Studies on Foliicolous Fungi – XXVI - a new species and three new records
Microbiology Division, Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695562, India
1. Balladyna indica sp. nov.
( Image 1)
Coloniae hypophyllae, tenues vel subdensae, patentiae, ad 10 mm diam., confluentes. Hyphae rectae vel subrectae, alternatim vel irregulariter acuteque vel laxe ramosae, laxe vel arte reticulatae, cellulae 19-36 x 6-8 µm. Appressoria dispersa, alternata vel unilateralis, concoloura, ovata, oblonga, cylindracea, integra, recta, curvula vel uncinata, 11-20 x 6-8 µm. Setae myceliales nigrae, simplices, rectae, ad apicem acutae vel obtusae, ad 144 µm longae. Perithecia dispersa, globosa, ad initio stipitatis, sessilis ad maturitata, ad 100µm diam. Asci non visa. Ascosporae oblongae, conglobatae, nigrae vel brunneae, uniseptatae, fortiter constrictae ad septatae, 30-32 x 15-17 µm, parietus glabrus.
Colonies hypophyllous, thin to subdense, spreading, up to 10 mm in diam., confluent. Hyphae straight to substraight, branching alternate to irregular at acute to wide angles, loosely to closely reticulate, cells 19-36 x 6-8 µm. Appressoria scattered, alternate to unilateral, concolourous, ovate, oblong, cylindrical, entire, straight, curved to uncinate, 11-20 x 6-8 µm. Mycelial setae dark, simple, straight, acute to obtuse at the tip, up to 144 µm long. Perithecia scattered, globose, initially stipitate, later sessile, up to 100µm in diameter. Asci not seen. Ascospores oblong, conglobate, dark brown, uniseptate, strongly constricted at the septum, 30-32 x 15-17 µm, wall smooth.
Etymology: Named after the country, India
Type: 13.xii.2003, On leaves of Rubiaceae member, Sairandhri, Silent Valley, Palghat, Kerala, India, coll. V.B. Hosagoudar et al. HCIO 46695 (type), TBGT 2036 (isotype) (MycoBank # MB 513421).
This species is close to Balladyna deightonii Hansf. (Hosagoudar 2004) in having more than 100µm long mycelial setae and 25µm long ascospores. However, Balladyna indica differs from it in having entire appressoria (Hosagoudar 2004). It also differs from B. rubiacearum Hosag. in having oblong and entire appressoria (Hosagoudar 2002).
2. Eupelte amicta Syd., Ann. Mycol. 22:426, 1924.
Colonies epiphyllous, dense, crustose, smooth, up to 10mm in diameter, often cause yellow haloes around the colonies and also yellowing on the corresponding lower surface of the leaves. Hyphae partly superficial and partly immersed, superficial hyphae brown, septate, flexuous, irregularly branched at acute to wide angles, cells 12-35 x 3-4 µm. External mycelium enters the host through stomata extended up to palisade tissues. Conidiophores arise from the external mycelium, mostly deep brown to rarely dark, 0-1-septate, erect, often curved, simple, solitary, smooth, 25-32µm long; conidiogenous cells terminal, integrated, monoblastic, determinate; conidia brown, 0-3-septate, not constricted, straight to curved, cylindrical, obclavate, broadly rounded at the apex, truncate at the base, wall smooth, 20-48 x 8-10 µm. Thyriothecia scattered to grouped, initially orbicular, later elliptic to elongated, simple, straight, curved, often X or Y shaped, astomatous, dehisce vertically at the centre, orbicular thyriothecia 100-120 x 90-100 µm, ellipsoidal thyriothecia 441-700 x 196-245 µm; asci born on the basal hymenium, clavate, bitunicate, become spherical at maturity, eight spored, 36-40 x 14-18 µm; ascospores conglobate, oblong, brown, uniseptate, constricted at the septa, 17-20 x 9-11 µm, wall smooth but becomes verrucose at maturity.
14.xii.2003, On leaves of Olea dioica Roxb. (Oleaceae), Chempatty, Silent Valley National Park, Palghat, Kerala, coll. V.B.Hosagoudar et al. HCIO 46291, TBGT 1937.
Arx & Müller (1975) have placed Maurodothina G. Arnaud ex Piroz. & Shoemaker as synonym to Eupelte Syd. Sivanesan (1984) has stated that the genus Eupelte is similar to Maurodothina but differs from it in absence of conidiogenous appressoria. Though this species was reported from India and South Africa (Sivanesan 1975), a detailed study was not made from the Indian collections and hence, the note.
3. Hansfordiellopsis lichenicola (Bat. & H. Maia) Deighton, Mycol. Pap. 78: 34, 1965: Ellis, Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes, p. 128, 1971.
Colonies amphigenous, mostly hypophyllous, subdense to dense, associated with black colony forming fungi having unicellular appressoria. Hyphae ectophytic, brown, septate, slightly constricted at the septa, cells 8-10 x 4-7 µm, cells often supplemented with a pair of small, prominent, hemispherical lateral cells without haustorium. Conidiophores macronematous, mononematous, simple, brown, erect, mostly unicellular, 20-30µm long, slightly taper towards the apex, 3-5µm broad at the base, 1-3µm broad at the apex; conidiogenous cells terminal, determinate, integrated. Conidia solitary, dry, simple, acrogenous, obclavate, rostrate, olivaceous brown, 11-18µm long, 3-4µm broad at the base, 4-6µm broad at the broadest part, 1-2µm broad at the tip of the beak, septa mostly 1-3 in number, horizontal, often oblique, wall smooth.
15.xii.2004, On leaves of Nephelium sp. (Sapindaceae), Kakki dam, Pathanamthitta, Kerala, coll. V.B. Hosagoudar et al. HCIO 46319, TBGT 1965.
The genus Hansfordiellopsis Deighton represents five species and all are associated with the foliicolous lichen. This is an anamorph of the genus Koordersiella Hohn. (Kirk et al. 2001). H. lichenicola (Bat. & Maia) Deighton was known from Brazil, Ghana, Malaysia, Nigeria, Porto Rico, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Trinidad and Uganda (Ellis 1971) and is known here first time from India and also forms a new generic record to India (Bilgrami et al. 1991; Jamaluddin et al. 2004).
4. Sporidesmium aburiense M.B. Ellis, Mycol. Pap. 70: 73, 1958; More Diatomaceous Hyphomycetes, p. 82, 1976. (Image 4)
Colonies epiphyllous, brown, hyper parasite. Hyphae superficial, pale yellow, septate, branched, 2-4µm broad. Conidiophores arise from the sides of the hyphae, macronematous, mononematous, simple, straight to flexuous, septate, brown, up to 110µm long and 4-6µm broad. Conidiogenous cells monoblastic, terminal, integrated, percurrent, cylindrical. Conidia brown, solitary, dry, simple, straight to curved, obclavate, rostrate, truncate at the base, 1-3-septate, rarely slightly constricted at the septa, paler towards apex, 36-80µm long, 1-2µm broad at the base, 5-7µm broad at the middle, 3-4µm broad at the apex, often a germ tube produced either from the apex or from the base or rarely from both.
12.xi.2003, Overgrowing on the colonies of Cirsocia vateriae on Vateria indica L. (Dipterocarpaceae), Jodupal, Madikeri, Coorg, Karnataka, India, coll. V.B. Hosagoudar HCIO 46380, TBGT 2026.
This species was known on Asterolibertia sp. from Ghana, Sabah and Sierra Leone and is reported here on different fungus for the first time from India (Ellis 1976; Bilgrami et al. 1991, Jamaluddin et al. 2004)
Arx, J.A.V. & E. Müller (1975). A re-evaluation of the bitunicate ascomycetes with keys to families and genera. Stud. Mycol. 9: 1-159.
Bilgrami, K.S., S. Jamaluddin & M.A. Rizwi (1991). Fungi of India. List and References. Today and Tomorrow’s Printers & Publishers, New Delhi, pp.1-798.
Ellis, M.B. (1971). Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. CMI, Kew
Ellis, M.B. (1976). More Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. CMI, Kew
Hosagoudar, V.B. (2002). Studies on foliicolous fungi –VI.Two new species from Kerala and a new record from India. Zoos’ Print Journal 17: 863-866.
Hosagoudar, V.B. (2004). Studies on foliicolous fungi- XI. The genus Balladyna Racib., based on literature. Journal of Economic & Taxonomic Botany 28: 202-208.
Jamaluddin, M.G. Goswami & B.M. Ojha (2004). Fungi of India (1989-2001). Scientific Publishers (India), Jodhpur, 326p.
Kirk, P.M., P.F. Cannon, J.C. David & J.A. Stalper (2001). Dictionary of the Fungi. CAB International, UK.
Sivanesan, A. (1984). The Bitunicate Ascomycetes. International books & Periodical supply service, New Delhi (reprint).