stems short, enlargements with low circumfila, and with two whorls of long bristles; scape (Fig. 10a) (10:11) cup-shaped; pedicel (Fig. 10b) (8:9) sub-globose, shorter than the scape; third segment (Fig. 12a) (20) with a short basal prolongation (2:2) enlargement (15:7) 0.75 the length of the segment and 2.14x as long as thick, apical stem (3:3) 0.15 the length of the enlargement and as long as thick; fourth segment (Fig. 12 b) (16) shorter than the third, enlargement (14:7) 0.87 the length of the segment, apical stem (2:3) 0.14 the length of the enlargement and thicker than long; fifth segment (Fig. 11) (15) enlargement (13:6) 0.86 the length of the segment, apical stem (2:3) 0.15 the length of the enlargement and thicker than long; sixth to twelfth segments progressively shortened distally; penultimate segment (Fig. 13a) (12) shortest of all; terminal segment (Fig. 13b) (15) enlargement (15:6) 2.5x as long as thick, ending in to a rounded tip.

Thorax: pale brown.  Wing (Fig. 16) (115:38) hyaline, 3.02 x as long as broad, venation as in male.

Legs: long, densely hairy, metatarsus (15) shorter than the terminal tarsal segment (20), second tarsal segment (66) longest of all, fourth segment (17) shorter than the third.  Claw (Fig. 14) (9) simple on all legs, bent at right angle, empodium (7) 0.77 the length of the claw. Ovipositor (Fig. 15) aciculate, exserted, needle - like, shorter than body,

 

Remarks

Contarinia asperae sp. nov. can be separated easily from Contarinia (= cincticornia) bivalviae (Rao, 1950) in the presence of harps, aciculate ovipositor (not ovipositor with 2 small lobes) and empodium being shorter than the claw (not, empodium as long as claw).  This new species also differs from other closely placed species i.e. Contarinia ramchandri (Mani, 1953) in possessing bilobed dorsal plate (not, dorsal plate obtusely triangular)

 

 

Contarinia dichanthiumae, sp. nov.

(Figs.17-32)

 

Material examined

Holotype: Male, 12.xii.2005, (Slide no. Cont. 4), labelled as, “reared from ear heads of Dichanthium aristatum Hub. (Family Poaceae), Vishnupuri, Nanded District, India, coll. M.S. Siddiqui.

Allotype: One female (Slide no. Cont.5), data as of Holotype.

Paratype: Two males (Slide no. Cont.6-7), and two females (Slide no. Cont.8-9), data as of Holotype.

 

Study area: Vishnupuri, Nanded District, Maharashtra, India.

 

Etymology

The specific epithet dichanthiumae is associated with the host grass species i.e. Dichanthium aristatum Hub. (Family: Poaceae).

 

Diagnostic features

Male

Body: 1.33mm long.

Head: eyes confluent above.  Trophi normal.  Palpus (Fig. 22) quadriarticulate, short, first segment (5:4) subglobose, second segment (9:6) subcylindrical, third segment (8:5) subcylindrical, fourth segment (8:4) subcylindrical, 2.00x as long as thick.

Antenna: 1.00mm long, shorter than the body, with 2+12 segments, flagellate segments binodose, basal enlargements subglobose, with one whorl of long, regular circumfila and one whorl of long bristles, apical enlargements subglobose, with one whorl of long, regular circumfila and one whorl of long bristles; scape (Fig. 21a) (9:14 ) cup-shaped; pedicel (Fig. 21b) (10:11) subglobose; third segment (Fig. 19a) (30) confluent with and longer than the fourth, with a very short basal prolongation (3:4), basal enlargement ( 9:8) 1.12x as long as thick, basal stem (4:5) nearly half the basal enlargement and thicker than long, apical enlargement (10:10) slightly longer than the basal, apical stem (4:5) less than half the length of apical enlargement, thicker than long, fourth segment (Fig. 19b) (27) shorter than thick, with basal enlargement (8:9) 0.88x as long as thick, basal stem (3:4) less than half the basal enlargement and thicker than long, apical enlargement (11:10) longer than the basal, apical stem (4:4) less than half the length of apical enlargement and as long as thick; fifth segment (Fig. 20) (28) with a basal enlargement (7:9) one fourth the length of segment, thicker than long, basal stem (5:5) nearly two-third the length of basal enlargement, apical enlargement (11:10) longer than the basal, 1.57x the length of the basal enlargement, apical stem (5:4) nearly half the length of apical enlargement; sixth to twelfth segments progressively shortened distally; penultimate segment (Fig. 17a) (22) with the basal enlargement (7:7) 0.31 the length of the segment, basal stem (3:3) nearly half the length of basal enlargement, apical enlargement (8:7) longer than the basal, 1.14x as long as thick, apical stem (5:3) more than half the length of apical enlargement and 1.66x as long as thick; terminal segment (Fig. 17b) (20) shortest of all, with basal enlargement (6:6) 0.3 the length of the segment, basal stem (3:2) 0.5 the length of basal enlargement, apical enlargement (8:6) longer than the basal, ending with a rounded tip.

Thorax: Mesonotum pale brown.  Wing (Fig. 24) (95:35) hyaline, 2.7x as long as broad, vein Rs short, Vein R5 reaching wing margin at the wing apex and interrupting costa at its union; vein Cu simple.

Legs: long, densely hairy, metatarsus (21) longer than terminal tarsal segment (20), second tarsal segment (72) longest of all.  Claw (Fig. 23) (10) simple on all legs, sickle shaped, empodium (8) 0.8 the length of the claw.  Genitalia (Fig.18) basal clasp segment (30:21) oval, 1.42x as long as broad; terminal clasp segment (22:6), 3.7x as long as broad, ending with a pointed tooth apically; dorsal plate (15:13) deeply bilobed, lobes round, subdorsal plate (12:14) bilobed, shorter and wider than the dorsal plate, lobes broadly rounded apically, aedeagus (12) as long as the subdorsal plate but shorter than the dorsal plate.

 

Female

Body: 2.50mm long.

Head: Eyes confluent above.  Trophy normal. Palpus (Fig. 25) quadriarticulate, moderately hairy, first segment (11:5) subcylindrical, second segment (10:5) subcylindrical, third segment (9:5) subcylindrical, fourth segment (11:4) cylindrical, as long as first.

Antenna: 0.90mm long, shorter than the body, with 2+12 segments, flagellate segments cylindrical, enlargements with low circumfila, and with two whorls of long bristles; scape (Fig. 27a) (10:18) cup-shaped; pedicel (Fig. 27b) (11:12) subglobose; third segment (Fig. 28a) (22) confluent with but nearly as long as the fourth, with a short basal prolongation (3:2), enlargement (16:9) 1.8x as long as thick, apical stem (3:3) 0.18 the length of the enlargement, fourth segment (Fig. 28b) (21) with enlargement (18:9) 0.85 the length of the segment, apical stem (3:3) 0.16 the length of the enlargement, fifth segment (Fig. 29) (22) with enlargement (18:8) 0.81 the length of the segment, and 2.25x as long as thick, apical stem (4:4) 0.2 the length of the enlargement; Sixth to twelfth segments progressively shortened distally; penultimate segment (Fig. 30a) (15) with enlargement (13:6) 0.86 the length of the segment, apical stem (2:2) 0.15 the length of the enlargement, Terminal segment (Fig. 30b) (16) with enlargement (14:6) 0.86 the length of the segment, tip rounded apically.

Thorax: Mesonotum pale brown.  Wing (Fig. 32) (94:39) hyaline, 2.41x as long as broad; venation as in male.

Legs: brown, long, densely hairy, metatarsus (20) as long as the terminal tarsal segment, second tarsal segment (80), third segment (36) longer than the fourth (22); Claw (Fig. 26) (13) simple on all legs, sickle shaped; empodium (9) 0.69 the length of claw.  Ovipositor: (Fig. 31) aciculate, exserted, needle like, shorter than the body.

 

Remarks

Contarinia dichanthiumae sp. nov. is morphologically closer to C. prosopidis (Mani, 1938), but can be easily distinguished in possessing (i) empodium shorter than claw (not, empodium longer than claw), (ii) enlargement of fifth antennal segment of female 2.25x as long as thick (not 1.5x as long as thick).  This new species can also be easily separated from other closely related species i.e. C. caudata (Felt, 1920) in possessing empodium shorter than claw (not, empodium as long as claw) and C. orientalis (Rao & Sharma, 1977) infesting ear heads of Dichanthium pertusum (L.) W.D. Clayton, in having quadriarticulate palpi (not, triarticulate).

 

 

References

 

Felt, E.P. (1920). New Indian gall midges. Memoirs of Department of Agriculture India Entomological Series 7: 1-11.

Gagné, R.J. (2004). A Catalog of the Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) of the World. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Washington No. 25, 408pp.

Harris, K.M. (1979). Descriptions and host ranges of the sorghum midge, Contarinia sorghicola (Coquillet) (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), and eleven new species of Contarinia reared from Gramineae and Cyperaceae in Australia. Bulletin of Entomological Research 69: 161-182.

Mani, M.S. (1953). Descriptions of three gall midges (Itonididae: Diptera) from India. Indian Journal of Entomology 15(2): 119-125.

Rao, S.N. (1952). Descriptions of gall midges (Itonididae: Diptera) from India. Records of Indian Museum 48(3&4): 31-42.

Rao, S.N. (1953). Some new species of gall midges (Itonididae:Diptera) from India. Records of Indian Museum 50(1952): 307-319.

Rao, S.N. & R.M. Sharma (1977). A new Indian grass gall –midge (Itonididae: Cecidomyiidae: Diptera). Entomon 2: 237-240.

Sharma, R.M. (2000). Checklist of Indian grass gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) with their host grass (Poaceae) index. Zoos’ Print Journal 15(7) 297-299

Sharma, R.M. (2009). Checklist of Indian Gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). http://www.zsi.gov.in/zoological survey of india/zsidata/checklist (Accessed on  July 2009)